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GOVT. COLLEGE, LBBR^RY 


KOTA (Raj.) 

Students can retain library books only for two 
weeks at the most. 


BORROWER'S 

No. 


DUE DTATE 


SIGNATURE 






HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 

and 

WHO’S WHO 

195T 


CHECKED 2 2 APR 1359 


By 

S. C. SARKAR 


ry 


Author of Book of General Knowledge, Notable Indian Trials, 
Constitution of India etc. 


JUBILEE EDITION 

25th year of Issue 


M. C. SABKAR & SONS Private ITD 

\A, BANKIM CHATTERJEE STREET, CALCUTTA— 12 



Herbert College Library 
KOTAH. 


Qass No 

Book Mo 

Accession No, 




ssM. 






j. aper CoT«r Rs. 4-50 
Cloth Cover Ks. 5’50 


Published by S. Sarhar, JI. C. Sarlcar & Sons Private Ltd. ; 14 Banki® 
Chatterjee St,, Calcutta-12. 

Pormes 1— 4o and A. — D •pTinted by LababraaTk Sil at the Imperial 
Art Cottage, Calcutta-G and Formes 4G — 52 printed by Brojendra 
Kishore Sen at Modem India Press, 7 IVellington Square, Calcutta-l* 


PREFACE 


This is the jubilee edition of the Hindustan Year-Book 
which was started in 1933 in a small pamplet form. It was 
then our purpose and hope to develop this Year Book into an 
authoritative reference book. We think we have succeeded 
in our efforts to produce an information book which gives a 
complete record of the world progress in every field year by 
year. 

As in previous years, new features have been added, 
such as, Atomic Energy in India, Reorganisation of States, 
Indian Elections 1957, State in Public Affairs, Tourism in 
India, Mineral Oil of India etc etc. Existing chapters have 
been thoroughly revised with additional new facts. The 
Government Departments have substantially helped us in 
more than one ways, by supplying latest materials for 
which we convey our sincere thanks. 

Once again we invite readers to submit comments and 
to send any additions or corrections, 

S. C. Sarkar. 


AN ELECTION SUPPLEMENT 

An election supplement of the Hindustan Year Book 
containing election results and names of Ministers 
will be issued as soon as Ministries are formed. This 
will be supplied free to all purchasers of the 
Year Book — 

Vide details at the end of the book. 





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It is bloo4 ^•hich carries H 
pbarishment to all tbe tiny ^ 
cells xrhich make up the 
■body and the bralnand thns 
sustains life itself. Think of 
•the dangers you face trheft 
tbb blood be”come3 impure. 

Often. Itching, Scabies. 01- 
cers, Eerema. Boils. P^hes. 
Gout and many other com. 
plicated diseases beset upon 
you and make your* Ufa 
miserable. 




SARIBADI salsa bro-l 
pQted for decades as the 
world's best blood purifier.^ 
It clears the bowels rego« 
larly, cores all skin .and 
other diseases sriaog out 
of blood impuxiues, ioao« 
op the liver, increases tbt 
appetite and thus helps 
formation of new, rich 
blood which ensures a 
sturdy health, for you- 




the best blood purifier 


— Of. /sitt 
Chow.^ K.. 
f.C i J. 

M C S. (Amcr<4l. lypt t rly 
d Ct^^’Urjr, 
eh(ftip«r c«ri*{« 


■« Ceatrt — Dr. K»fT^ O^mdr* 
a. B. S tC*V Apir*«fl.Attirjru 


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Ur^est. f^jnntiiz lajtiwuon 



CONTENTS 

INDIA AT A GLANCE 

Area — ^Physical Division — Climate and Rainfall — Soil of India — States 
of India — Coast Line — ^Lan^ages — ^River Systems — ^Ports — ^People — 
Religions — ^Indian Races — Minerals — ^Agriculture — ^Animals — Livestock 
— ^Forests — ^Plag . . . . . . . . 1 — 10 

INDIAN FACTS IN A NUTSHELL 

General — Population — Agriculture — ^Minerals — ^Trade and Industries 
— Public Health & Hygiene . . . . . . 11 — 14 

INDIAN INFORMATION 

Cities of India — ^Ten Big Cities of India — ^Indian Bridges — Distances 
by Rail — ^National Parks & Game Sanctuaries — Ten Highest Peaks of 
Himalayas — Attempts on Everest & Kattchenjunga — Conquest of 
Major Himalayan Peaks — ^Highest Indian Stuctures — Old & New 
Names of Places — Indian Fellows (5f the Royal Society — Indians in the 
British Parliament — Indian Privy Councillors — ^Indian Peer of the 
British Realm — ^Nobel Prize Winners — Lenin Peace Prize — ^Indian 
Winners of Victoria Cross — Bharat Ratna — ^Padma Vibhushan — 
Winners of Param Vir Chakra — Governor-Generals of Indian Union — 
President, Indian Union — Indian Parliament — Speaker, Constituent 
Assembly of India — ^Indian National Confess Presidents — ^Indian 
Chronolo^ — ^Notable Indians — First in India — First Beginnings in 
India — First among Indians — Hill Stations — Places of Interest in India 
— ^Architectural & Historical Landmarks, Hindu & Buddhist — 
Muslim . . . . . . . . 16 — 39 


THE CALENDAR 

Indian Calendar — Mahoraedan Calendar — ^Modern Calendar — Jewish 
Calendar — ^Zoroastian Calendar — Buddhist Calendar — Hindu Calendar 
— Names of Months — Year — ^Time — ^Holidays — ^NEW INDIAN 
STATES , . . . . . . • 40—48 


ASTRONONOMICAL DATA 

Solar System — Sun — ^Earth — Moon — Other Planets — Asteroids — Co- 
mets — Meteors — Constellations— Satellites — Stars — Polar Auroras — 
Milky Way — ^Atmosphere . . . . . . 49 — 62 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL INFORMATION 

Races of Mankind — Race a Social Myth — ^Meaning of Race-— Pure 
Race — Race Superiority — Classification of Mankind — Distribution of 
Basic Stock — Stages of Civilization — ^Pre-hlstoric Man . . 63 — 66 



5 








Regular Cargo Service 
between 

INDIA— U. K.— CONTINENT . 

and 

Round the coast of India, Ceylon & Pakistan 


F L 

INDIAN TRADER 
INDIAN PIONEER 
INDIAN SHIPPcR 
INDIAN EXPORTER 
INDIAN ENDEAVOUR 
INDIAN COMMERCE 


E E T 

S. S. IND'AN 
S. S. INDIAN 
S. S. INDIAN 
S. S, INDIAN 
S. S. INDIAN 
S. S. INDIAN 


navigator 

MERCHANT 

reliance 

RENOWN 

RESOURCE 

resolve 


Wonogfng Agents ; 

lONEL EDWARDS (PRIVATE) LIMITED. 

'•INDIA STEAMSHItA HOUSE" 

, OLD COURT HOUSE STREET ;; CALCUTTA-1 

Office and Agencies at Principal Ports. 


vil 


GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 

Area of the Continents — EWorld Dimensions — Longest Rivers — Oceans 
and Seas — Highest Mt. Peaks — Highest and lowest Elevations of 
the World — Lakes — ^Volcanoes — The Largest Islands — Deserts — 
Geographical Surnames — Longest Tunnels — Mountain Passes — Fam- 
ous Caves & Caverns — Ship Canals — Geographical Record-breakers — 
World Extremes of Climate — Waterfalls — Polar Records — First 
Ascents of Mountains — ^Famous Structures — NEW COINS 57—66 

GENERAL INFORMATION 

Longest Ry. Station Platforms — Longest Bridges — Notable Teles- 
copes — Libraries of the World — Largest Bells — Tall Buildings & 
Towers — Highest & Largest Dams — World’s Greatest Reservoirs — 
Longest Spans of Bridges — Biggest, Largest, Greatest, Longest — 
Great Inventions — Discoveries & Inventions in Electricity — Theories 
Nobel Prizes — Indian Stones & Planetary Actions — Birth Stones — 
Animal & Bird Records — Period of Gestation of Various Animals — 
Speeds — Heights & Depths — Largest Ships — Atlantic Blue Riband — 
Record Flights & Jumps — Decorations & Medals — National & State 
Flowers . . . . . . , . . 67 — 84 

WORLD GAZETTEER 

WORLD GAZETTEER .. .. .. 85—105 

POLITICAL INFORMATION 

Rulers or Heads of Governments — Presidents of the TJ.S.A. — ^British 
Prime Ministers — Salaries of Heads of Governments — Rulers of 
France — Rulers of Germany since W. War I — Rulers of U.S.S.R. — 
Political Assassinations — Famous Abdications — Flags of Countries — 
Other Flags — National Day — Political Abbreviations — Names & 
Colours of Flags — National Anthems — Political Parties & Groups — 
Indian Political Parties — ^Political Terms — Plans, Treaties, Charters 
Etc. .. .. .. .. .. 106—136 

VwORLD POPULATION 

Population Density of the World — Five Largest Cities — Estimates ot 
Total Population — Papulation according to Religion — Largest Cities 
— Birth Rates — Death ]^tes — Marriage Rates .. 137 — 140 

CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 

Sovereign Democratic Republic — ^Territory and Extent — Fundamental 
Rights — Union Executive — Legislature-Judiciary — State Govern- 
ments — Territories — States Judiciary — Relations between_ Union & 
States — Election Commission — Financial & Other provisions — Trade 
& Commerce — Official Language — ^Amendment of the Consti- 
tution - .. .. 141—153 



YOUTH CAH DO THEIR BIT . . 


Q. a ^ 


w w 


Mncli is expected of the coontr/s yooth— our ' 
young hopefuls, in all progressive social movements ^ 
they are in the forefrorit. The Railways look to ■ 
them for help. When they travel, they should , 
dissuade people from misusing the alarm chain. 

By this simple act they v/itl help the Railv.jays 
carry men and materials smoothly and will do a 
great deal of good to the. country. An unnecessary ^ 
pull on thealarm chain causes delay, disappointment i 
and, sometimes, disaster. 



THE ALARM CHAIN 
IS TO BE USED ONLY 
IN AN EMERGENCY 


^ I \ 


EASTERH RAHWAY* JOOTH EASTERN RAILWAY 










ix 


INDIAN CITIZENSHIP 

By Birth — ^By Descent — By Ee^stration — By Naturalisation — By In- 
corporation of Territory — Termination of Citizenship . . 154—155 

CUE NATIONAL EMBLEMS & AWAEDS 

National Flag — ^National Emblem — ^National Songs — ^Awards, Distinc- 
tions & Titles . . . . . . . . 156 — 158 

EANK & PEECEDENCE OF PEESONS 159-162 

TEANSPOET & COMMUNICATIONS 

Eailways in India — Beginning of Railways in India — Ry. Committees 
— Administration — ^Finance — Classes of Accommodation — Freight & 
Fare — Locomotive & Other Productions — ^Training Centres & Research 
— Electrification — Workshops — ^Ey. Zones — Ry. Organisations — Tourist 
Traffic — ^Amenities — Ry. & the Plan — ^Indian Railways 1955 — ^Ry. 
Reserve Funds — Ry. Finances — Ry. Facts — Roads in India — ^Progress 
— ^Administration — Central Road Fund — ^Nagpur Plan — Roads Con- 
gress — Govt. Organisations — Research & Technical Training — ^Road 
Transport — Ropeways — Inland Water Transport — ^Master Plan — ^Ad- 
ministration — Waterway Projects — Civil Aviation — Progress — Organi- 
sation — ^Training & Flying Clubs — ^Aerodromes — ^Air Traffic Control — 
The Fleet — ^Night Mail — Internal Routes — External Routes — Boards 
of Directors & Members — Indian Airlines Corporations — Non-Sche- 
duled Airline Operators — Flying Clubs — Gliding Clubs — Foreign 
Services — ^Indian Post and Telegraphs — Postal System — Progress — 
Research & Postal Education — ^Telegraph Service — Telephones — Over- 
seas Communications — Postal Revenue — ^Postal Expansion — ^Land- 
marks — ^Postage Stamps since Independence . . . . 163 — ^203 

INDIAN SHIPPING 

Position of Indian Mercantile Marine — Shipping Control — Consultive 
Committee of Shipping Interest — Consultive Comm, of Shipovtmers — 
India’s Maritime Trade — Country Craft — Coastal & Near Trade — 
Merchant Shipping — Overseas Shipping — India & Conference Lines — 
Training Facilities — Crew Employment — Ship Building — Tanker Fleet 
— Tonnage of Vessels — Indian Cargoes . . . . 204 — ^210 

BANKS IN INDIA 

Indian Banking System — Classes of Banks— Finance, Investment, 
Credit Corporations — ^Reserve Bank of India — Liabilities &_Ass^s of 
Reserve Bank — ^Indian Banks — State Bank of India — Joint Stock 
Banks, Other Indian Scheduled Banks — ^Liabilities & Assets of other 
Indian Scheduled Banks — of Foreign Scheduled Banks — Li^ilities & 
Assets of Total Scheduled Banks — ^Non-Scheduled Banks — ^Liabilities 
& Assets of Total Non-Scheduled Banks — Earnings & Expenses of 



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CALCUTTA 



U.RS 





xi 


Indian Non-Scheduled Banks, and of Indian Scheduled Banks — Co- 
operative Banks — Liabilities and Assets of all Co-operative Banks — 
Foreign Scheduled Banks — Indigenous Banks — Land Mortgage Banks 
— Important Banking Developments — National Agricultural Credit 
Funds — Training in Banking — Indian Joint-Stock Banks, 1955 — Post 
Office Savings Bank Transactions — Number of Cheques & Amounts 
Cleared, 1954 — State-wise Distribution of total Indian Jt. Stock 
Banks, 1955 — Money Rates in India . . . . 211 — 230 

PUBLIC FINANCE 

India’s Public Finance — Allocation of Revenue — Devolution of Taxes 
& Grants-in-aid — Finance Commission — Union Government Budget — 
Revenue Account — Capital Account — Revenue & Expenditure of Govt, 
of India, Revenue Account — Govt, of India Capital Budget — Budge- 
tary 'Position ' . . . . . . . . 231 — ^236 

PUBLIC DEBT 

Central Govt. Debts — General — Composition of Debt — Repatriation of 
Sterling Debt — Small Savings — Govt. Balances & Ways & Means Ad- 
vances — Govt, of India Annual Treasury Bills — Interest-Bearing Ob- 
ligations & Interest-Yielding Assets — Govt, of India Debt Position — 
Central Govt. Loans — ^Principal Small Savings — Total Postal 
Savings . . . . . . . . 236 — 238 

STATES’ BUDGETS 

Part A States, Revenue Account — General — Part B States Budget, 
Revenue Account — Part C States’ Budgets — Budgetary Position, Part 
A States — Budgetary Position, Part B States — Part C States — State 
Govt. Loans — Consolidated Debt Position, Part A States — States Govt. 
4 P.C. Loans, 1956 . . . . . . . . 239 — ^246 

AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 

Importance — Defects — Area & Soil — Crops — Research & Extension — 
Ownership & Holdines — Agricultural Policy — Bhoodan Movement — 
Soil Conservation — Marketing — Zoological & Botanical Surveys — 
Food Crops — Plantation Crops — ^Fibres — Other Cash Crops — Oilseeds 
— ^Production of food Grains — Other Commodities — ^Index Numbers 

247—261 

FISHERY IN INDIA 

Inland Fishery — Sea Fishing — Refrigeration — ^Fishing Industry — 
Varieties of Fishes — Fish Products — Rate of Consumption — Second 
Five-Year Plan — ^Foreign Aid — ^Aquaria and Museums — Pearl Oysters 

262—266 

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

Cattle in India — Livestock — Key Village Plan & Other Project s — 
Division of Livestock— Species of Cattle — Milk Production — ^Poultry 





Balance on a bicycle 
Is easily acquired. Not 
so easy Is the balancing 
of your bicycle accounts— 
Its costs against Its 
service. The extreme 
care In choice of raw 
materials and rigid 
factory Inspection of 
each component make 
Sen-Raleigh bicycles 
the most serviceable 
with a minimum of repair 
and replacement costs, 
thus striking the 
right balance. 



XUl 


— ^Provincial Distribution — Trade in Cattle — Animal Diseases 

Livestock & Poultry in India . . . . , . 267 ^273 

FORESTS IN INDIA 

Forest Wealth of India — Forest Types of India— National Forest 

Policy — Classifications of Forests — Central Board of Forestry 

Afforestation & Soil Conservation — ^Administrative Set-up — Forest 
Education & Eesearch — Forest Produces & Uses— Classification of 
Forest Areas — Area of Forest Lands & Outturn of Forest Produce — 
Classification . . . . . , , . 274 — 282 


DAIRY FARMING 

Milk Adulteration — ^Poor Yield — ^Low Milk Consumption — Eesearch 
Associations — ^Large Scale Production — Dairy Education — Ghee Pro- 
duction — Ghee Adulteration . . . . . , 283 — 286 

WILD LIFE IN INDIA 

Physical Eegions — ^Wild Life Preservation — ^Varieties and Description 
— Problems — Bird Protection — National Parks & Sanctuaries — Zoo- 
logical Gardens . . . . . . , , 287 — ^292 

INDEX NUMBERS ON VARIOUS SUBJECTS 

Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices — Consumer Price Index Numbers 
— All India Index Numbers of Security Prices — Industrial Production 
Index Numbers — ^Index Numbers of Exports & Imports — ^Wholesale 
Prices Index Numbers — Index Number of Food Prices — ^Index Num- 
bers of Industrial Production — Economic Indicators . . 293 — 296 

SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS IN INDIA 

Scientific Eesearch — Eole of India’s Scientists — International Contacts 
in Science — ^Ministry of Natural Eesources & Scientific Eesearch — 
Council of Scientific & Industrial Eesearch — ^Five-Year Plans — 
National Laboratories — Engineering Eesearch — Medical Eesearch — 
Statistical Eesearch — Meteriolo^cal Eesearch — National Eesearch 
Development Corporation of India — ^Indian National Scientific Docu- 
mentation Centre — Eesearch Associations by Industries — Nuclear 
Eesearch — ^Atomic Eesearch — Survey of India — Anthropology in India 
— Learned Societies & Eesearch Institutes . . . . 297 — 308 

INDIAN MINERALS 

Four Categories of India’s Mineral Eesources — ^Mines & Minerals 
Conservations — Govt. Departments — Scientific Eesearch on Mines & 
Minerals — Mining Education — Govt.’s Eole & Mineral Policy — Des- 
cription of Minerals — Mineral Production . . . . 309 — 322 




T here was not a year in which 
India did not drain the Roman 
Empire of a sum equivalent to 
about one and a half crorcs of 
rupees. Thus complained Pliny, in 
the first century A. D., of Rome’s 
unequal trade with India. 

■Pliny’s statement tcsti&cs to the 
superiority of India’s industrial skill 
and commercial organisation which 
had given her practically a mono- 
poly of the European market in a 
"vtnde range of goods. In the succeed- 
ing centuries India’s prc-cmincncc 
In world trade was never seriously 
•challenged, until Europe forged 


ahead with the advent of the 
Industrial Revolution. 

With a rich store of natural 
resources and the traditional skill 
of her workmen, now aided by 
modem technology, India is 'work- 
ing hard through her Five Year 
Plans to regain her ancient position 
of pride in the world of trade 
and industry. 

Founders of India’s Rubber 
Industry. . 

DUNLOP 

Tyres: Tubes; Dunlopillot 

Industrial Rubber Products 

DX 467a 





XV 


UNITED NATIONS 

Origin — ^Purposes of U.N. — Finance — Official Languages — ^Members 
of the United Nations — United Nations’ Flag — ^Headquarters & Offices 
■ — Organs of the U.N. — General Assembly — Security Council — Econo- 
mic & Social Council — Trusteeship System — International Court of 
Justice — Secretariat — Specialised Agencies of U.N. . . 323—330 

SPORTS SECTION 

Indian Cricket — Foreign Teams in India — Indian Teams abroad — 
Official Test Matches — India’s Test Record — Cricket Championship of 
India — Ranji Trophy Records — Rohinton Baria Inter-University Cric- 
ket — Football ; Rovers Cup, Bombay — Durand Cup — National Football 
Championship — Inter-University Football Championship — Hockey ; 
Beighton Cup — Aga Khan Cup — ^Women’s National Hockey Cham- 
pionship — Dhyan Chand Hockey Tournament — National Badminton 
Championship — Inter-State Badminton Championship — National 
Table Tennis Championship — Inter-State Table Tennis — Billiards 
Championship — National Kabadi Championship — National Lawn 
Tennis Championship — National Swimming Championship — National 
Basketball Championship — National Volleyball Championship — 
Athletic Records in India — Indian Swimming Records — Cricket — Mile 
Runners — EWorld Track & Field Records — EWorld Swimming Records — 
Women’s Track & Field Records — Women’s Swimming Records — 
Davis Cup — Wightman Cup — Wimbledon Tennis Championship — 
World Chess Championship — Boxing Champions — Modem Heavy- 
Weight Champions — World Table Tennis — World Football Cup — 
Asian Qudrangular Football Tournament — World Skating — Thomas 
Cup — Olympic Hockey Championship — Olympic Score of Nations — 
New Olympic Athletic Records — Notable World Records . . 331 — 351 

AVIATION 

Altitude Records — ^Endurance Flight Record — Speed Records — ^Round 
the World Flight — ^Pole Flights — ^Non-Stop Long Distance Records — 
Balloon Records — Aeroplanes — Sea-planes — Gliders — ^Parachute — Heli- 
copter . . . . . . . . 352 — 354 


INDIAN PORTS 

Major & Minor Ports — Port Trusts — ^National Harbour Board — 
Lighthouses — Description of Ports — Cargo Handled by Different 
Ports — Traffic in Four Major Ports . . . . 355 — 362 

INDIAN PRESS 

Beginnings of Indian Press — Freedom of the Press — Press Laws — 
Press Council — Indian Newspaper Circulation — New Development — 
Indian News Agencies — Foreign Agencies — Press Commission’s Report 
— Newspaper Associations — ^Books in India — Information &_ Publicity 
of Central & State Govts. — ^Information Services — Publications Divi- 






XVll 


Bion — Advertising Consultants Branch — Research & Reference 
Division — Films Division — Govt, of India Tourist Information 
Offices — Foreign Information Services — Important Indian News- 
papers — Press Associations — Commercial Papers— Journalism Cour- 
ses — Indian News Agencies — Foreign News Agencies in India — 
Language-wise Distribution of Periodicals — State-wise Distribution of 
Newspapers — ^Printing Presses etc. in India . . 363 — 380 

LABOUR IN INDIA 

Labour Reform in India — Labour Laws — Safety and Labour Welfare 
— Industrial Relations — Labour Administration — Membership of All 
India Organisations — National Employment Service — India & the 
I.L.O. — Central Labour Institute — Employment Exchanges — Indus- 
trial Disputes in India . . . . . . . . 381 — 396 

NATIONAL DEFENCE 

Defence Organisation — Reorganisation Programmes — Indian Army 
— ^Indian Navy — ^Indian Air Force — General Training Institutions 

397—407 


NATIONAL INCOME 

Salient Features — Small Rise — Normal Progp'ess — ^Net Domestic Pro- 
duct by Industrial origin — Shares of Govt. & Private Sections — Net 
National Product at Factor cost and at Market Prices . . 407 — 410 

INDIANS OVERSEAS 

History of Emigration — Nature of Work — Emigration Ports — ^Unres- 
tricted Migration — Ban on Entry — Indians Overseas . . 411 — 414 

INDIAN CENSUS 

Broad Outlines — Growth of Population — India & the World — Rural- 
urban Ratio — Cities — Livelihood Patterns — Religion — Towns and 
Villages — Sex Ratio — Martial Status — Future Growth — Birth Rates 
& Death Rates — Age Structure — Population of Special Groups — 
Expectation of Life — Beggars in India — Fertility of Indian Women 
— Area & Population — Population of Cities — Population according to 
Religion — Literacy in India . . . . . . 41B — 423 

INDIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 

Administration — Archaeological Research — Publications — ^National Ar- 
chives of India — Historical Records Comm. — Training Facilities 

424-426 

LANGUAGES 

Indo-Epropean — ^World’s Languages — Indian Languages — Speakers 
of Pricipal Indian Languages — Tribal Languages — Other Indian 
Languages — Principal Non-Indian Language Speakers — ^Indian Lan- 
guage Speakers in States .. .. .. 427 — 437 

B 




TTi« joMenandj, 
the rearing 
breakers, the 

beach— perhaps tht 
bert In the worW 
—the great temple 
—these are 
the charms oT 
Pari. But nothing 
Ii more pleasant 
thin a stay at Part 
In the South 
Eastern Riiiwa/ 
Hotel. 


excmaramiKwoKHarccHw^xr SOUTH EASTERN RAILV/AY HOTELS 






mtftftAhHIRESTfUC-AAHCHI 

“ * ‘ j- 








isffi 


the hills along the 
blue ikjfllnes. the 

\ wil(J beauuei 
of Nature at 
every corner 
of the 
valley, the Huadru 
falls, the 
charming climate. 
—Ranchi It 
j famous for these, 
r and no less for the 
exquisite cuisine 
and comfort provided 

by the South 
Eastern Railway 
Hotel. 


, Ho 

WD tr t„. 



XIX 


PUBLIC HEALTH OF INDIA 

Public Health Administration — Ministry of Health — Problem of Pub- 
lic Health in India — Medical & Health Education — Family Planning 
— Govt. Policy towards Indigeneous Systems & Homoeopathy — Boards, 
Councils etc., for Public Health — Defectives — ^Prevention & Control of 
Major & Tropical Diseases — Legislative measures — India & Interna- 
tional Assistance — Medical Census — ^Ten-year Health Plan — Labora- 
tories, Medical Researches & Associations — ^Infant Mortality — ^Hospi- 
tals and Patients — Indian Expectation of Life — Pood & Nutrition — 
Medical Education . . . . . . . . 438 — 453 

BROADCASTING IN INDIA 

Organisation — ^A.I.R. stations — ^Promotion of Hindi — ^Revenue — 
Licenses — Varied Broadcasts — ^Research — ^Transcription Service — 
— AIR monitoring Service — Staff Training School — Listener Research 
unit — ^Import of Radio Sets — Number of Domestic Receving Sets 

454—460 


INDIA’S POWER SUPPLY 

Power Generation in India — ^Administration — Hydro-Power Resources 
of India — Pattern of Electricity in India — State of Power Develop- 
ment in India — ^Power Projects under Five-Year Plan — ^Progress of 
Electricity Supply — Electric Energy Generated & Sold . . 461 — 466 

INDIAN IRRIGATION 

Administration — Research Work — River Valley Projects — Main Types 
of Irrigation — Canals of India — Some Principal Projects — ^Power & 
Irrigation Projects in the First Five-Year Plan 467 — 477 

INSURANCE IN INDIA 

Life Business — ^Non-Life Buisiness — Members of the Corporation — 
Zonal & Divisional Offices . . . . . . 478—480 

INDIAN INDUSTRY 

Ministry of Commerce & Industry — Administrative Set-up — Industrial 
Policy of the Govt. — Development & Control of Industries — Financial 
Aid to Industry — Foreign Capital — ^Research — ^Nationalized Industries 
— Fertilizer Industry — ^Aircraft Industry — Chittaranjan Locomotive 
Works — National Instruments Factory — Integral Coach Factory — 
Description of Indian Industries — Industrial Production . . 481 — 512 

COTTAGE & SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES 

Special Cottage Industry Products of India — State Cottage 
Industries . . . . • - • • 513 — 520 







XXl 


BHOODAN MOVEMENT 

All-India Figures of Bhoodan .... . . . . 521 — 622 

INDIAN EDUCATION 

Educational System in India — Secondary Education Commission — 
Sargent Scheme — ^Associated Bodies — Museums in India — Scientific 
Research Institutes — Humanistic Institutions — First Degree Course 
in Engineering & Technology . . . . . . 523 — 544 

AET & LITERATURE IN INDIA 

Sahitya Akadami — Sangit Natak Akadami — Lalit Kala Akadami 

545—549 

CINEMA IN INDIA 

History of the Film Industry — ^Film Enquiry Committees — Govt, of 
India’s Control — Films Division — Children’s Film — Advisory^ Board — 
National Film Board — Censorship of Films — ^Taxation — Indian Film 
Production To-day — Film Federation — State Awards — World Film 
Production — India’s Film Industry — Foreign Feature Films in India 
— Indian Feature Films — Cinema Circuits — Cinema Facts — ^Leading 
Indian Producers — Film Studios in India — Associations & Unions — 
Foreign Film Studios — Academy Awards — State Film Awards (India) 
1955 — Czechoslovakia International Film Festival, 1956 — Cannes In- 
ternational Film Festival 1956— Oscars for 1955-— British Academy 
Awards, 1956— Venice Film Festival, 1956 .. ..650 — 663 

INDIA’S COMMERCE 

Pattern of India’s Trade — ^India’s Exchange Control — Tariff Commis- 
sion — India’s Foreign Exchange Reserve — Index Numbers of Exports 
& Imports — ^India’s Balance of Payments — ^India’s Foreign Trade 

664—571 


PROHIBITION IN INDIA 

Present State — Position in the States — Prohibition Enquiry Commit- 
tee’s Report . . . . . . . . 672 — 575 


LAND REFORMS IN INDIA 

Objective — Elimination of Intermediaries — Compensation — ^Fixation of 
Rent — Fixation of Ceilings — Steps to check Fragmentation & Conso- 
lidation — Census of Land-holdings — Co-operative Farming — Land for 
Common Purposes — Agrarian Reforms in States . . 576 — 579 

PUBLIC SERVICES IN INDIA 

Examinations — All-India Services — Recruitment by Competitive Exa- 
minations — Recruitment by Selection — Central Secretariat Service — 
Pay & Scale . . . . . . . • 580 — 583 



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xxiil 


THE FIVE-YEAR PLANS 

First Five-Year Plan — Objective of the Plan — Sources of Finance — 
Foreign Capital — Original & Eevised Estimates — Financial Resources 
of the First Five-Year Plan — Community Development Projects — 
National Extension Service — Progress of Work — Second Five-Year 
Plan — Objectives — Shift of Priorities — Plan Outlay & Allocations — 
Structure of Economj^ — National Product by Industrial Origin 684 — 595 

SOCIAL WELFARE 

Conception of Welfare State — Central Social WeKare Board — Volun- 
tary Social Work . . . . . . . . 596 — 598 

EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE 

International Bank of Reconstruction & Development — Colombo Plan 
— ^The United States of America — Joint Projects — Colombo Plan — ^The 
Ford Foundation — The International Bank — Norwegian Aid — Techni- 
cal Assistance — U.S. Technical Co-operation — Recapitulation of Indo- 
American Programme (1952-1956) — ^Indo-Norwe^an Aid Program- 
me — Russian Loan — ^U.K. Loan — ^Loans from India . . 599 — 610 

ATOMIC ENERGY IN INDIA 

Peaceful use of Atomic Energy . . . . . . 611 — 615 

CENTRAL ACTS 195 6 616-620 

REORGANISATION -OF STATES 

J. V. P. Report — ^Work of S. R. C. Commission — Zonal Council — High 
Courts — Status of States — Territorial Councils — Delhi Corporation — 
Parliamentary Members — Territories — States & Territories & their 
Capitals . . . . . . . . . . 621 — 628 

INDIAN ELECTIONS 1957 

National Parties — ^Number of Voters — ^Expenses in Elections — ^Expen- 
ses Table — Allocation of Seats in the Lok Sabha & State Assemblies 
— Election Manifestos ^ . . . . . . 629 — 638 

STATE IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS 

Life Insurance Corporation — State Trading in India — ^The Eastern 
Shipping Corporation . . . . • . 639 — 641 

COMMISSIONS & COMMITTEES 

Plantation Enquiry Commission’s Report — Subhas Bpse Committee — 
Sanskrit Commission — Co-ordination Comm, for Public Co-operation — 
Planning Commission . . . . . . . - 642 — 644 






^^suhr oj. NPph/i 

■^‘^ss^^fsss 







XXV 


AWARDS, REWARDS, PRIZES 

Sangit Natak Akadami Awards 1956 — Third All-India Art Exhibition 
Awards 1967 — Best Books for Children 1955-56— Sahitya Akadami 
Awards, 1956 . . . . . . . . 645 — 647 


TOURISM IN INDIA 

Description of Indian Show Places — Govt, of India Eegional Tourist 
Offices . . . . . . . . . . 648—653 


INDO-PAKISTAN AFFAIRS 

Agreement on Indus Water — Pakistani Claim over Chitral — Kashmir 
Developments — Exodus of Hindus from Pakistan — Border Incidents — 
Pakistani Debt to India — Jt. Flood Control Measures — Indo-Pakistani 
Trade Pact . . . . . . . . 654 — 660 


INDIA IN WORLD AFFAIRS 

Yugoslavia, India & Egypt — Indo-Arab Amity — India & the Algerian 
Independence Movement — ^India’s Frontier Areas — Naga Land — 
Bhutan — Sikkim — Nepal — ^India & Work of Unesco — India & Disar- 
mament Conference — India & the Nationalization of Suez Canal — 
India & the Atomic Energy Conference — Transfer of French Settle- 
ments in India — India & Developments in Hungary — India & the Co- 
mmonwealth — India & the United Nations Eleventh Session — India 
& Korea — India & Togoland — India & Apartheid in South Africa — 
India & Korean Election — Indian Prime Minister addresses the U.N. 
General Assembly — ^India & the Unesco Session . . 661 — 679 

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS 

Morocco & Tunisia win Independence — Saar rejoins Germany — ^Free- 
dom for Malaya — Cominform Dissolved — Algerian Independence 
Movement — ^Nationalist Movements in Africa — The Union of South 
Africa — Bechuanaland, Basutoland & Swaziland — Central Africa — 
Kenya — Nigeria — The Gold Coast — Sierra Leone — Uganda — Events 
in Cyprus — Suez Canal Nationalized — The Suez Canal Company — 
Economics of the Suez Politics — London Discussions on Suez — Men- 
zies Mission — Suez Canal users’ Association, — Anglo-French Aggres- 
sion on Egypt — Cessation of Hostilities & International force — U. 
N. force — Development in Laos — Self-Government for Somalis 
— Eisenhower’s Second Term — Events in Poland & Hungary — 
Hungary . . . . . . . . . . 682—712 

INDIAN AFFAIRS 

Kashmir Constitution — ^Portugal’s Dispute with India — ^Problems on 
Naga Land— The General Election of 1957— Indo-U.S. Agreement on 
Agricultural Commodities - . • • • • 





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MINERAL OIL IN INDIA 

Russian Oil Experts — Oil & Natural Gas Division . . 718—720 

"States in india 

Andhra Pradesh — Assam — West Bengal — Bihar — Bombay — Madhya 
Pradesh — Madras-^Orissa — Punjab — Uttar Pradesh — Rajasthan — 

^mmu & Kashmir — Mysore — Kerala — Delhi — Pondicherry — ^Himachal 
^r^desh — ^Manipur — ^Tripura — Laccadive, Minicoy & Amindivi Islands 
— ^Andaman & Nicobar Islands — Sikkim . . . . 722—763 




STATES BORDERING INDIA 

Bhutan — ^Nepal — Tibet — Portuguese India — Pakistan 


763—769 


GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS 

Their scope and work — Ministries of Finance, Defence, Education, Irri- 
gation and Power, Pood, Labour, Natural Resources, and Scientific 
Research, Law, Works, Housing and Power, Production, Food, Com- 
merce and Industry, Communications, External Aifairs . . 770 — 778 


PARLIAMENT OF INDIA 

Salaries and Allowances of Members of the Parliament of India — 
Rajya Sabha Parliamentary Committees — Lok Sabha Parliamentary 
Committees . . . . . . , . 778 — 780 


UNION GOVERNMENT 

Secretaries of the President & Prime Minister — Secretaries to the 
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vice Commission — Top ranking Officers of the Armed Forces — ^Impor- 
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781—784 

INDIAN REPRESENTATIVES ABROAD 

Ambassadors — ^High Commissioners — Legations — Special Missions — 
Consulate Generals & Consulates — Commissions — ^Agencies 785 — 789 

INDIA GOVERNMENT TRADE REPRESENTATIVES 

789—791 

FOREIGN DIPLOMATS IN INDIA 
Ambassadors — High Commissions — ^Legations - . 791 — 793 

TRADE REPRESENTATIVES OF OVERSEAS 

GOVERNMENTS IN INDIA 793—795 

WHO’S WHO 796-82 





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INDEX 


A 


Abbreviations, Political .. 113 
Abdications, Famous . . 110 
Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 85 

Academy of Hindustani & 
Kamatak Music . . 530 

Academy Awards . . 661 

Academy (See Akadami) 
Accommodation, classes of 167 
Acts 1956, Central . . 616 
Adult Education . . 526 

Advertising Consultant’s 
Branch . . 371 

Aerodromes in India . . 192 
Afghanistan . . 85 

Aga Khan Cup . . 336 

Agrarian Beforms -- 679 


Agricultural Commodities 
other than Foodgrains, 
Production of . . 261 

Agncultural Credit Funds, 
National . . 227 

Agricultural Policy 252 

Agricultural Research 249, 304 

Apiculture in India 8,247 

Aircraft Industry . . 488 

Air Force, Indian .. 403 

Airline Corporation, Indian 194 
Airline Operations, Non- 
Scheduled . . 195 

Airline Routes, Eictemal 193 

Airline Routes, Internal . . 193 

Air Reserves . . 405 

Air Services, Foreign .. 196 
A.I.R. Stations .. 454 



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Air Traffic Control . . 192 Apatite . . 321 

Akadami, Lalit Kala 630, 648 Arabia . . 86 

Akadami, Sahitya 630, 645 Archaeology, Dept, of . . 629 

Akadami, Sangit Natak 530, 547 Archaeology, Indian . . 424 

Albania . . 85 Archaeological & Historical 

Alcohol Industry . . 499 Landmarks . . 36 

Alfeppy . . 361 Archives of India, National 426 

All India Eadio . . 454 Area & Soil . . 248 

Aluminium Industry . . 497 Area of India . . 1 

Andaman & Nicohar Islands 761 Argentina . . 86 

Andhra . . . . 722 Art & Literature . . 645 

Andorra . . 85 Asbestos . . 321 

Animal & Bird Eecords . . 82 Ascents of Mountains, First 63 

Animal Husbandry . . 267 Asiatic Society of Bengal 307 

Animal Products . . 272 Assam . . 724 

Animals of India . . 8 Assassinations, Political . . 109 

Anthems, National . . 114 Assets & Obligations, Int. — 

Anthropological Dept. . . 629 Bearing . . 237 

Anthropological Information 63 Asteroids . . 50 

Anthropology in India . . 307 Astronomical Data . . 49 

Antibiotics, Hindustan . . 490 Athletic Eecords in India 338 

Antimony . . 321 Atmosphere . • 52 





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xxxiii 


Atomic Energy, Dept, of 
Atomic Energy in India 
Atomic Energy, Peaceful 
use of 

Atomic Research 

Australia 

Austria 

Audio-Visual Education 
Automobile Industry 
Aviation in India, Civil 
Aviation ; Records, Types 
„ 352, 353, 

Awards & Emblems, Na- 
tional 

Awards, British Acadamy 
Distinction & 

- Titles 


306 

611 

613 

306 

86 

87 

526 

508 

189 

354 

156 
563 

157 


B 

Badminton Championship 337 
Balance of Payments, 

India s . . . . 570 

Balance of Trade . . 671 


Banks, Co-operative 
Banks, Foreign (Exchange) 
Banks, Indigenous 
Bank, International, of Re- 
construction 
Banks, Land Mortgage 
Banks, Non-Scheduled 
Bank, Reserve — Develop- 

ments 

Banks, Scheduled 

Barley 

Barytes 

Basketball Championship 

Basic Education 

Bauxite 

Beggars 

Beighton Cup 

Belgium 

Bells, Largest , . 

Bentonite 

Beryl 

Bharat Ratna 
Bhatkal 

Bhoodan Movement 263, 


212 

224 
226 

599 

225 
221 

215 

212 

265 

321 

338 

624 

319 
419 
336 

87 

68 

320 
318 

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Bhutan 87, 763 

Bidri Work . . . . 516 

Biggest, Largest, Longest 71 

Bihar , . 730 

Billiards Champions . . 338 

Birth Rates .. 139 

Births and Deaths in India 450 
Blue Riband (Atlantic) .. 84 

Bolivia . . . . 87 

Bombay 357, 733 

Books in India . . 369 

Books, Newspaper, etc . . 380 

Book Trust, National .. 529 

Botanical & Zoological Sur- 
veys . . . . 254 

Botanical Gardens, National 303 
Boxing Champions . . 346 

Brazil . . . . 87 

Bridges, Indian , . 16 

Bridges, Longest . . 67 

British Parliament, Indians 
in , . . . 19 

Broadcasting in India .. 454 

Bronze Age . . 55 

Buddhist, Festivals .. 48 

Budget, Capital . , 234 

Budgetary Position, Govt. 

of India . . 235 

Budgetary Position, States 241 
Building Research Inst. . . 303 

Buildings, Tall, & Towers 69 

Bulgaria . . . . 88 

Burma . . . . 88 


C 


Cables, Hindustan . . 491 

Calcutta . . . . 368 

Calicut . . . . 361 

Calendar ... . . 40 

Calendar, Indian . . 40 

Cambodia . . . . 90 

Canada . . . . 88 

Canals of India . . 470 

Canals, Ship . . 60 

Cancer . . . . 445 

Capital Account . . 233 

Cardamom . . . . 267 

Cargoes Handled by Ports 362 
Cargoes, Indian . . 210 

Carpets . . . . 604 


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X3CXVU 


Cashew Nuts . . 258 

Castor . . . . 259 

Cattle, Species of . . 268 

Caves & Caverns, Famous 60 
Cement 319, 504 

Census, Indian . . 416 

Census, Medical . . 446 

Central African Federation 89 
Ceramic & Glass Research 302 
Ceylon . . . . 89 

Chess Champions . . 346 

Child Welfare . . 697 

Chile . . . . 89 

China . . . . 89 

Chittaranjan Locomotive 
Works . . . . 489 

Christian Festivals . . 46 


Chromite 


318 

Chronology, Indian 


23 

Cinchona _ . . 


256 

Cinema Circuits 


668 

Cinema Facts 


658 

Cinema in India 


660 

Cities 


416 

Cities, Largest 


138 

Cities of India 


16 

Citizenship, Indian 


164 

Civilization, Stages of 


66 

Clays 


320 

Climate, World Extremes of 

62 

Cloves 


267 

Coach Factory, Integral 

. , 

489 

Coal 

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314 





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Congress Presidents, In- 


Hindustan 


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dian National 

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Coastal Trades 


206 

Conservation, Afforestation 


Cocanada 


361 

& Soil 

276 

Cochin 


359 

Constellations . . 

61 

Coconut 


260 

Constituent Assembly of 


Coifee 

257, 

608 

India, Speaker 

22 

Coins, New 


66 

Constitution, Amendments 


Coir 


610 

to the Indian 

148 

Colombia 


90 

Constitution of India 

141 

Colombo Plan 


600 

Continents, Area of the .. 

67 

Comets 


51 

Copper 

319 

Commerce, India’s 


664 

Corundum 

320 

Commercial Papers 


378 

Costa Rica 

90 

Commissions & Committees 

642 

Cottage & Small Scale In- 


Commission, Indian Na- 


dustries 

613 

tional 


629 

Cottage Industry Products 

616 

Commonwealth Press Union 

369 

Cottage Industries, State 

617 

Communications & 

Trans- 


Cotton 

267 

port _ . . 


163 

Cottonseed 

260 

Communication 

Service, 


Country Craft . . 

206 

Overseas 


201 

Cricket, Indian 

331 

Community Development 


Cricket : Record Individual 


Projects 


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Scores 

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xxxxi 


Crops . . . . 248 

Cuba . . . . 90 

Cycle Industry .. 499 

Czechoslovakia . . 90 

D 

Dams, Highest & Largest 69 
Dances of India . , 158 

Diary Edaeation . . 285 

Diary Farming .. 283 

Date Line, International . . 45 

Davis Cup . . . . 345 

Days, Longest & Shortest 45 

Death Rates . . 139 

Debt Position, Govt, of 
India . . . , 237 

Debt, Public . . 236 

D. D. T. Factory . . 492 

Decorations & Medals . , 84 

Defectives , . . . 444 

Defence Academy, National 405 
Defence Services Staff 

College . . . . 405 

Degree Course in Eng. 

Technology . . 542 

Delhi . . . . 755 

Delhi, Flagship . . 402 

Delhi, New . . . . 93 

Democratic Republic, So- 
vereign . . 141 

Denmark . . , . 90 

Depths & Heights . . 83 

Deserts . . . . 59 

Dhanushkadi . . 361 

Diseases, Tropical . . 445 

Discoveries & Inventions 75 

Diseases . . . . 273 

Distances by Rail . . IB 

Domestic Products . . 409 

Dominican Republic . . 90 

Do You Know . . 162 

Drug Research Inst., Cen- 
tral . . . . 302 


E 

Earth . . . . 50 

Education, All-India Coun- 
cil for Secondary _ . . 529 

Educational Institutions . . 634 


Educational and Vocational 
Guidance . . 529 

Education, Central Advi- 
sory Board of . . 528 

Education, Higher in Rural 
Areas . . . . 629 

Education, Indian . . 623 

Education, Medical . . 451 
Education Ministry, Acti- 
vities of . . 5S1 

Education of the Handi- 
capped . . . . 626 

Education, Secondary . . 624 

Egypt . . . . 91 

Election Commission . . 146 

Election Manifesto . . 633 

Elections 1957, Indian . . 629 

Electricity in India . . 463 
Electricals, Heavy .. 493 

Electric Energy Generated 
& Sold .. 466 

Electro-Chemical Research 
Inst. . . . . 303 

Emblem, National .. 157 

Engineering Research . . 303 
Equador . . . . 91 

Everest, Attempts’ on . . 17 

External Assistance . . 599 
Exchange Control, Indian 668 
Exchange Reserve, foreign 670 
Explosives Factory . . 492 


F 


Factories Act (1948) 
Family Welfare 
Farming, Co-operative 
Federal Language 
Feldspar 

Fertilizer Industry 
Festivals, Hindu 
Festivals, Moslem 
Fibres 

Field & Track Records 
Filigree 

Film Advisory Board 
Film Awards, State 
Film Board, National 
Film Enquiry Committee 
Films Festival, Cannes 
Film Festival, Venice 


383 

697 

578 

531 

319 

488 

46 

47 
257 
343 
617 
653 
562 
653 
650 
663 
663 



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A Survey of the Countries of the Middle East, such as Iran, Iraq, 00 
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xxxxiii 


lifter- 

§ S India's :: III 

Film Studios ‘ ' fro 

Mmc ^nneign ..' sei 

Censorship of Kw 

FUms, aiidren’s " Iff 

Films Division 37I |i| 

Films, Stete Awards . . ’ 555 

Corporation, Indus- 

|taSS,te«“' II 

:■■ f 

Fishery in India ! ‘ 262 

Fishes, Varieties of 9 ^ 

Fishing: Industry ‘ III 

•• f 

o/^n, Second . , 589 
Some over- 
all Results Tos 

|a|f'feXf iJi- 

;; HI 

Rights & Jumps, Record . . 84 

iWers, National & State 84 
j lying Clubs , 192 

fool r I^“*nitian ’ . . ’ 451 

£^ooa Crops per^ 

Food Technological 
Research . . 302 

Football Championship, Na- 
tional ope 

Football : — Durand Cup . . 335 
I. F. A. Shield . . 334 

■lord Foundation: 603 

” n & Small Scale In- 
dustnes . . 515 

Foreign Capital ! . 486 

Forei^ Diplomats in India 791 
■r Orests : Classification of 275 

in India 274 

Lands & Outturn 281 

Produces & Uses 278 


Research & Educa- 
_ tion 

Forestry, Central Board of' 

Formosa 

France 

Freight & Fare 

^^^‘^e.Eulers of, since W, 
war II 

Fuel Research Inst., Cenrial 
Fuller's Earth 
Fundamental Eights 


277 

276 

91 

91 

167 

108 

302 

321 

141 


Gazetteer, World 85 

Geological Survey of India' 312 
Geographical Information 67 

Geographical Record 
Breakers . , 6j 

Germany ‘ ’ gg. 

Rulers of— Since 
W. War I . . 209- 

Gestation of various 
Animals, Period of .. 82 

Cnee Adulteration . . 286 

Ghee Production . . 286 

Glass & Ceramic Research 
Inst. . . 302 

Glass & Glassware ' 505 

Gliding Club .. 195 

Gold ^ ^ 225 

Government Departments 770 
Governments, State . . 144 

Governor-Generals of 
Indian Union . . 22 

Gram & Pulses . , 255 

Graphite . , 321 

Gt. Britain & Northern Ire- 
lanii . . 92 

Greece , . 93 

Groundnut , 259 

Guatemala . . 93 

Gypsum . . 320 

H 


Haiti . . 93 

Handlooms & Textiles . . 517 
Harboxir Board, National 356 
Heads of Govts, of the 




Now that the winter la over, yon will, no doubt, 
look to your fans to save you from summer’s heat 
and humidity. It will be worth your while to have 
a qualified electrician give your fans a preliminary 
check-up before you switch them on again. 

Even in the case of lEW fans notwithstanding their 
mechanical and stractural excellence, this checA-up is 
recommended to doubly ensure their traditionally 
■' trouble-free, smooth, silent and economic service. 

Check up I L Wiring 

2. Commutator 
8. Carbon 
4 . Grease 


tm INDIA EIECmC WORKS ITB. 



INDIA cx, ROHTAStu. BHARAT kc. 
BEHALAsx, RANJlTse. TARAtxssx. 


xsxxv 


Central 


106 

442 


World 

Health, Board of. 

Advisory 445 , 

Central Council of 441 
ul? Education Bureau 443 
Health & Medical Educa- 
tion 

Health, Ministry of 
Health, Public 
Hemp 

Hides, Leather & Skins ! ! 

High Courts 

Highest & Lowest Eleva- 
tions 

Highest Mountain Peaks ! 
Highest Peaks of Hima- 
layas 

Hill Stations 

Himachal Pradesh ! ! 

Himalayan Peaks, Con- 
quest of . . 18 

Hindustan Housing Facto^ 490 

Hindustan Machine Tools 
r actory 

Hindustan Shipyard ! ! 

Wo'men’s 
^tional 

^'J?^|y^Toumament, Dh'yan 

Holidays * [ 

Homoeopathy & Indigenous 
systems 
Honduras 
Horn Articles 
Housing Factory 
Humanistic Inst. 

Hungary 
Hurdle Records 
Hydro-Power Resources of 
India 


440 

438 

438 

258 

501 

625 

58 

57 

17 
28 

756 

18 


491 

491 

337 

336 

337 
45 

441 

93 

517 

490 

540 

93 

344 


India : 


463 


Iceland 
Ilmenite 

IMCO • ; 

Income, National 
Index Numbers : Agricul- 
tural Production Various 
InSubjects 261. 293 

India (Map) 72 I 


93 

318 

330 

407 


India at a Glance : 

Climate & Rainfall 
Coast Line 
Forests 
Languages 
Livestock 
Minerals 
National Flag 
People 

Physical Division 
Ports 
Races 
Religions 
River Systems 
Soil 
States 

India, Foreigpi Investment 
in 

India Government Trade 
Representatives 
Indian Pacts in a Nutshell 
Indian Fellows of Royal 
Society 

Indian Information 
Indians, First among 
Indians in Commonwealth 
Countries 

Indians in Foreign 
Countries 
Indians, Notable 
Indian Representatives 
abroad 

Indians Overseas 
Indonesia 

Industrial Policy, Govt. . . 
Industrial Productions! . . 
Industrial Research 
Industries, Development & 
Control of 

Industries, Nationalized . . 
Industry, Financial Aid to 
Industry, Indian 
Infant Mortality 
Information & Publicity, 
Central & St. Govts. 
Information, General 
Information Services 
Information Services, 

Foreign 

Insecticides, Hindustan 
Instruments Factory, Na- 
tional 


1 

1 


153 

789 

11 

19 

15 

28 

413 

414 
25 

785 

411 

93 

482 
511 
299 

483 
487 

484 
481 
450 

369 
67 

370 

372 

492 


489 





sxxxvi 


Insurance in India 


478 

International Bank 

R. & D, 

for 

329 

International Civil Aviation 
Org. 

328 

International Court of 
Justice 


327 

International Monetary 
"Fund 


329 

Inventions, Great 


72 

Iran 


94 

Iraq 

• « • 

94 

Irish Republic 


93 

Irrigation, Indian 

, , 

467 

Irrigation, Main Types 

of 

469 

Irrigation : Principal 
jects 

Pro- 

471 

Iron 

* ^ 

317 

Iron Age 


55 

Iron and Steel 


495 

Iron & Steel Projects 


493 

Israel 


94 

Italy 


95 

ITO-GATT 


330 

ITU 


329 

Ivory Work ^ 

•• 

517 

Jammu & Kashmir 


748 

Japan 

* , 

95 

Jordan 


95 

Journalism Courses 


378 

Judiciary 

, , 

143 

Jute 

257, 

496 

Jumping Records 


344 

Juvenile Delinquency 


598 

J. V. P. Report 

• . 

621 


Labour Administration 
& Le^slation . . 382 

Labour in India . . 381 

Labour Laws , . 382 

Labour Reform . . 381 

Lac . . 258 

Laccadive, Minicoy & Amin- 
divi Islands . . 759 

Lakes . . 68 

Land Reforms . . 576 

Languages . . 427 

Languages in tbe Consti- 
tution 147/129 

Languages, Indian . . 428 

Largest Islands . . 59 

Lawn Tennis Championsbip, 
National . , 338 

Lead . . 321 

Learned Societies & Re- 


search Inst. 

.. 307 

Leather Research 

Insti., 

Central 

.. 302 

Lebanon 

.. 96 

Legislature 

.. 143 

Lemongrass Oil 

. . 258 

Lenin Peace Prize 

.. 20 

Liberia 

.. 96 

Libraries of the World . . 68 

Libya 

.. 96 

Liechtenstein 

96 

Linseed 

.. 259 

Livestock & the 

Consti- 


K 

Kabadi Championsbip, Na- 
tional . . 338 

Kandla . . 367 

Kanchenjunga, Attempts on 18 
Karikal . . 362 

Kerala . . . . 762 

Korea . . 95 

Kyanite . . 319 

L 

Laboratories, Medical 

Researches etc. . . 447 

Laboratory, Nat, Chemical 301 
„ „ Physical .. 301 


tution . . 267 

Livestock & Poultry . . 273 

Local Bodies in India . . 153 

Locomotive Production . . 168 

Lok Sabha . . 148 

Loans, Central Govt. . . 238 

Loan, State Govts, . . 238 
Longest Rivers . . 57 

Longest Tunnels . . 60 

Luxemburg . . 97 

M 

Machine Tools Prototype 
Factory .. 497 

Madhya Pradesh 735 

^Jadras^ 358 733 

Mapmesite .. fiiq 

Mail, Night .. 193 

Slalana . . , ^ 444 




xxxsrvii 



Malaya, Federation of 

97 

Museums in India 


634 

Malpe 

362 

Mustard & Rape 

. 

260 

Mangalore 

361 

Myrobalans 

• 

258 

Manganese 

315 

Mysore 

. 

749 

Manipur 

757 




Mankind, Classification of 

54 

N 



Mankind, Eaces of 

53 

Nagaland 

. 

664 

Maritime Trade 

206 

Nagpur Plan 

. 

182 

Marketing, Directorate of 

254 

Nahan Foundry 

• 

490 

Marriage Kate 

140 

National Day 

• • 

112 

Match 

505 

Nationalisation of Trans- 


Medical Research 

304 

port 

• • 

186 

Medicine and Physiology, 

National Parks 

• • 

17 

Discoveries in 

76 

National Parks & Sane- 


Medium of Instructions • . 

530 

tuaries 

, * 

291 

Menzies Mission 

704 

National Research Develop- 


Mercantile Marine, Indian 

204 

ment Corp. 


305 

Merchant Shipping 

206 

National Songs 


157 

Metal Art Wares 

517 

Natural Resources & Scien- 


Metallurgical Laboratory 

301 

tific Research, Ministry 


Meteorological Research , . 

305 

of 

299, 

311 

Meteors 

51 

Navy, Indian 


401 

Mexico 

97 

Naya Paisa 


66 

Mica 

316 

Negapatam 


361 

Mile Runners 

343 

Nepal 


98 

Milk Productions 

271 

Netherlands 


98 

Milky Way 

343 

New & Old Names 

of 


Millets 

255 

Places 

* , 

19 

Mineral Information Bureau 312 

News Agencies, Foreign 367, 378 

Mineral Oil in India 

718 

News Agencies, Indian 

366, 

379 

Mineral Resources 

311 

Newspaper Associations 


368 

Minerals, Description of . . 

314 

Newspaper Circulation, 

In- 


Mines 

383 

dian 


366 

Mines & Applied Geology, 


Newspapers, Important In- 


School of 

313 

dian 


372 

Mines & Mineral Conserva- 


New Zealand 


98 

tion 

311 

Nicaragua 


98 

Mining & Metallurgy, 


Nobel Prizes . . 


77 

College of 

313 

Nobel Prize Winners, 

In- 


Mint, New 

493 

dian 


20 

Monaco 

97 

Norway 


98 

Monazite 

318 

Notable Indians 


25 

Money Rates in India 

230 

Nuclear Research 


306 

Mongolia, Outer (People’s 





Rep.) 

97 

0 



Months, Names of 

42 

Oceans & Seas 


67 

Moon 

50 

Ochres 


318 

Morocco 

98 

Oilseeds 


259 

Motor Vehicles — ^Total 


Okha 


363 

Number 

187 

Orissa 


743 

Mountain Passes 

60 

Oscars for 1955 


563 

Museums & Aquaria 

266 

Overseas Shipping 


206 



jnocxviii 


Padma Bibhushan . . 21 

Pakistan 99, 767 

Pak-Indian Affairs : . . 654 

Indus Waters . . 654 

Pak Claim over Chitral 654 
Kashmir Developments 655 
Exodus of Hindus . . 657 
Border Incidents . . 658 

Pakistani Debt to India 659 
Jt. flood Control mea- 
sures . . 659 

Indo-Pakistani Trade 
Pact . . 659 

Panama, Republic of . . 99 

Paper & Paperboards . . 500 

Paraguay . . 99 

Param Vir Chakra . . 21 

Parliament, Indian . . 22 

Parliament, Powers & Pri- 
vileges of . . 143 

Parties, National . . 629 

Pearl Oysters . . 266 

Peer of the British Realm 19 

Pepper . . . . 257 

Peru . . . . 99 

Petroleum . . . . 316 

Petroleum Industry • . 501 

Phillippines . . 99 

Phulkari . . . . 516 

Places of Interest . . 31 

Places, Show, Indian . . 650 

Planets . . . . 50 

Planning Commission . . 643 

Plan Outlay, Distribution of 591 

Plantation Labour Laws . . 383 

Plywood Industry . . 506 

Poland . . . . 100 

Poland & Hungary, events in 711 
Polar Auroras . . 52 

Polar Records . . 63 

Political Abbreviations .. 113 

Political Information . . 106 

Political Parties & Groups 114 
Political Parties, Indian , . 116 

Political Terms . . 118 

Pondicherry 362, 755 

Poppy . . _ - - 256 

Population according to 
Religion 138, 422 

Population Density .. 137 


Population, Estimates of 

Population, World 

Port Trusts 

Ports, Indian 

Ports, Major & Minor 

Portugal 

Portugal’s Disputes with 
India 

Portuguese India 
Postage Stamps since In- 
dependence 

Postal Education ‘ . . 

Postal Expansion 

Postal Landmarks 

Postal Revenue 

Postal Savings 

Postal System 

Posts & Telegraphs 

Pottery 

Poultry 

Power & Irrigation Projects 
Power Development in India 
Power Projects under five- 
year Plan . . 

Power Supply, India’s 
Precedence of Persons . . 
Precious Stones 
Prehistoric Races 
President — ^Indian Union . . 
Press Associations 
Press Commission's Report 
Press Council 
Press, Freedom of the . . 
Press, Indian 
Press Laws 

Press Union, Commonwealth 
Prime Ministers, British . . 
Prime Minister (Indian) 
addresses U.N. General 
^sembly 

Privy Councillors, Indian 
Producers, Leading Indian 
(film) 

Products, National 
Prohibition in India 
Projects, Waterway 
Public Affairs, State in . . 
Publications Division 
Public Services 
Punjab 
Pyrites 


137 

137 

356 

355 

355 

100 

713 

767 

203 

199 

202 

202 

202 

238 

197 

196 

504 

271 

476 

463 

466 

461 

159 

321 

56 

22 

377 

367 

365 

363 

363 

364 
369 
107 


678 

19 

559 

410 

572 

189 

639 

371 

580 

743 

320 



xxxxix 


Quilon . . . . 361 

R 

Race, Meaning of . . 64 

Race, Pure . . . . 54 

Radio Sets, Imports of . . 460 
Radio Receiver Sets, num- 
ber of . . . . 460 

Railway Amenities . . 174 

Railway and the Plan . , 174 

Railway Committee . . 166 

Railway Dates, Important 180 
Railway facts . . 178 

Railway finance . . 166 

Railway Organisations . . 171 
Railway Reserve Funds . . 176 

Ry.^Station Platforms, Lon- 
gest . . . . 67 

Railway Workshops . . 168 

Railway Zones , . 169 

Railways, Administration of 166 
Railways, Electrification of 168 
Railways in India . . 163 

Rajya Sabha . . . . 143 

Rajasthan . . 746 

Ranji Trophy . . 333 

Rank & Precedence . . 1B9 

Rayon Industry . . 501 

Records, World, Notable 350 
Refrigeration . . 263 

Rent, Fixation of . . 577 

Reorganisation of States . . 621 

Research & Training — Road 
Organisations . . 184 

Research Associations (by 
Industries) • • 306 


Resei-ve Bank of India : 

Assets & Liabilities 216 


Banking Dept. ■ ■ 217 

Resei-voirs, World’s 
Greatest . . 69 

Revenue Account ; 233, 239, 240 
Revenue & Expenditure . . 234 

Rice . . . . 254 

River Valley Projects • • 468 
Road Administration . . 181 

Road Fund, Central . . 182 
Road Research Inst., Cen- 
tral . . . . 302 

Roads Congress, Indian . . 183 

Roads in India . . 181 


D 


Road Transport . . 185 

Ropeways . . . . 186 

Rubber 257, 504 

Rumania . . . . 100 

Rupee ; Exchange Value 351 

Rural Credit Survey 
. Committee . . 227 

Russian Loan . . 610 


S 

Saarland 

Sahitya Akadami Award — 
1956 

Salaries — Heads of Govts. 
Salt 

Saltpetre 

Salt Research Inst., Central 
Salvador, El 

Sangit Natak Akadami 
Awards 1966 
San Marino 
Sanskrit Commission 
Santosh Memorial Trophy 
Sargent Scheme 
Satellites 
Saurashtra Ports 
Science, International Con- 
tacts in 

Scientific Documentation 
Centre 

Scientific Progress in India 
Scientific Research Instas. 

& Laboratories ; 

Second Term for Eisen- 
hower 

Security Council — U.N. . . 
Services, All-India 
Sesamum 
Ship Buildings 
Shipowners, Consultive 
Comm, of 

Shipping Control Dept. . . 
Shipping Corporation, Eas- 
tern 

Shipping, Indian 
Shipping Interest, Consul- 
tive Comm, of 
Ships, Largest 
Sikkim 
Silk 

Silk Industry 
Sillimanite 


100 

646 

108 

317 

318 
303 

91 

645 

100 

643 

335 

527 

61 

360 

298 

305 

297 

539 

710 

325 

681 

260 

209 

205 

205 

490 

204 

205 
83 

763 

258 

602 

320 



1 


Silver Eefinery Project .. 
Small Savings 
Snakes, Poisonous 
Soap 

Social Welfare 
Soil Conservation 
Soil of India . . 

Solar System 
Somalis, SeU-Govt. for 
South Africa 

South Africa — ^India & 

Apartheid 
Spain 

Spans of Bridges, Largest 

Speeds 

Spices 

Sports Section 
Sports Goods 

Standard Time, Indian .. 
Stars 

States in India 
Andhra 
Assam 
West Bengal 
Bihar 
Bombay 

Madhya Pradesh 
Madras 
Orissa 
Punjab 

Uttar Pradesh 
Uttar Pradesh 
Rajasthan 

Jammu & Kashmir . . 

Mysore 

Kerala 

Delhi 

Pondicherry 
Hamachal Pradesh . . 
Manipur 
Tripura 

Laccadive, Minicoy & 

,• Amindivi Islands .. 
Andaman & Nicobor 
Islands 
Sikkim 

States, New Indian 
States Judiciary 
States Reorganisation Com- 
mission 

States bordering India . . 
Bhutan 


490 

238 

9 

606 

696 

254 

2 

48 

709 

100 

677 

101 

70 

82 

266 

331 

610 

45 

61 

721 

721 

724 

727 

730 

733 

735 

738 

741 

743 

746 

746 

746 

748 

749 
762 
765 

765 

766 

767 
769 

769 

761 

762 
48 

146 

621 

763 
763 


Nepal 

Tibet 

Portuguese India ! ! 

Pakistan 

States, Status of the ! 

Statistical Research 
Steatite . . [ ^ 

Stock, Distribution of Basic 
— (mankind) 

Stone Age . . . | 

Stones, Birth .. 

Stones & Planetary Actions 
Students in Recognised Ins- 
titutions 

Structures Highest, Indian' 
Structures of the World, 
Famous 

Subhas Bose Committee .. 

Sudan 

Suez Canal : India & Na- 
tionalization of S.C. 

Suez Canal Co. . [ 

Suez Canal users Asson. ! ! 
Sugar 

Sugarcane . , [ 

Sulphur 

Surat 

Survey of India I ‘ 

Swaythling Cup 
Sweden 

Swimming Championship 
Swimming Records . . 
Switzerland 

Syria . . " 

^ . T 

Table Tennis Champion- 
Table Tennis— International 
Tanker Fleet 
Tariff Commission 
Tea 

Technical Assistance 
Telegraph Service 
Telephone Industries 
Telephones 
Telescopes, Notable 
TextDe Industry 
Thailand 
Theories 

Throwing Records 
Tibet 
Time : 


764 

765 
767 
767 
625 
305 
320 

65 

65 

S2 

81 

634 

18 

64 

642 

101 

669 

700 

705 

497 

268 

320 

361 

307 

347 

101 

338 

340 

102 

102 


267, 


347 

209 

668 

606 

605 

199 
491 

200 
67 

494 

102 

77 

344 

765 

43 



li 


Measurement of Time 43 
Different Times 43, 44, 46 
Time, Standard, Indian . . 45 

Titanium . . . • 321 

Tobacco 256, 608 

Tonnage & Number of In- 
dian Vessels . . 210 

Tonnage of Vessels Entered 
& Cleared . . 210 

Tourism in India . . 648 

Tourist Information Offices 372 
Tourist Traffic . . 173 

Towns & Villages in India 417 
Track & Field Eecords 343, 346 
Trade Eepresentatives of 
Overseas Governments . . 793 
Training, Marine . . 208 

Training Institution (Na- 
tional Defence) . . 406 

Transport, Inland Water 187 
Transfer of Tr. Settlements 
in India 


Treasury 

India) 

Trieste 

Tripura 

Tungsten 

Turkey 

Tuticorin 


Bills 


(Govt, of 


U 


Union Executive 
U.S.S.E. 

United Nations ; 

U.N. — Economic & Social 
Council 

U.N. — ^Educational, Scienti- 
fic & Cultural Organisa- 
tion 

U.N.— Flag 


672 

237 

102 

769 

320 

102 

360 


142 

103 

323 

326 


U.N. — ^Food & Agricultural 
Org. . . • • ' 

U.N.— General Assembly . . 
U.N. — ^International Labour 
Org. 

U.N. — ^Members 
U.N. — Organs 
U.N. — Secretariat 
U.N.— Security Council 


328 

324 


328 


U.S.A., Presidents of the 107 
United Kingdom . . 104 

Universal Postal Union 

(U.P.U.) ., 329 

Universities of India . . 636 

University Education Com- 
mission . . . . 627 

University Grants Commis- 
sion . . . . 630 

Uranium — ^Thorium Factory 494 
Uruguay . . . . 104 

Uttar Pradesh , . 745 


Vanadium . . . . 320 

Vanaspati Industry . . 510 

Vanishing Animals . . 289 
Vatican City . . . . 104 

Venezuela . . . . 104 

■Vice-Chancellors . . 636 

Victoria Cross, Indian Win- 
ners of . . . . 20 

Viet-Nam . , 104 

Vishakhapatnam . . 360 

Volcanoes . . 68 

Volleyball Championship . . 338 

W 

Walking Eecords . . 344 

Waterfalls . . 62 

Welfare of Women . . 597 
West Bengal . . 727 

"Wheat . . . . 265 

Whos’ Who . . 796 

Wightman Cup . . 346 

Wild Life . . . . 287 

Wild Life Preservation . . 288 
Wimbledon Tennis Cham- 
pionship . . 346 

Wool & Woollen Textiles . . 503 

World Dimensions . . 67 

World Health Organisation 329 
World Meteorological Orga- 


328 

323 

nisation 

Y 

.. 330 

324 
327 

325 
327 

Year 

Yugoslavia 

Z 

43 

.. 104 

326 

Zinc 


.. 318 

102 

Zircon 

. . 

. . 318 




DEY’S MEDICAL STORES PRIVATE LTD. 

CALCUTTA O BOMBAY • DELHI « MADRAS. 





INDIA AT A GLANCE 

AREA 

India covers an area of 1,2G0,G40 square miles including Jammu 
and Kashmir and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It has a land fron- 
tier of 8,200 miles long and a coast line of 3,500 miles. It is approxi- 
mately thirteen times as large as United Kingdom, eight times the 
size of Japan and a seventh of U.S.S.R. It is the seventh largest 
country in the world. It extends about 2,000 miles from north to south 
and about 1,400 miles from cast to west. Its triangular peninsula 
juts into the Indian Ocean and is bounded on the south-west by tho 
Arabian Sea and on the south-east by the Bay of Bengal. India is 
bordered on tho north-west by West Pakistan and on the north-cast 
by Burma, East Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal and Tibet. 

PHYSICAL DIVISION 

India is divided into three main topographical arcao, 

1. The Himalayan region (Mountain wall), 

2. Tho Indo-Gangotic plains (the Plaine), 

8. The Deccan or Peninsula of the south (Peninsular region). 

The Ilimalagan region extends across tho northern border from 
Kashmir to the Burma frontier. Ilo Himalayas comprise a system 
of slupendou.s fold-mountain ranges, some of them the loftiest in tho 
world : extending in the shape of a scimitar with its edge facing 
southward. This region runs for 2,000 miles from tho eastern extre- 
mity of Assam to the western limits of Kashmir with a breadth 
varying from 180 to 220 miles. South of the mountains arc tho 
Inclo-Gangctio plains. They are about 1,600 miles long, cast to west^ 
and from 150 to 200 miles broad. The plains arc broken by inter- 
mittent low-lying mountain ranges and arc watered by India’s threo 
main rivers — the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Jumna — which 
flow southward from the Himalayas to the _ Bay of Bengal. Tho 
peninsular region is a table land and lies within the tropics. It is 
bounded on the three sides by mountains — on the north by tho 
Vindhya and Satpura ranges, on the west by the Western Ghats, 
on the cast by the Eastern Ghats. Two coastal strips of flat land 
exist on the outer side of both Western and Eastern Ghats — tho 
v/ostern coastal strip is known ns tho Konkan in the north and 
Malabar in the south ; the eastern coastal strip is known ns Coro- 
mondal Coast. 


CLIMATE AND RAINFALL 

One of the chief characteristics of rainfall in India is its unequal 
distribution over tho country. Some Indian States always get 
abundant rain, and some never get more than an inch or two per 
annum, while over large areas the rainfall is uncertain. The averago 



2 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


annual rainfall in India is 42 inches. The areas of certain rainfall 
are West Bengal, Assam, West Malabar Coast, western slopes of the 
Ghats and the upper valley of the Narmada. The zones of uncertain 
rainfall are Uttar Pradesh, Western and Northern Rajasthan, Cen- 
tral Rajasthan bordering on the U. P. and large part of 
Bombay. A tropical monsoon climate prevails in most of the 
country ; changes in the time or nature of the monsoons can 
vitally affect the Indian economy. There are two monsoon seasons. 
The south-west monsoon from June through September is the most 
important. It brings heavy rainfall to most of the country but only 
light showers in the central and eastern parts of the peninsula. 
The monsoon’s direction riverses in November blowing from north- 
east through February. The north-east monsoon provides the 
heaviest rainfall of the year to the south-eastern areas but dry 
weather everywhere. The climate is everywhere dominated by the 
seasonal rhythm of the monsoons and about 85 per cent of the rain 
comes from the south-west monsoon between June and October. 
Rainfall in most parts of India ranges from 30 to 70 inches. 

The temperature in the north ranges from a mean of about 40 
degrees in January to 115 degrees in May. There is a cool winter 
season from November through February, a hot summer period 
from March through June and a humid rainy season from July 
through October. The plains are hot throughout most of the year. 
The temperature of the plateau is also hot and fairly constant, 
although the temperature and humidity are somewhat lower than 
the plains. 

The mean annual temperatures for India’s three major cities 
are : Calcutta, 79 degrees, with a range from 50 to 85 ; and Bombay 
and Madras between 80 and 85 degrees with a normal annual range 
of less than 10 degrees. 

We can divide the country into four zones according to rainfall ; 
(1) TT^et zone, where minimum rainfall is 100 inches. This includes 
West Bengal, Assam and Western coast strips. (2) 'Intermediate 
zone (zone of moderate rainfall); it includes portions of Central 
Ipdia, Himalayas to Godavari river, east-coast of the peninsula and 
eastern side of the Western Ghat and up to Baroda, where rainfall 
is between 40 inches and 80 inches. (3) Dry zone, where rainfall 
is less than 40 inches. (4) Desert zone, where rainfall is less than 
20 inches, t.e., Rajasthan and East Punjab. 

SOIL OF INDIA 

About 35 per cent of the land area is fertile, well-watered and 
under cultivation. 20 to 25 per cent is left fallow or is waste land 
which can be brought under cultivation. Forests cover some 16 per 
cent of the land area. The remainder consists of deserts, semi- 
deserts and mountain ranges. 

Indian soil may be mainly classified under four different heads 
namely, (1) alluvial soil, (2) black soil, (3) red soil and (4) latcrite 
soil. 

The alluvial soil is the most important soil and is formed by the 
silts brought by the rivers every year and deposited on their banhs 



INDIA AT A GLANCE 


3 


It is very fertile and covers greater part of the northern India 
between the foot of the Himalayas and the northern slopes of the 
Vindhyas and extends in a narrow fringe round the coastline of the 
peninsula. Territorially they occupy Punjab, Uttar-Pradesh, Bihar, 
West Bengal, parts of Assam and Orissa and also in the coastal 
regions of Southern India. The whole of the Indo-Gangetic plain is 
comprised in this area. 

Red soils cover the whole of Madras, Mysore and south-east 
Bombay, east of Hyderabad and Madhya Pradesh to Orissa and 
Chota Nagpur. Northwards the red soil extends into greater part 
of Santhal Parganas and the Birbhum district of West Bengal, the 
Mirzapur, Jhansi and Hamirpur districts of the Uttar Pradesh, the 
Baghelkhand States of Central India, the Aravalis and the eastern 
half of Rajasthan. 

Black soil or black cotton soil is formed by the lava of volcanic 
eruptions and is very suitable for cotton cultivation. The black soil 
covers greater part of Bombay and Saurashtra, western part of 
Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Bharat and Hyderabad and some parts of 
Madras State. Black cotton soil is exceedingly compact and tenaci- 
ous and sticky when wet. The water-holding capacity of this soil 
is good. Cotton, jawar, wheat, linseed and gram are cultivated in 
these areas and the soil is" rich in iron and aluminium but very poor 
in organic matter and other plant nutrients. 

Laterite soil is derived by the atmospheric weathering of several 
types of rocks under monsoon conditions of alternating dry and wet 
periods. This soil is found on the summits of the hills of the Deccan, 
Madhya Bharat, Madhya Pradesh and of the Rajmahal and Eastern 
Ghats and certain parts of Orissa, Bombay, Malabar and Assam. 

STATES OF INDIA 

After the re-organisation of States in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the States Re-organisation Act and the Bihar and West 
Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act, 1956, the States of India now 
consist of 14 States and 6 Centrally-administered Territories, such 
as States — (1) Andhra Pradesh, (2) Assam, (3) Bihar, (4) Bombay, 
(5) Jammu & Kashmir, (6) Kerala, (7) Madhya Pradesh, (8) Madras, 
(9) Mysore, (10) Orissa, (11) Punjab, (12) Rajasthan, (13) Uttar 
Pradesh, (14) West Bengal. Centrally-administered Territories — 
(1) Delhi, (2) Himachal Pradesh, (3) Manipur, (4) Tripura, (5) 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, (6) Laccadive Amindevi & Minicoy 
Islands. 


COAST LINE 

India has a coast line of 3,500 miles which gives one mile of 
coast to every 400 square miles of area. 

But coast line of India lacks in indentations ; it has only four 
openings of importance into land, such as Runn of Cutch and Gulf 
of Cambay on west, the Gulf of Mannar between India and Ceylon 
and the head to the Bay of Bengal. The coasts are _ singularly free 
from islands and the sea round the coast of India is very shallow 



4 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


and the shores are usually flat and sandy. The West coast is rocky 
■with mountains close to the sea. East coast is less rocky but the 
sea here is shallow, so that large ships cannot approach the coast. 
Because of these physical features, India possesses few ports and 
harbours in proportion to her coast line. 

LANGUAGES 

According to the census of 1951, the total languages or dialects 
in India are 845 including 720 Indian languages spoken by less than 
a lakh persons each and 63 non-Indian languages. Some 32.4 crore 
or 91 per cent of the population speak one of 14 languages specified 
in the Constitution. This multiplicity of languages need not dismay 
any one, because only 12 are of major importance. Hindi, the 
national language is spoken by the largest number of people. Eng- 
lish is used in Government notices and correspondence and is widely 
understood in Government and business cii'cles. The Constitution 
of India provides that English is to continue to be used for official 
purposes at least until 1965, but eventually Hindi in Devnagri script 
is to become the official language of record. 

RIVEB SYSTEMS 

(1) Rivers of Northem India — ^These Himalayan rivers rise in 
the mountain wall or beyond it. The rivers are fed with waters from 
the gradual melting of snow. They do not depend entirely for their 
waters on the monsoon rains. The Himalayan rivers have a flow 
throughout the year. 

The three greater river systems of northem India are ; — (a) 
Indus river with its five tributaries, i.c., the Jhelnm, the Chenub, the 
Ravi, the Beas and the Sutlej ; (b) The Ganges with a course of fifteen 
hundred miles, drains Himalaya’s southern slopes and with its tribu- 
taries, the Jamuna, the Gogra, the Gondnk, the Chambal and the 
Save, and enters Bay of Bengal through extensive deltas with multi- 
tude of channels ; (c) The Brahmaputra flows down through Tibet, 
Assam and Eastern Bengal and discharges its floods after a course 
of sixteen hundred and eighty miles into Bay of Bengal. 

(2) Rivers of Peninsular India — They are quite different from 
the rivers of the northern India. They rise in the hills of the 
plateau and they are fed only by monsoon rains. The rivers rise 
near Western Ghats, and fio\y towards Bay of Bengal. The most 
important are the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Kistna and the 
Cavery. In the north of the plateau two important rivers, the 
Narbada and the Tapti flow westwards. 

POUTS 

India has very few natural harbours, because it is broken by 
very few inlets of the sea, the sea round the coast is very shallow 
and the shores are usually flat and sandy. Except Bombay. Okha 
and Cochin, all other ports in Western India coast arc virtually in- 
accessible during the monsoon. The eastern coast of India is surf- 



INDIA AT A GLANCE 


5 


bound and has no natural harbour. Calcutta is about 90 miles from 
the sea and the formation of sand banks in the Hooghly has made 
Calcutta a dangerous port. 

Six ‘major’ ports of India are — Calcutta, Visakhapatnam, Madras, 
Cochin, Bombay, Kandla. 

The principal ports of India are Bedi Bunder, Okha, Porbandar, 
Surat, Kandla, Bombay, Marmugao, Mangolore, Calicut, Cochin, 
Aileppey, Quilon, Tuticorin, Dhanushkodi, Negapatam, Karikal, 
Cuddalore, Pondicherry, Madras, Masulipatam, Kakinada, Visakhapat- 
nam, Calcutta. The number of ports notified as open for traffic on 
the whole coast of India under Indian Ports Act 1908 in 226. Practi- 
cally all the India's foreign trade is channelled through one of the 
six main ports which are under Central Government supervision. 

PEOPLE 

According to the 1951 census, India has a population of 
36,68,29,485 of whom only 17.3 per cent live in cities and towns, 
while 82.7 per cent live in villages. The rate of population increase 
is around 1 per cent a year. The life expectancy is only 32 years, 
due in large part to the high death rate among infants. The average 
additional life expectancy of persons aged 20 is about 35 years. 

India has 947 females for every 1,000 males. The number of 
males thus exceeds that of the females in all states except Orissa, 
Manipur, Madras, Travancore-Cochin and Kutch. The average 
density of population in India is 312 per square mile. There are 
3,018 to\vns and 5,58,089 villages in the country. There are 73 
cities in India that have a population of one lakh and over. 

The classification of population according to means of livelihood 
shows that 70 per cent of the people of the country depend on agri- 
culture and 30 per cent live by non-agriculture professions. 'The 
preponderance of agricultural over non-agricultural population pre- 
vails in all the States except Saurashtra, Kutch, Ajmer, Delhi and 
the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

According to 1951 census, there were 5.92 crore literate persons 
proportion of literacy in India is 16.6 per cent, corresponding figures 
in India of whom 4.56 crore were men and 1.36 cr6re women. The 
for the male and female populations being 24.9 and 7.9 per cent 
respectively. Travancore-Cochin has the highest percentage of lite- 
racy i.e. 46.4 per cent. South India has the largest female literacy 
with 13.6 per cent and North India the lowest with 3.6 per cent. 

RELIGION 

The population of India according to religion is as follows — 
Hindus 3,032 lakhs, 85 per cent ; Muslims 354 lakhs, 9.92 per cent ; 
Christians 82 lalihs, 2.30 per cent ; Sikhs 62 lakhs, 1.74 per cent ; 
Jains 16 lakhs, 0.45 per cent ; Buddhist 2 lakhs, 0.06 per cent ; 
Zoroastrians 1 lakh, 0.03 per cent ; other religions (tribal) 17 lakhs, 
0.47 per cent ; other religions (non-tribal) 1 lakh, 0.03 per cent. 
Total 3,567 lakhs. 



6 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


INDIAN RACES 

During the British period the first ofiieial enumeration of the 
people of India was made by Sir Herbert Risley which was an official 
pronouncement accepted very largely both in India and outside India, 
though it is now regarded as arbitrary classification based on in- 
sufficient data and immature science. Indian races were divided into 
seven broad groups, such as Mongoloid, Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, 
Mongolo-Dravidian, Aryo-Dravidian, Scytho-Dravidian and Tiirko- 
Iranian. 

Next classification was made by Dr. J. H. Hutton in 1933 based 
on race-cum-language and culture sequence. According to this theory 
all people came to India from outside, such as — 

(1) Negritos from Africa — the oldest people to have come to 
India now surviving in the Andaman islands and in Malaya. Traces 
of them seem to occur among the Nagas in Assam and in certain 
tribes in South India. 

(2) Proto-Aitstraloids — ^who came from the East Mediterra- 
nean area. 

(3) Early Mediterranians — who brought earlier forms of the 
Austric speech. 

(4) Civilised or Advanced Mediterranean — ^who became Dra- 
■vidians in India. 

(6) Annenoids — a specialised offshoot from the standard 
Alpine stock probably came with the civilised Mediterraneans 
■(Dravidians) and spoke their language. 

(6) Alpines — found in Gujarat and Bengal ; earlier than Vedic 
Aryans but probably speaking Aryan dialects. 

(7) Vedic Aryans or Nordics — who brought the Vedic Aryan 
(Sanskrit! speech. 

(8) Mongoloids — ^Not important for the greater part of India 
as they touched only the northern and eastern fringes. 

The most recent and authoritative classification has been made 
by Dr. B. S. Guha, Director of Anthropology who divides the people 
of India into six main races with nine sub-types. 

(1) Negrito — is now almost extinct in India, a small group is 
still surviving hi Andamans and its traces have been found among 
Kadars and Palayans of Cochin and Travancore Hills, Irurals of 
the Wynad, the Angami Nagas of Assam and some of the Raimahal 
peoples like the Semangs of Malaya and the Papuans of New Guinea, 
Hill tribes of Bihar. They are related to the Asian and Oceanic 
but not to the African Negroes and Negritoes. 

(2) Proto Australoids — are related genetically to the Austra- 
lians as well as the Europeans. They survive in a good many abori- 
ginal peoples of the present day India, although more or less mingled 
with other people. The majority of the tribal peoples of central 
and southern India belongs to this group. Throughout the greater 
part of India, the Proto-Austroloid peoples still live as the lower 
castes or sections of the Indian people. 

(31 The Mongoloid Group — is found in the mountainous zones 
of north and north-east India. This group is divided into (1) Palaeo- 



INDIA AT A GLANCE 


7 


Mongoloids consisting of long headed and broad headed types. They 
form a dominant element in the tribes in Assam and the Indo-Burmese 
frontier and among the less primitive types in Burma and in Chitta- 
gong ; (2) Tibeto-Mongoloids are found in Sikkim and Bhutan. 
Their physical characteristics are short and broad face with high 
•cheek bones, a skin fold from the upper-eyelid covering usually the 
inner eye corner giving the eye a slit and oblique appearance, 
scanty hair on face and body and light brown skin with yellowish 
tint. 

(4) Mediterranean Group consisting of (a) Palaeo-Mediterra- 

nean, medium statured, dark skinned and slight built, found in 
ICannada, Tamil and Malayalam tracts ; (6) Mediterranean, true 

European type found in the Punjab, Upper Gangetic Valley and is 
supposed to represent civilised pre-Aryan Dravidian people of 
Northern India, who contributed largely to the evolution of Hindu 
people and culture of North India ; (c) Oriental Type, sometime 

•called Semitic or Jewish, found in the Punjab, in Sind, in Eajputana, 
in western U.P. and in some other parts of India. 

(5) Weetern Rrachycephnlf! consisting of (a) Alpinoid, (6) 
Uinarik and (c) Armenoid. They seem to have evolved in the 
■Central Asian mountain regions and both Alpine and Dinarik varie- 
ties appear to have spread over the greater part of India, i.e., Bengal, 
•Orissa, Kathiawar, Kannada and Tamil countries, Gujarat, We.st 
■coast of India excepting Malabar. The Parsis of Bombay are allied 
to Armenoids. 

(61 Nordics are the Aryan speaking group of India who are 
responsible for India’s Hindu civilisation and seem to have come 
from the Eurasian stenpe lands and entered India during the second 
half of the second millennium B.C. The Nordic elements are strong 
in North-West Frontier of India, in the south of Hindu-Kush range. 
Nordic elements are present in mixed form in Punjab, Bajputana, 
Upper Ganges Valley. They are also found among higher castes 
and groups and also Nordic type predominates in certain sections in 
India. 

Lastly the author of this classification Dr. B. S. Guha has how- 
ever stated, “It must be clearly understood that no rigid separation 
is possible as there is considerable over-lapping of types.” 

MINERALS 

India is very rich in mineral resources. She is favoured 'with 
•a supply of coal suflicient for its present and future industry. Coal 
reserves are estimated at 20 billion long tons, of which 5 billion are 
•good-quality cooking coal. More than 80 p.c. of India’s coal is prol- 
•duced in the States of Bihar and West Bengal. Other coal mining 
areas _ are JTadhya Pradesh, Orissa, Hyderabad and Assam. Largp 
deposits of lignites have recently Ijeen reported in Madras coastal 
plain. India’s reserves of high grade iron ore are estimated to be 
about 10 billion tons, or 100 years’ supply at the present rate pf 
•consumption. The principal iron ore deposits are in Bihar and 
Orissa and smaller deposits in Madhya Pradesh , Mysore and Madras. 



8 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Regarding ■non-ferrons metals, deposits of mica and manganese 
are large enough not only to meet present domestic requirements 
hut also to enter significantly into the country’s export trade, India 
produces about 75 p.c. of the world’s total supply of mica. Reserves 
of high grade manganese ore are estimated at 10 to 20 million long 
tons and the deposits of low grade ore several times larcer. India’s 
bauxite reserves are estimated at 250 million tons. India also has 
substantial deposits of titanium, kyanite, beryllium, chrome and 
gypsum. Reserves of most other important non-ferrous metals are 
either small or non-existent. India is dependent upon foreign sources 
for copper, zinc, tin, lead, platinum, nickel and mercury. 

Regarding mineral oil, India imports 95 per cent of its petro- 
leum and petroleum products, the remainder being supplied by 
oilfields and a refinery in Assam. New refineries have been started 
in Bombay. 


AGRICULTURE 

Agriculture is the major enterprise of India, providing the liveli- 
hood for about 70 per cent of the population. The total land avail- 
able for cultivation is about 358 million acres. The land available- 
for cultivation per capita of population is 1.06 acres. There is hardly' 
a crop of the tropical, sub-tropical or temperate zone which is not 
grown in the country. Food crops occupy about 85 per cent of the 
total sown area. Rice accounts for about half of India’s cereal out- 
put, the other half is accounted for by a variety of grains including 
wheat, millet and barley. Of the total area under activation about 
17 per cent is irrigated by major and minor works, the rest being 
dependent on rainfall. Agriculture is the largest single industry in- 
India and as an agricultural country she occupies an unique position 
in the world. She is the largest sugarcane producing country in the 
■world. She holds virtual monopoly in lac, follows U.S.A. in cotton, 
ranks vfith China and Africa as one of the leading millet producing 
country and leads ■with China in the production of rice and tea. 

ANIMALS 

Indian climatic _ conditions have naturally developed a great 
variety of animal life and the number of animal species found in 
India is much greater than that in Europe. 

In India, animals are chiefly seen in the valleys of the Hima- 
layas (i.c. Terai Forests) extending from Kashmir to the Brahma- 
putra valley, on the Eastern and Western Ghats and in the jungles 
of Madhya Pradesh and Centra! India. There are several hig game 
•reserve forests in India which now preserve some rare animals of 
'.India. 

^ (1) TTRf? Aviwats — Jion is almost extinct and is now preserved 

■in Gir forest of Kathia'war. Tigers arc found all over India. 
Leopards (hunting leopards). Panthers. Cheetahs are common in the 
hills and plains. Elephants are found in the lower Himalaynn 
•vaUey, the Brahmaputra valley and forests of Nilgiri hills. Dears 



INDIA AT A GLANCE 


9 


are available on the hills everywhere, Deer and antelopes are 
commonly seen in the plains. 

Yaks are only seen in higher Himalayas. Rhinoceros live in 
the swamps of Assam, North Bengal, Nepal. Monkeys, Porcupines, 
Hares, wild Hogs are to be seen everywhere. 

(2) Domestic Animals — goats, sheep, horses, ponies, asses, 
mules, bullocks, buffaloes and available here and there. Camels are 
seen in the desert districts of Rajasthan and East Punjab. 

(3) Birds — Vultures, kites, hawks, wild d^icks, wild geese, pat- 
ridges, pigeong, parrots, cranes, peacocks, snipes and sand grouse 
are available everywhere. Birds in India, as in most hot countries, 
are more famous for their plumage than for their song, 

(4) Reptiles — Crocodiles are seen everywhere. The deadly 
snakes of India are Cobras, Russel’s Vipers, Kerait, Hamadryeds. 

(5) Fish — Most numerous fish are of carp family. The finest 
fish from angler’s point is Masher found in all streams. The richest 
and tasty fish of India is hilsa. Fishing waters, river and sea, of 
Bengal and Madras are among the most extensive in the world. 

LIVESTOCK 


India is one of the largest livestock countries in the world. 
According to the 1951 livestock census, there are 155 million cattle, 
43 rnillion buffaloes and 39 million sheep in the country. India’s 156 
million cattle constitute a fourth of the world’s cattle population. 
The most important cattle-rearing region is the north-west. It is a 
belt extending from Kathiawar through Rajasthan and Punjab to 
Kashmir, 

The chief livestock products are milk, butter, ghee, meat and 
eggs, while a proportion of hides, skins, wool, bones and horns is 
exported. The annual production of milk is 17’7 million tons and per 
capita consumption of milk and milk products has been estimated at 
5-45 oz. a day. 

Among the best cows in India are Sahhoal (Punjab) and_ Gir 
(Saurashtra). The important breeds of bullocks are Hnnsi (Punjab), 
Nellore (Madras), A writ Mahal (Mysore) , Kankraj (Gujarat), 
Kangayam (Madras), Kherigarh (U.P.), Davgi and Nimar (Bombay) 
and Harina (Punjab). Best breeds of buffaloes are Mnrrah (Punjab), 
Jafferbadi (Saurashtra), and McJuisana, Surati and Pandharpuri 
(Bombay). 

FORESTS 


The forests of India cover more than 1/6 of the total area of 
the country. . . r l 

The forest areas are not well-distributed in some of the States, 
specially in the Indo-CIangetic plain where area has ^Ilen to the 
dangerously low feature of 11 p-c. in Punjab, 16 in U.P., and 14 m 
Bihar. . . 

India has been divided into three botanical areas and six pro- 
vinces for the proper study of vegetation of India. The three bota- 
nical areas are (a) Himalayan — represents a nch, tropical tern- 



10 


HINDUSTAN 'yEAE-BOOK 


perate and alpine flora with forests of conifers, oaks, rhododendrons 
and a profusion of orchids, (b) Eastern — consisting of a few conifers, 
many oaks and palms with a greater preponderance of orchids and 
(c) Western which has only one conifer, few palms and very small 
orchids without any oak. 

These three areas are divided into six botanical provinces based 
■on their climate and physical characters, namely (1) Eastern Hima- 
laya, (2) Western Himalaya, (3) Indus plain, (4) Gangetic plain in- 
cluding Sunderbans, (5) Malabar and (6) Deccan — each with its 
peculiar flora. 

The forest vegetation of India is divided into five types accord- 
ing to the variation in climate, altitude and habitat, such as — (1) 
Evergreen, (2) Deciduous, (3) Dry, (4) Hill and (5) Tidal or Littoral. 

The forests in India supply valuable timber, firewood, essential 
oils, resin, turpentine, lac, dyeing material, mjTobalans, sources of 
paper pulp and other materials of commerce and industry. The chief 
forest products of India are — ^teak, sal, deodar, chir, sheesham, many 
species of bamboo, leaves, fruits, fibres, grass, gums, resin, barks, etc, 

FLAG 

National Flag is horizontal tricolour with bands of deep saffron, 
white and dark green in equal proportions. On the centre of the 
white band appears an Asoka Chakra (wheel) which is na\’y blue. 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


Andhra 

Hyderabad 10,85,722 
Vijayavada 1,61,198 
Warangal 1,33,130 
Guntur . . 1,25,255 

Visakhapat- 
nam . . 1,08,042 
Rajahmun- 
dry . . 1,05,276 


Bihar 

Patna . . 2,83,479 
Jamshedpur 2,18,162 
Gaya . . 1,33,700 

Bhagalpur 1,14,530 
Ranchi . . 1,06,849 


Bombay 

Bombay 28,39,270 

Ahmedabad 7,88,333 

Poona . . 4,80,982 

Nagpur 4,49,099 

Sholapur 2,66.050 

Surat .. 2,23,182 

Baroda' .. 2,11.407 

Kolhapur 1,36.835 

Hubli . . 1,29,609 


Madhya Pradesh 

Jabalpur 2,56.998 

Bhopal 1,02,633 


CITIES OF INDIA 


Madras 


Madras _ 

14,16,067 

Madurai 

3,61,781 

Tiruchira- 


palli 

2,18,921 

Salem 

2,02,335 

Coimbatore 

1,97,766 

Kozhikode 

1,58,724 

Mangalore 

1,17.083 

Vellore 

1,06,024 

Tanjore 

1,00,680 

Orissa 

Cuttack 

1,02,505 


Punjab 

Amritsar 3,25,747 

Jullundur 1,68,816 

Ludhiana 1,53,796 

Uttar Pradesh 
Kanpur 7,05,383 

Lucknow 4,96,861 

Agra 3.75,665 

Banaras 3,65,777 

Allahabad 3,32,296 

Meerut 2,33,183 

Bareilly 2.08,083 

Moradabad 1,61,854 

Saharanpur 1,48.435 

Dehra Dun 1,44,216 

Aligarh 1,41,618 

Rampur 1,34,277 

Gorakpur 1,32,436 

Jhansi 1,27,365 


West Bengal 

Calcutta* 33,44,839 

Kharagpur 1,29,636 

M. B. 

Indore 3,10,869 

Gwalior 2,41,571 

Ujjain 1,29,817 

Mysore 

Bangalore 7,78,977 

Mysore 2,44,323 

Kolar Gold 
Fields 1,69,084 

Rajasthan 

Jaipur 2,91, 130- 

Ajmer 1.96.633 

Jodhpur 1,80,717 

Bikaner 1,17, IIS'. 

Saurashtra 
Bhavnagar 1,37,951' 

Rajkot 1,32.069- 

Jamnagur 1,04,419- 

Kerala 

Trivandrum 1,86.931 

Alleppey 1,16,278' 

Delhi 

Old & New 
Delhi 11,91,104 


TEN BIG CITIES OF INDIA 

Calcutta . . 33,44,839 Madras ' . . 14,16,057 

Bombay .. 28,39,270 Delhi .. 11,91,104 


♦including Ho-wrah, Tollyganj, Behala and Garden Reach. 



16 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Hyderabad • • 10,85,722 

Ahmedabad • • 7,88,333 

Bangalore ■ • 7,78,977 


INDIAN 

feet 

Sone Bridge . • 10,052 

Godavari Bridge . . 9,096 

Alahanadi Bridge . . 6,912 

Willingdon Bridge .. 2,610 

Howrah Bridge* (1943) 2,150 

Jubilee Bridge (Naihati) 1,213 
Meghna Bridge . • 1,213 

Dufferin Bridge (Banaras, 

1887) .. .. 3,578 

Curzon Bridge (Allaha- 
bad, 1905) . . . . 3,200 

Tapti Bridge (1872) . . 2,556 

Izat Bridge CAUahabad, 

1912) .. .. 6,830 


Kanpur • • 7,05,383 

Lucknow • . 4,96,861 

Poona • . 4,80,982 


BRIDGES 

feet 

Naini Bridge (1865, 
Allahabad) .. 3,235 

Jumna Bridge (1866, 

Delhi) .. .. 2,640 

Malaviya Bridge (1887, 
Banaras) 

Sutlej Bridge . . 4,210 

Alexandra Bridge 

(Chenab) •• 9,088 

Narbada Bridge (1881) 4,687 

Hooghly Bridge . . 1,213 

Ravi Bridge (Pathankot- 
Jammu) .. .. 2,800 

Ganga Bridge (Mokaineh)t 6,000 


DISTANCES BY RAIL 



Bom- 

Cal- 

Mad- 


Bom- 

Cal- 

Mad- 


bay. cutta. 

ras. 


bay. 

cutta. 

ras. 

Agra 

835 

790 

1239 

Jabaipore . . 

616 

733 

1263 

Ahmedabad 

306 

1328 

1100 

Jodhpur 

1206 

1131 

1580 

Allahabad . . 

845 

512 

1484 

Madras . . 

794 

1032 

— 

Ambala 

984 

1025 

1481 

Lucknow 

885 

616 

1386 

Bangalore . . 

745 

1245 

222 

Madurai 

1099 

1337 

, 305 

Banaras 

928 

429 

1461 

Mathura . . 

868 

823 

1272 

Bombay 

— 

1223 

794 

Nagpur 

520 

703 

682 

Calcutta 

1223 

— 

1032 

Poona 

119 

1342 

675 

Kanpur 

840 

630 

1602 

Ranchi 

1447 

251 

1283 

Darjeeling . . 

1611 

388 

1420 

Saharanpur 

974 

938 

1430 

Dibrugarh . . 

2051 

828 

1860 

Simla 

1301 

1342 

1798 

Gaya 

1057 

292 

1324 

Trichinopoly 

1003 

1241 

209 

Delhi 

845 

902 

1361 

Visakhapat- 




Hyderabad 




nam 

1277 

543 

483 

(Dn.) .. 

491 

987 

373 






♦Largest cantilever span bridge in India and the third largest 
cantilever bridge in the world. 
tUnder construction. 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


17 


NATIONAL PARKS & GAME SANCTUARIES 
Hazaribagh National Park Ramganga National Park, Uttar 
(Bihar). Pradesh. 

Shivapuri National Park (Ma- Kanheri National Park, Kanheri 
dhya Bharat). Valley, Bombay. 

Jaldapara Game Sanctuary (W. Mudumalai Game Sanctuary, 
Bengal) mainly for rhino & Nilgiri, Madras, 
buffalo. Tirap Frontier Tract National 

Wild Life Sanctuary, Garumara Park, Assam. 

(Jalpaiguri, W. Bengal). Praba Buffalo Sanctuary, N. 

Bandipur Game Sanctuary, 48m. Lakhimpur (Assam), 
from Mysore. Orang & Laokhowa Reserves 

Pariyar Wild-life Sanctuary, (Darrang & Nowgong), 
Travancore. Manas Game Sanctuary, Kamrup 

Sonai-Rupa Game Sanctuary, (Assam). 

Darrang (Assam). Khiziranga Game Sanctuary, 

Sibsagar (Assam). 

TEN HIGHEST PEAKS OF HIMALAYAS 


Everest 

Height 

29,015 

Climbed on 
May, 1953 

Expedition 

British 


28,250 

July, 1954 

Italian 

Kanchenjunga 

28,146 

May, 1955 

British 

Lhotse 

27,890 

May, 1956 

Swiss 

Makalu 

27,824 

May, 1955 

French 

Cho Oyu 

26,967 

Oct., 1954 
June, 1950 

Austrian 

Annapurna 

26,926 

26,795 

French 

Dhawalgiri 

Unclimbed 

. • . > 

Mansalu 

26,656 

May, 1956 

Japanese 

Nanga Parvat 

26,029 

July, 1956 

Austrian- 

ATTEMPTS ON EVEREST 

German 


1920 — ^Permission given by Dalai 1938 — Light mobile expedition 

Lama to climb Everest from by Tilman given up for atro- 
Tibetan side cious weather 

1921 — 1st Expedition under Lt. 1951 — Reconnaisance expedition 

Col. Howard Bury, reached by Shipton to discover route 

North Col. for the first time from South Col. from the head 

1922 — Expedition under J. G. of CWM through Nepal 

Bruce 27,300 1952 — Swiss Expedition by Dr. 

1924 — Exp. under Gen. Bruce Wyss Dunant (reached by 

and afterwards Norton* 28,150 Lambert & Tensing) 28,216 

1933 — Expedition under Hugh 1952 — 2nd Swiss Exp. by Che- 

/ Ruttlege 28,150 valley (Post-monsoon) 26,686 

1934— M. Wilson’s lone attempt 1953 — British Exp. by Col. John 

in which he lost his life. John Hunt reaches Everest on 

1935 — Eric Shipton’s reconnais- 29-5-53_ (reached by Tensing 

ance expedition only and Hillary) 29,015, 

1936 — Exp. by Hugh Ruttlege 1956 — Swiss Exp. by Dr. _E. 
given up due to bad weather Eggler reaches Everest twice, 
and monsoon snow 1st. on 23rd May and 2nd. on 

24th May. 


2 



18 


HINDUSTAN YEAB-BOOK 


ATTEMPTS ON KANCHENJDNGA, 28,146 ft 


A. Crowley 
E. P. Parmer 
Paul Bauar 
J. Dyhrenfortli 


1905 Br. Expedition led by Dr. 

1929 Charles Evans reached 

1929 the summit . . 1955 

1930 


CONQUEST OF JIAJOR mSIALAYAN PEAKS 


Trisul by Longstaff 
(1907) . . . . 23,406 

Do. by Oliver & K. 

Singh (1933) 

Do. by Indian Expe- 
dition (1951) 

Jonsong Peak by Prof. 
Dyhrenforth (1930) . . 24,472 

Kabru by IV. W. Graham, 1883 
Annapurna by French 
Expedition, leader M. 

Hertzog (1950) . - 26,926 

Tirich Mir by Nor- 
wegian Expedition 
(1950) .. .. 25,263 

Satopanth by Roch & 

Sutter (1947) -- 23,240 

Ramthang Peak by Prof. 
Dyhrenforth (1930) .. 23,200 

MMcut Parbat by A- E. 
Riddiford (1951) ., 23,760 

Mount Kamct by F. S. 

Smythe (1931) -. 25,447 

Nanda Devi by Tilman 
& Odell (1936) .. 25,645 

Dunagiri bv A. Roch 
(1939) * .. .. 23,772 


Kcdamath bv Roch & 

Sutter (1947) .. 22,772 

Bandar Punch by J. T. 

M. Gibson (1950) .. 20,720 

Panch Chuli Peak by P. 

Nikore (1953) .. 22,650 

Makalu by French Ex- 
pedition led by J. Franco 27,824 
iC (Godwin Austen) by 
Italians (1954) . . 28,250 

Mt. Cho-Ogu in Nepalese 
Himalayas by Austrian 
Expedition (1954) . . 26,967 

Nanga Parvat by Ger- 
man -Aust., E:^. (1953) 26,029 
Mt. Nuninai in Jammu 
& Kashmir by French 
Exp. (1953) .. 23,410 

Mansahi by Japanese 
Expedition (1956) .. 26,456 

Makalu by French Expe- 
dition, (1955) . . 27,824 

Kanchenjunga by British 
Expedition (1955) . . 28,146 

Mt. Lhotsc by Swiss Ex- 
pedition (1956) . . 27,970 


HIGHEST INDLAN STRUCTURES 


•Kutub Minar .. .. 238 Gol Gumbaz (Bijapur) .. 198 

Tower of Victory, Chitore 122 Gopuram of Madurai 
tlnctoria Memorial . . 182 Temple (Largest one) . . 152 

Ochterloney Monument, Cal. 152 Buland Darwaja (Fateh- 
4 minarets of Taj (each) 137 pur Sikri) . . . . 176 

Taj Mahal . . . . 178 Ihijabai Tower (Univer- 

Char Miner (Hyderabad) 186 sity), Bombay .. 260 

Calcutta High Court .. 180 


*379 steps. 

7 from ground level to the base of the victory figure. 



INDIAN INFOKMATION 


19 


OLD & NEW NAMES OP PLACES 


Old Names Neiv Names 

Calicut . . Kozhikode 
Cawnpur . , Kanpur 
Bilsa (Bhopal) Bidisa 
Muttra . . Mathura 
Benares . , Banaras 
United Pro- 
vinces . . Uttar Pradesh 

Central P r o - 
vinces 

Hyderabad & 

Andhra . . Andhra Pradesh 
Travancore- 
Cochin . , Kerala 

Amraoti . . Amaravati 
Cocanada . . Kakinada 
Conjeeveram Kancheepuram 

Ellichpur (M.P.) Achalpur 

Ellore Eluru 

Jubbulpur . . Jabalpur 
Mandi Phul 

(Pepsu) .. Pool (Mandi) 

Masulipatam Bandar 


Old Names New Names 

Mayaveram 

(Madras) . . Mayuram 

Ajmere-Mer- 

v?ara . . Ajmer 

Vdzagapatnam Visakhapatnam 
Trichinopoly Tiruchirapally 

Bezwada . . Bijayawada 

Ganges . . Ganga 

Madura . . Madurai 


Eamnad 

(Madras) . . Eamanathapu- 
ram 

Sadulgarh 

(Rajasthan) Hanumangarh 

Saugor Sagar 

Tinnevelly . . Tirunelveli 
Tiruvadi 

(Madras) . . Tiruvaiyaru 
Mau (Jhansi) Mau Rampur 
Mau (U.P.) .. Maunath 
Bhanjan 


INDIAN FELLOWS OP THE ROYAL SOCIETY 

A. Carsetji. C. V. Raman. H. J. Bhabha. 

S. Ramanujam. Birbal Sahani. S. Chandrasekhar. 

J. C. Bose. K. S. Krishnan. P. C. Mahalanobis. 

Megnad Saha. S. Bhatnagar. 

INDIANS IN THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT 
Sir Muncherjee Bhowanagree Lord Sinha of Raipur (House of 
(Conservative). Lords). 

Dadabhai Naoroji (Liberal). Lord Sinha, Second Baron of 
Sapurji Saklatvala (Communist). Raipur (House of Lords). 

INDIAN PRIVY COUNCILLORS 
Syed Ameer Ali. 1934 — Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru. 

Sir B. C. Mitter. 1934 — ^H. H. The Aga Khan. 

1921 — Y. S. Srinivasa Sastri. 1936 — Sir Akbar Hydari, 

1926— Lord Sinha. 1939 — ^Dr. M. R. Jayakar. 

1930 — Sir D. P. Mulla. 1941 — Sir C. Madhavan Nair. 

1931— Sir Shadilal. 

INDIAN PEER OF THE BRITISH REALM 

Sinha, Aroon Kumar (b. 1887). 

Heir — ^Hon’ble Sudhindra Sinha (b. 1921). 



20 


HIOTUSTAI^ YEAE-BOOK 


XOBEL PRIZE IVINXERS 

1913 — Eabindranatli Tagore, 1930 — Sir G. V. Raman, _ 

{lAteraturc). {Phystcs). 

LENIN PEACE PRIZE 

1952 . . Dr. Safinddin KitcHn 

1953 .. Major-General S. S. Sokhey 

INDIAN WINNERS OF VICTORIA CROSS 
(1) Great War, 1914—1918 

Ishar Singh (NcUi, 28th Punja- Khndadad Khan {Nail;, 129th 
his) Waziristan, 192L Bain.) Great War, 1914. 

TMir Dost {Silbadar, Cote’s Ri- Knlbir Thapa {Rifleman, 23rd 
fles) Great War, 1915. Gor. Rif.) Great War, 1915. 

Shahamad Ehan {Nail:, 89 Pan- Lala {Lancc-Naik, 41st Dogras) 
jahis) Great War, 1916. Great War, 1916. 

Chatta Singh {Sepoy, 9th Bho- Gorind Singh {Lancc-Dafadcr, 
pal Inft.) Great War, 1916. 2Sth Lancers) Great War, 

Darwan Singh Negi {Nail;, 39th 1918. 

Garhmal Rif.) Great War, Badlu Singh {Ressaldar, 14th 
1918. Cavalry) 1918. 

Kamabahador Rana {Nail;, 23rd Gabar Singh Negi {Rifleman, 
Gor. Rif.) Great War, 1918. 39th Garhmal Rif.) Great War, 

1915. 


(2) World War, 1939 — ^1945 


2nd Lt. Premindra Singh Bhagat 
{Indian Engineers) Middle 
East, 1941. 

Subedar Richpal Ram, 6th Rcj- 
putana Rifles {posthumous 
Aivard) Middle East, 194L 

Havildar Prakash Singh, 8th 
Punjab P.egiment, Aiakan, 
1943. 

Havildar-Major Chhelu Ram, 6th 
Rajpntana Rifles {Posthumous) 
Tunisia, 1943. 

Lt. Col. A. E. Camming (12th 
Frontier Force Rifles, Indian 
Army), Malaya, 1942. 

Habildar Jajee Ghale, 5th Royal 
Gorkha Rifles, Chin HBls, 
Burma, 1943. 

Jem. Abdul Hafiz, 9th Jat Regt. 
(Posthumous Avoard) ImphaL 
July, 1944. 


Subedar Lalbahadur Thapa, 2nd 
Gorkha Rifles, Tunisia, 1943. 

Rfn. Bhanbhogta Gumng, 2nd 
Gorkha Rifles, Burma, 1945. 

Rfn. Lacchiman Gurung, Sth 
Gorkha Rifles. 

Lt. Karamjit Singh, 415th Pun- 
jab Regiment (Posthumous), 
Burma. 

Sepoy Namdeo Jadav, 1st Mar- 
hatta Light Infant:^, Italy. 

Sepoy Ali Haidar, 6th Frontier 
Force Rifles, Italy, 1945. 

Major F. G. Blakerj 9th Gorkha 
Rifles. 

Sepoy Kamal Puim, Sth Punjab 
_Eegt., Italy, 1944. 

Naik Nand Singh, 11th Sikh 
Regt., Arakan Front, 1944. 

Rfn. Ganju Lama, 7th Gorkha 
Rifles, Imphal, 1944. 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


21 


Indian Winners of Victoria Cross — {Condd.) 


Naik Agan Singh Rai, 5th Royal 
Gorkha Rifles, Bishenpur, Sil- 
char, 1944. 

Subedar Netra Bahadur Thapa, 
5th Royal Gorkha Rifles {Pos- 
thumous), Bishenpur, 1944. 

Naik Yeshwant Ghadge, 6th 
Mahratta L. I. {Posthumous), 
Italy. 

Efn. Tul Bahadur Pun., 6th Gor- 
kha Rifles, Burma Front, 1944. 

Rfn. Sher Bahadur Thapa, 9th 
Gorkha Rifles {Posthumous), 
Italy, 1944. 

Jem. Ram Sarup Singh, 1st 
Punjab Regt., Burma {Posthu- 
mous). 


Capt. M. Allmand, 6th Gorkha 
Rifles {Posthumous), 

Rfn. Thaman Gurung, 6th Royal 
Gorkha Rifles, Italy {Posthu- 
mous). 

L. Naik Sher Shah, 7/16th Pun- 
jab Regiment, Burma {Posthu- 
mous). 

Naik Gian Singh, 16th Punjabi 
Regiment, Burma. 

Naik Pazal Din, 10th Baluch. 
Regiment, Burma {Posthu- 
mous). 

Hav. Umrao Singh, Royal Indian 
Artillery, Burma, 

Sepoy Bhandari Ram, 10th Ba- 
luch. Regiment, Burma. 


BHARAT RATNA 

{The highest award of the Indian Union for exceptional work 
for the advancement of art, literature and science and in recognition 
of public service of the highest order). 

1954 1955 

G. Rajagopalachari Bhagwan Das 

S. Radhakrishnan M. Visvesvaraya 

C, V. Raman Jawaharlal Nehru 


PADMA VIBHUSHAN 

{The award for exceptional and distinguished service in any 
field, including service rendered by the Government Servants). 


1954 

B. G. Kher 

V. K. Krishna Menon 

Nandalal Bose 

S. N. Bose 

Zakir Husain 


1955 

B. K. Karve 
J. R. D. Tata 

1956 

Fazl Ali. 

Sm. Jankibai Bazaz. 
G. M. Trivedi. 


WINNERS OF PARAM VIR CHAKRA 
{Republican India’s highest decoration for gallantry) 

Major Somnath Sharma, 4th Bn. 2]Lt. Rama Raghoba Rane, Corps 
Kumaon Regt. {Postliumo^is). of Engineers. 

LINK Karara Singh, 1st Bn. Sikh Com. Hav-major Piru Singh, 
Regiment. Rajputana Rifles, 1963. 



22 


HINDUSTAN YE3AR-B00K 


GOVERNOR-GENERALS OF INDIAN UNION 
Lord Louis Mountbatten 1947-48 C. Rajagopalacbari 1948-49 

PRESIDENT, INDIAN UNION 
Dr. Eajendra Prasad 1950 

INDIAN PARLIAMENT 

Lofe Sahha : Speakers — G. V. Mavlankar 1952-56. 

— Anantasayanam Iyengar 1956 — 

Rajya Sahha ; President — ^Dr. S. Radhakrishnan 1952 — 

SPEAKER, CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF INDIA 
Dr. Rajendra Prasad, 1947 — 1949. 

INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS PRESIDENTS 
(First Session, 1885) 

1885 — ^Bombay — ^W, C. EoimeriL 1907 — Surat — 

1886 — Calcutta — D. Naoroji. Rash Behari Ghose. 

1887 — ^Madras — ^B. Tyabji. 1908 — Madras — 

1888 — Allahabad — George Yule. Rash Behari Ghose. 

1889 — ^Bombay — 1909 — Lahore — 

Sir W. Wedderbum. Pt. M. M. Malaviya. 

1890 — Calcutta — Sir P. Mehta. 1910 — Allahabad — 

1891 — Nagpur — Sir W. Wedderbum. 

P. Ananda Charlu. 1911 — Calcutta — 

1892 — ^Allahabad — Bishen N. Dar. 

W. C. Bonnerji. 1912 — ^Patna — 

1893 — Lahore — D. Naoroji. R. N. Mudholkar. 

1894 — ^Madras — Alfred Webb. 1913 — Karachi — 

1896 — ^Poona — S. N. Banerji. Nawab Saiyed Muhammad. 

1896 — Calcutta — ^R. M. SayanL 1914 — Madras — B. N. Bose. 

1897 — Amraoti — _ 1915 — Bombay — Sir S. P. Sinha. 

C. Sankaran Nair. 1916 — Lucknow — A. C. Majumdar 

1898 — ^ladras — ^A. M. Bose. 1917 — Calcutta — Annie Besant. 

1899— Lucknow — ^R. C. Dutt. 1918 — Bombay (Spl.) — ^Hasau 

1900 — ^Lahore — Imam. 

N. G. Chandravarkar. 1918 — Delhi — ^Pt. M. M. Malaviya 

1901 — Calcutta — ^D. E. Wacha. 1919 — Amritsar — Pandit Motilal 

1902 — ^Ahmedabad — Nehru. 

S. N. Banerji. 1920 — Calcutta (Spl.) — Lala Laj- 

1903 — JIadras — Lalmohan Ghose. pat Rai. 

1904 — ^Bombay — 1920 — Nagpur — C. Vijayaragha- 

Sir Henry Cotton. vachariar. 

1905 — ^Benares — G. K. Gokhale. 1921 — Ahmedabad — Hakim Ajmal 

1906 — Calcutta — Khan. 

Dadabhai Naoroji. 1922 — Gaya — C. R, Das. 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


23 


Indian National Congress Presidents — (Concld.) 


1923— Delhi (Spl.)— Abul Kalam 
Azad. 

1923 — Cocanada — Mahomed Ali. 

1924 — Belgaum — ^M. K. Gandhi. 

1925 — Cawnpore — Sarojini Naidu. 

1926 — Gauhati — Srinivasa Iyen- 
gar. 

1927 — Madras — Dr. M. A. Ansari. 

1928 — Calcutta — ^Pt. Motilal 

Nehru. 

1929 — ^Lahore — J. L. Nehru. 

1931 — Karachi — Sardar V. Patel. 

1932 — Delhi — Seth Ranchhodlal. 

1933 — Calcutta — Mrs. Nellie Sen 
Gupta. 

1934 — Bombay — Rajendra Prasad. 

1936 — ^Lucknow— J. L. Nehru. 


1937 — Paizpur — J. L. Nehru. 

1938 — Tripuri — Subhas Bose. 

1940 — Ramgarh — A. K. Azad. 

1946 — J. L. Nehru. 

1946 — Meerut — J. B. Kripalani 

1947 — Dr. Rajendra Prasad. 

1948 — Jaipur — Dr. P. Sitaramiyya. 

1950 — Nasik — P. D. Tandon (re- 
signed). 

1951 — Meerut— J. L. Nehru. 

1952 — Hyderabad — J. L. Nehru. 
1963 — Kalyani — J. L. Nehru. 

1955- 56— Avadi (60)— 

U. N. Dhebar. 

1956 — Amritsar (61st) — U. N. 
Dhebar. 


INDIAN CHRONOLOGY 


B.C. 

3000 — Hindus Valley civilisation. 

2900 to 1500 — ^Period of Vedic 
civilisation. 

663-483 — Birth and death of 
Buddha. 

640-468 — Traditional dates of 
b i rt h and death of 
Mahavira. 

377 — B u d d h i s t Council at 
Baisali. 

326 — Alexander’s Invasion of 
India. 

324 — Rise of Maurya dynasty. 

305 — Seleucus Nicator defeated 
by Chandra Gupta 
Maurya. 

273-232 — ^Reign of Asoka. 

269 — M issionaries sent to 
foreign lands by Asoka. 

68 — Beginning of Vikrama era. 

A.D. 

78 — ^Accession of Kanishka. 

320-500 — Gupta dynasty ; 

Golden Age of Indian art, 
science and literature. 

320 — ^Accession of Samudra 

Gupta. 

380-416 — Reign of Chandragupta 
II (Vikramaditya). 


A.D. 

405-11 — ^Fa Hien travels in 
Gupta Empire. 

450-457 — ^Hun invasions. 

480-90 — Break up of Gupta 
Empire. 

606-647 — Reign of H a r s a - 

vardhan, Idng of N. India. 

629-645 — Hiuen Tsang’s travels 
in India. 

711 — Arab conquest of Sind by 
Mohammed-bin-Qasim. 

731 — Yasovarman’s embassy to 
China. 

735 — ^First Parsi settlement in 
India. 

760 — Gopala elected king of 
Banga-gauda (Bengal). 

1000-1026 — Muslim invasions of 
India by Mahmud of 
Ghazni. 

1050 — Atisa Dipankara sent on 
Buddhist mission to Tibet. 

1192 — Defeat and death of Rri- 
thviraj, the last Rajput 
King of Delhi. 

1190-1290 — Establishment o f 

Muslim rule in North 
India ; Reign of Slave 
Kings. 



24 


HINDUSTAN YBAE-BOOK 


Indian Chronology — (Contd,) 

1228 — Conquest of Assam by 1668 — ^Pirst French Factory at 
the Ahoms. Surat. _ _ 


1231-32 — ^The Kutub Minar. 

1236 — Death of Htutmish — ^Ac- 
cession of Eaziyya. 

1236 — ^Foundation of Vijayana- 
gar Kingdom. 

1320-1414 — ^Tughlak Sultans of 
Delhi. 

1334-1342 — ^Iban Batuta in India. 

1347 — ^Foundation of Bahmani 
Kingdom of Deccan. 

1398 — ^Invasion of Timur. 

1451-1526 — ^Lodi Sultans of 
Delhi. 

1469 — Birth of Guru Nanak. 

1486-1533 — Chaitanya, Saint of 
Bengal. 

1494 — Foundation of Agra by 
Sikandar Lodi. 

1498 — Vasco da Gama reaches 
Calicut. 

1510 — ^Portuguese capture Goa. 

1526 — ^Establishment of Mughal 
Empire by Babar. 

1538-1545 — Reign of Sher Shah. 

1565 — Battle of Talikota — over- 
throTT of the Vijayanagar 
Kingdom. 

1556-1605 — Reign of Akbar. 

1564— Abolition of Jizya. 

1571 — ^Fatehpur Sikri founded- 

1586 — ^Annexation of Kashmir 
by Akbar. 

1597 — Death of Eana Pratap. 

1600 — East India Company foun- 
ded under Royal Charter. 

1605 — Death of Akbar. 

1612 — First English Factory at 
Surat. 

1627-1657 — Reign of Shah Jahan. 

1627 — Birth of Sivaji. 

1634 — Firman permitting the 
English to trade in 
Bengal. 

1658 — Coronation of Aurangzeb. 

1666 — Sivaji’s rdsit to Aurang- 
zeb’s court and his impris- 
ment and escape. 


167o — Execution of „ 

dur, 10th Gum of the- 
Sikhs. 

1680 — Death of Sivaji. 

1686-87 — ^Fall of the Kingdoms 
of Bijapur & Golconda. 

1698 — The English obtain Zamin- 
dari of the three villages 
of Sutanati, Kalikata and' 
Gobindapur — ^nucleus of 

Calcutta. 

1707 — ^Death of Aurangzeb. 

1734 — ^Nadir Shah sacks Delhi. 
1757 — ^Battle of Plassey. 

1761 — ^Third battle of Panipat. 
1765 — Grant of Dewani of Ben- 
gal, Bihar and Orissa to 
E. I. Co. 

1770 — ^Famine of Bengal. 

1774- 95 — ^Warren Hastings — Go- 

vernor General of India. 

1775 — ^Execution of Nand Kumar, 
1780 — ^Ranjit Singh establishes a 

Sikh Empire. 

1784 — Pitt’s India Bill passed by 
Br. Parliament. 

1790 — ^Third Mysore War. 

1793 — ^Permanent settlement of 
Bengal. 

1799 — Death of Tipu Sultan. 

Partition of Mysore. 

1829 — Brahmo Samaj founded by 
Raja Rammohan Roy. 
1829 — ^Prohibition of SatL 
1833 — ^Death of Raja Rammohan 
Roy. 

1935 — ^Introduction of English as 
medium of instmction. 
1839 — Death of Ranjit Singh. 
1839-42 — Anglo-Afgan War. 

1853 — Opening of Railvrays and 
Telegraph. 

1854 — ^Wood’s Despatch on Edu- 
cation. 

1856 — Annexation of Oudh. 

1857 — Indian Mutiny. 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


25 - 


Indian Chronology — (Concld.) 


1858 — Transfer of India from 
Company to the Crown. 

1869 — Birth of Mahatma Gandhi. 

1874 — Great Famine of Bengal 

1875 — Arya Samaj founded by 
Dayananda Saraswati 

1885 — First Meeting of the In- 
dian National Congress. 

1905 — Partition of Bengal. 

1906 — ^Foundation of the Muslim 
League. 

1911 — Partition of Bengal re- 
voked. 

1914 — Gandhi returns to India 
from South Africa. 

1919 — Montagu-Chelmsford Re- 
fer m s ; Jalianwalabag. 
massacre at Amritsar 
(13th April). 

1920 — Non-Co-operation move- 
ment in India started. 

1925 — Death of C. R. Das. 

1930- 34 — C. D. Movement — 1st 

session of the Round Table 
Conference. 

1931 — Gandhi-Irwin Pact. 

1935 — Government of India Act 
1935, 


1937 — Inauguration of Provin- 
cial Autonomy. Congress 
Ministries in majority of 
Provinces. 

1942 — Cripps Mission — Quit In- 
dia Movement. 

1943 — Bengal Famine. 

1946 — Cabinet Mission’s Plan — 
Interim Government with 
Jawaharlal Nehru as 
Prime Minister. 

1947 — Partition of India — India 

becomes independent — 

Kashmir attacked by 
Pakistan. 

1948 — Martyrdom of Mahatma 
Gandhi (Jan, 30). 

India appeals to U.N. to- 
stop aggression by Pakis- 
tan in Kashmir (Jan. 2). 

1949 — India’s new Constitution 
passed into law. 

1950 — India becomes Rfepublic 
(26th Jan,), 

1961 — First Five Year Plan 
launched. 

1951 — ^First general election in 
independent India. 

1954 — ^French Settlements in 
India merged to India. 


NOTABLE INDIANS 


Bal Gangadhar Tilak 
A. M. Bose 
Sir K. Seshadri Iyer 
M. G. Ranade, Social Reformer, 
Scholar and Jurists 
Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar 
Sir J. N. Tata 
Devendranath Tagore 
W, C. Bonerjee, 1st Cong. President 
P. Ananda Charlu 
Sir V. Bashyam Iyengar 
Lalmohan Ghose, Congress 
President 

R. C. Dutt, Congress President _. . 
Girish Chandra Ghosh, Dramatist 


Bom 


Died 

1856 


1920 

1847 


1906 

1845 


1901 

1842 

(18 Jan.) 

1904 

1833 

1904 

1839 


1904 

1817 


1905 

1844 


1906 

1842 


1908 



1908 

1849 


1909 

1848 

(13 Aug.) 

1909 

1843 

1911 


(19 Julyk 


(30 Nov.)> 



26 


HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


G. K. Gokliale, statesman, founder 
of Servants of India Society .. 

1866 

1915 

Sir Pherozeshah Melita 


1845 

1915 

S. Ramanujam, Mathematician 


• • 

1920 

Sir Eashbehari Ghose 


1845 

1921 

Ainbica C. Majumdar, Congress 
President 

1851 

1922 

Aswini Kumar Dutta 


1856 

1923 

Sir N. G. Chaudavarkar 


1855 

1923 

Sir Asutosh Mukherjee 


1864 (29 June) 

1924 (25 May) 

•C. R. Das 


1870 (5 Nov.) 

1925 (16 June) 

Sir S. N. Banerjee 


1848 

1925 

Sir R. G. Bhandarkar 


1873 

1925 

Lala Lajpat Rai, Indian Patriot 


1865 

1928 

Lord Sinha of Raipur 


1863 

1928 

Syed Ameer Ali 

^ * 

1849 

1929 

Tt. Matilal Nehru 

, , 

1861 (6 May) 

1931 (6 Feb.) 

J. M. Sen Gupta 


1885 

1933 (23 July) 

Sir Ali Imam 


1869 

1932 

V. J. Patel 



1933 

Sir Sankaran Nair 


^ , 

1933 

Dr. M. A. Ansari 


1880 

1936 

Sir R. N. Mookerjee 


1854 

1936 

Sir J. C, Bose 


1858 (30 Nov.) 

1937 (23 Nov.) 

Sarat Chandra Chatterjee 


1867 (15 Sept.) 

1938 (16 Jan.) 

Sir Muhammad Iqbal 


1877 

1938 

Sir Brojendranath Seal 

* , 

1864 

1938 

l^bindranath Tagore 

, , 

1861 (7 May) 

1941 (7 Aug.) 

Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru 


1875 

1948 

3Iahatma Gandhi 

« . 

1869 (2 Oct.) 

1948 (30 Jan.) 

Sarojini Naidu 


1879 (13 Feb.) 

1949 (1 March) 

Sri Aurobindo 


1872 (15 Aug.) 

1950 (5 Dec.) 

Sardar V. Patel 


1875 

1950 (15 Dec.) 

Kristodas Pal, Politicion 

. , 

1834 

1884 

Keshab Ch. Sen, Religious 
reformer 

1838 

1884 

Syed Ahmed Khan 


1817 

1898 

Bipin Chandra Pal 


1855 

1932 

Dr. Shyama P. Mukerjee 


1901 

1953 (23 June)' 

Srinivasa Sastri 


1869 

1946 

Dadabhai Naoroji 


1825 

1917 

Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar 


1820 (26 Sept.) 

1891 (29 July) 

Raja Rammohan Roy 


1774 

1833 

Eamkrishna Paramhamsa 


1834 (20 Feb.) 

1886 (16 Aug.) 

“Dayanand Saraswati 


1824 

1883 

Bankim Ch. Chatterjee, Bengali 
novelist 
•Guru Nanak 

1838 (26 June) 
1460 

1894 (8 April) 
1531 

Eashbehari Bose, Famous Rcvolu- 
tioncst 

1870 

1944 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


27 


Notable Indians — {Concld.) 


Swami Vivekananda 
Michael Madhusudhan Dutt 
Taru_ Dutt, Indian Poetess 
Abanindranatb Tagore 
Sister Nevedita 
Pandit M. M. Malaviya 
Rajendralal Mitra, Historian 
Subbas Chandra Bose 
Surendranath Banerjee 
Ravi Varma, Famous Artist 


1862 (12 Jan.) 
1824 (25 Jan.) 
1856 
1871 

1867 (26 Oct.) 
1861 (26 Dec.) 
1842 (15 Feb.) 
1897 (23 Jan.) 
1848 (10 Nov.) 
1848 (29 April 


1902 (2 July) 
1873 (29 June) 
1877 
1951 

1911 (13 Oct.) 
1946 (12 Nov.) 
1891 (26 July) 
1945 (23 Aug.) 
1925 (6 Aug.) 
1906 (Sept.) 


FIRST IN INDIA 


Largest Lake — W u 1 a r Lake, 
Kashmir. 

Highest Peak — Nanda Devi 
(25,645 feet). 

Largest populated City — Cal- 
cutta (29,82,307) ; including 
Howrah 33,44,839. 

Highest Waterfall — Gersoppa 
Waterfall, Mysore (960 ft. 
high). 

Largest State — Bombay, 

Highest rainfall — Cherrapunji, 
426 in. average yearly. 

Largest Forest Pr ovine e — 
Assam. 

Largest Delta — S undarbans 
Delta (8,000 sq. miles). 

Longest Cantilever Span Bridge 
— ^Howrah Bridge. 

Largest Cave Temple — ^Ellora, 
Hyderabad. 

Longest Corridor — Rameswaram 
Temple Corridor (4,000 ft. 
long). 

Largest Mosque — Jumma Mas- 
jid, Delhi. 

Longest Bridge — Sone Bridge 
(10,052 ft. long). 

Highest Dam — B a k h r a Dam 
(680 ft. High). 


Largest Sugar-cane producing 
area — Uttar Pradesh. 

Most literate parts of India — 
Travancore-Cochin. 

Longest electric train Service — 
Bombay to Poona. 

Highest Gateway — Buland Dar- 
waja (Fatehpur Sikri, 176 ft. 
high). 

Tallest Statue — Statue of Goma- 
teswar (Mysore), 67 ft. high. 

Longest Platform — S o n e p u r 
Platform (2,415 feet). 

Longest Roaif— Grand Trunk Rd. 
(1,600 miles). 

Highest Tower — ^Kutub Minar, 
Delhi. 

Largest Dome — Gol Gambuz, 

Bijapur. 

Largest Fair of Animals — Sone- 
pur fair. 

Biggest Zoo — Zoological Gardens, 
Alipur, Calcutta. 

Largest Museum — Indian Muse- 
um, Calcutta. 

Most Populated State — Uttar 
Pradesh. 

Most-thickly popidated State — 
Delhi. 


FIRST BEGINNINGS IN INDIA 
1825 — ^First issue of postal stamp cutta and Diamond Harbour, 
in India in Sind. October. 

1851 — ^First official telegraph line 1853 — ^First Indian Railway was 
opened for traflric between Cal- run between Bombay and Kal- 

yan, 16th April. 



28 


HINDUSTAN TEAB-BOOK 


First Beginnings In India — {Concld.) 

1954 — ^First postage stamp on aU 1925 — First electric train in 
India basis issued on 1st Oct. India ran between Bombay 
1S97-9S — First electric plant in- and Kurla. 

stalled at Darjeeling. 1929 — First issue of air-maii 

1911 — ^First air-maQ in India and stamp in India and the world, 
the world from Bamrauli to 
Naini (Allahabad) 6 miles. 


FIRST AMONG INDIANS 


Indian Governor — Lord Sinha of 
Raipur. 

F.R.S. — A. CarsetjL 

Congress President — W. C. Bon- 
nerjee. 

Nobel Prize vsinner — Rabindra- 
nath Tagore. 

I.C.S . — Satyendranath Tagore, 

Bar-at-Law — J. M. Tagore. 

Judge, High Court — Eamaprosad 
Roy. 

Member, Viceroy's Executive 
Council — Sir S. P. Sinha. 

Member of the India Council — 
Sir Z. G. Gupta. 

Peer of the Br. Realm — Lord 
Sinha. 

TTra7j(7ler of the Cambridge Uni- 
versity — ^A. M. Bose. 

1st IVoman President of U.N . — 
Vijayalakshmi Pandit. 

1st troman Minister of the Le- 
gislative Assembly — ^Mrs. Yi- 
jayalahshmi Pandit, Minister 
of U.P. 


IF Oman Gov cr no r — Sarojini 
Naidu. 

Woman President of the Con- 
gress — Mrs. Sarojini Naidu. 

1st in I.C.S. Exam . — Sir Atul 
Chatterjee. 

Member of the Br. Parliament 
— Dadabhai Naoroji. 

Winner of the Victoria Cross-^ 
Khudadad Khan. 

Member of the Privy Council — 
Syed Ameer Ali. 

il/cni6er of the House of Lords— 
Lord Sinha. 

Commanderrin-C hie f — General 
Cariappa. 

I.M.S. — Dr. Goodeve Chuckra- 
rarti. 

Woman MAl . — Chandramuhhi 
Bose. 

Test cricket player — K. S. Ean- 
jitsingji. 

1st Woman Barrister — ^Mrs. Cor- 
nelia Sorabji. 

Advocate-general — Sir V. Ba- 

shyam Iyengar. 


hill stations 

Ahnora— in _Kumaun_HilIs. Altitude 5,500 ft. above sea level 
Mean annual rainfall 4o-oo inches ; fine views of snow. From Al- 
mora some of the highest praks of the western Himalayas c“n be 
seen a^inst the homon. The main attraction for liickers is the 

num and IS c^^ort cen^e for the famous Himalavan fniite' 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


29 


Bangalore — ^The cantonment is the largest in South India. 
Bangalore has big industries, large parks and fine public buildings. 
Altitude 3,000 ft. above sea level. 

Coonoor — on the NUgiri Hills in the Madras State : Altitude 
fi,0p0 ft. above sea level. Nearest railway station is Coonoor. 
It is reached from Ootacamund by rail. 

Chakrata (6,900 ft.) is 21 miles from Mussoorie on the hill-road 
to Simla. It is surrounded by huge forests and lovely walks. 

Cherrapunji — ^is 30 miles south of Shillong and receives more 
rainfall than any other place in the world, the annual average being 
426 inches. The nearest railway station is Pandu ; altitude 4,455 ft. 

Nainital — is a hill sanatorium in Kumaun HUls, picturesquely 
situated on the shores of a beautiful lake. This lake has a super- 
ficial area of about 120-5 acres and a mile in diameter. A favourite 
summer resort. Altitude 6,350 ft. It is an hour and a half’s dis- 
tance by bus from Kathgodam railroad on the N. E. Rly. 

Mussoorie — ^is a hill sanatorium, on the southern slopes of the 
Himalayas, 14 miles from Dehra Dun overlooking the beautiful Doon 
Valley. It is 168 miles from Delhi by good motor road from Dehra 
Dun to Mussoorie by motor cars. Altitude 6,600 ft. above sea level. 
Nearest railway station is Dehra Dun. 

Lansdoione — is situated in Garhwal about half way between 
Mussoorie and Nainital. It commands a wonderful view of snows, 
the Badrinath block being nearest. It is reached by Northern Ry. to 
Kotdwara via Najibabad junction and there is good service of motor 
cars, a distance of 26 miles; altitude 6,060 feet. 

Mukteshwar — A beauty spot in the Kumaun Hills. It offers a 
remarkable view of the surrounding valleys and the mountain gradu- 
ally rising up to their snowcapped glory. The Government of India 
Veterinary Research Institute is located here, 
further west. 

Mount Abu — is reached by a good motor road from Abu Road 
railway station. The range is about 50 miles in circumference. 
The climate is very healthy and delightfully cool. The average tem- 
perature is 60°. Altitude 4,500 ft. above sea level. It is a place 
of pilgrimage for Jains, for here are celebrated Dilwara temples 
containing some of the finest specimens of Jain carving in India, 
whilst the temples themselves are prominent alike for their beauty 
and as typical examples of Jain architecture. 

Pindari Glacier — ^is famous all over the world. It is five days 
march from the motor head at Almora. Situated at the heart of 
the Himalayas, the Pindari Glacier is more magnificent than Jang 
Frau of Switzerland. 

Guhnarg — ^is at a distance of 30 miles from Srinagar, and is 
one of the finest pleasure resorts of Kashmir, popular for skiing, 
trekking and other winter sports. 

Dalhousie — Altitude 7,867 ft. above sea level and 52 miles from 
Pathankot railway station reached by motor road. It consists of 
Fine distinct hills. The Tehra Mall with a level circuit of 15 miles 
surrounding the central hillock is a favourite with the visitors. 

Darjeeling — Altitude, 7,168 ft. above sea level, magnificent snow 



30 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


views of Mount Everest (29,002 ft.) and Kanchenjunga^ (28,104 fQ, 
The minimum temperature in winter is about 30°. It is the centre 
of a large tea district. It is 369 miles from Calcutta. 

Kotagiri — ^is 18 miles from Ooty with an altitude of 6,500 ft. 

Kalivvpong — Hill station near Darjeeling. It is also reached 
from SUiguri by motor (41 miles). 4,000 ft. high. 

Eodaikanal—A hill station in Southern India on the upper range 
of the Pulney Hills in the Madurai district. It is 7,000 ft. above the 
sea level. The nearest railway station is Kodaikanal Road, 

Kasauli — ^A cantonment and convalescent depot in the Simla 
district situated on the crest of a hill overlooking Kalka Valley, 22 
itiilcs from Kalka by motor road. Famous for Pasteur Institute, 
altitude 6,200 ft. 

Kulu & Kangra Valleys — ^lie at the foot of the Dhaula Dhar 
Range of the Himalayas. Kangra, Jogindemagar, Chamba, Dharm- 
sala, Dalhousie and Kulu are some of the chief holiday resorts. 
Ktdu and Kangra valleys are known for their orchards and tea 
plantations. The valley is about 4,700 ft. high. The main route is 
ma Pathankot. Pathankot to Kulu is a distance of 175 miles by 
motor. The valley is called the Valley of the Gods due to every 
village having its own God. 

Ootacaviund — is the leading lull station of South India, situated 
in the heart of Nilgiris. Altitude 7,220 ft. above sea level. Mean 
annual day temperature is 57-50°F. The place is reached from 
Madras by Blue Mountain Express upto Mettupalayam from where 
a hill railway conveys to Ooty over a distance of 30 miles. 

Mahabaleswar — ^Principal hUl station of the Bombay Presidency 
and summer retreat of the Bombay Government. Altitude 4,500 ft. 
above sea level. Nearest railway station is Poona, 75 miles. 

Matheran — Nearest hUl station of Bombay. It is only 2,650 ft. 
high. 

Pachmarhi — in Hosangabad, Madhya Pradesh, is 32 miles from 
Pipariya Station on Central Ry. The place is only two hours distant 
by excellent motor road from the railway station of Pipariya. Pach- 
marhi rise 3,500 ft. above sea level. Pachmarhi derives its name 
from the “Panch marhi” or ‘five huts’ — actually five caves on a 
little hillock. Hindu tradition ascribes them to be the five Pandava 
brothers who were supposed to have rested there in’ the course of 
their wanderings. But probably the caves were constructed in 
earlier Buddhist times. 


Ranikhct — is about 40 miles from Nainital and 50 miles from the 
railway teiminus of Kathgodam. It is 6,100 ft. high. Set amidst 
pine-clad hills, it is more or less a veritable garden town and com- 
mands an excellent view of the snows. Its greatest attraction is the 
wonderful view it commands of the Central Himalavan range extend- 
ing from Nepal to the snowy heights of Badrinath and Tehri Garhwal 
Raiiclii— Altitude 2,100 ft. above sea level. Mean annual day 
temperature is 74-9 F. Nearest railway station is Ranchi. 

Shillong— IS on the Khasi and Jaintia Hills. It is the head- 
quarters of the Assam Government. Altitude 4,980 ft. above sea level. 
Average temperature in midsummer rarely reaches 80'’F. Cherra- 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


31 


punji, 30 miles south of Shillong holds the world record for rainfall, 
average 426 inches per annum (in 1861 the rainfall at Cherrapunji 
was 905 inches). Nearest railway station is Pandu (68 miles). 

Simla — is perched on the spurs of the lower Himalayas at a 
height of 7,000 feet. It is reached by mountain railway connecting 
Kalka and Simla. Mean temperature is 55°F, and annual rainfall 
is 70". It is now the capital of Himachal Pradesh. 

Elevations of Leading Health or Pleasure Resorts 


feet feet 

Nainital (XJ.P.) . . 6,350 Ootacamund (Madras) 7,220 

Mussoorie (U.P.) . . 6,600 Mahabaleswar (Bom.) 4,500 

Mount Abu (Rajasthan) 4,500 Amamath (Kashmir) 13,000 

Almora (U.P.) .. 6,600 Kasauli (Simla) .. 6,200 

Darjeeling (W. Bengal) 7,168 Metheran (Bom.) , . 2,650 

Kalimpong (W. Bengal) 4,000 Pachmarhi (M.P.) . . 3,500 

Bangalore (Mysore) . . 3,000 Shillong (Assam) . . 4,980 

Coonoor (Madras) . . 6,000 Simla (Punjab) . . 7,000 

Dalhousie (Punjab) . . 7,060 Srinagar (Kashmir) , . 5,260 

Lansdowne (U.P.) . . 6,060 Ranchi (Bihar) . . • 2,100 

Kodaikanal (Madras) 7,000 Cherrapunji (Assam) , . 4,465 

Kotagiri (Madras) , . 6,600 Gulmarg (Kashmir) . . 8,700 


PLACES OF INTEREST IN INDIA 

Agra — ^Famous for Taj Mahal and Agra Fort which contain all 
the glories of Mughal Empire, such as Dewani Khas, Moti Masjid, 
Jasmine Tower, Dewani-i-am, also tomb of .^kbar at Sikandra and 
Itmud-ud-Danla. 

Amamath — Situated at a height of nearly 13,000 ft. in Kashmir 
where thousands of Hindus make pilgrimage in August. There is a 
motor service from Srinagar upto Pahalgam (7,200 ft.), 60 miles 
from Kashmir where motor road ends. The cave is aljout 50 ft. 
high and 50 ft. deep situated between two huge mountains known 
as Kailash and Bhaira. At the back of the cave are several ice stal- 
agmites in the shape of Ungams — the frozen image of gods Siva, 
Parvati, Kartik and Ganesh, all self-made images of ice. 

Aurangabad — ^is situated 70 miles from Manmad on the Central 
Railway. It has world-renowned temples and monastic caves of 
Ellora and Ajanta. There is also the historical fort of Daulatabad, 
the Raoza which contains the tomb of the great Mughal Emperor 
Aurangazeb and the mag:nificent tomb of Aurangazeb’s wife, Bibi-ka- 
Muqbara, replica of the Taj Mahal of Agra. From the city of Au- 
rangabad all these places can he visited. 

Amritsar — ^is situated in the north-west of the Punjab at a dis- 
tance of only sixteen miles from Wagah, the outpost of the Indo- 
Paldstan border. It is famous for Sikh golden temple, the most 
sacred to the Sikhs and the tank called the pool of immortality. 
The pool is enclosed by a wide marble-paved quadrangle 204 ft. long 
with an archway over it. In the centre of the pool is the Temple, a 



32 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


square building witb marble inlaid walls and dome-shaped roof, under 
which shaded by a silken canopy lies Granth Sahib, the holy book ol 
the Sikhs. It is also famous for gold and silver thread, carpets. Elite 
and pashmina materials. It derived its name from the sacred ta^ 
on which the golden temple is situated. The town stands on the 
main route of the Northern Railway. About two furlongs from the 
•Golden Temple is the world-famous Jalianwala Bagh. 

Ajvier — city of antiquity and celebrity. Ana Sagar Lake is 
famous for its picturesque surroundings. The place is famous for 
Darga Khwaja Sahib, the tomb of the famous Muslim saint Muin-ud- 
■din Chisbti. The shrine contains the large drums and candle-sticks 
taken by Akbar at the siege of Chitor and two mosques, one built by 
Akbar and the other by Shah Jahan. At seven miles distance, there 
is Pushkar, the most sacred lake of India. Ajmer lies on the rail- 
way between Delhi and Alimedabad. 

Buddha Gaya — Seven miles from Gaya is the sacred Buddhist 
site of Buddha Gaya, where under a bodhi-tree, Buddha conquered 
Mara and attained Buddhahood. King Asoka erected a temple near 
-the tree. The temple at Buddha Gaya consists of a main tower, 
raising to a height of 180 ft. in the form of a slender pyramid. 

Bhubaneswar — The new capital of Orissa State ; contains 
the famous Lingaraj Temple, Mukteswar Temple and Parasurames- 
war Temple, and other temples such as Bhagavati, Parvati, 
Anant Vasttdeva, etc. On the hills known as Udaigiri and i^an- 
dagiri, a few miles from Bhuvaneswar, are caves once occupied by 
Jain monks, containing remarkable carvings, the earliest of which 
date to the second century B.C. 

Banaras — Sacred city of the Hindus, contains numerous temples. 
The view of the ghats is magnificient, close by is the famous Hindu 
University. Five miles from the city is the Saranath where in the 
Mrigadava or Deer Park, Buddha first preached his doctrine. 

Chittorgarh — Famous for the Tower of Victory — contains 
wonderful Rajput ruins. It is the old capital of Sisodhiya Rajputs, 
the proud descendants of the sun-god who were rulers of Udaipur. 
The Tower of Victory was built by Rana Kumbha in commemoration 
of his many •victories over Mughal invaders. It lies on the direct 
railway route from Ratlam to Ajmer. 

DclW— Capital of India since 1911, was the capital of seven 
Empires. Some of the famous relics are — Red Fort with Imperial 
Palace of Shah Jahan, two Audience Halls, Rangmahal, the Hamam, 
Pearl Mosque and the Mumtaz Mahal inside it, Jumma Masjid, Kutub 
Minar, Ferozabad, Indraprastha, Tuglukabad etc. Other places of 
interest are Tomb of Humayun, famous mosques and historic city 
walls. It occupies a strategic position, standing at the head of the 
plains of the Ganges and the Indus, the headquarters of all import- 
ant railway lines of India. 

Bijapnr— ffistorical city in Bombay State, famous for Gol 
Canmuz, a perfect whispering gallery and the second largest dome 
in the world. 

Chidambaram— It is 151 miles from Madras on the Madras- 
irichmopoly section of south India. The place is sanctified by the 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


33 


■world famous temple of Nataraja or Siva in his aspect of the 
■cosmic dancer, 

Fatehjnir Sikri — Short distance of 24 miles from Agra, founded 
by Akbar in A.D. 1569 in a lonely eminence on the spot where saint 
•Salim Chisti foretold the birth of a son of Akbar. After Akbar’s 
death, the city was deserted within fifty years of its foundation, the 
reason being lack of water. Interesting places are, imposing pile of 
great mosque measuring 542 ft. east and 438 ft. north and south, 
the tomb of Saint Sheikh Salim Chisti, houses of Akbar’s wives 
Miriam and Jodhbhai. Panch Mahals — ^the building of five storeys, 
Hiran Minar, Buland Darwaza, the famous sand-stone chamber of 
Dnvani Khas etc. In the Pachisi Court, laid out in red sandstone 
squares, he used to play chess with slave girls as piece. This is 
the city of sandstone, the specimen of the finest Mughal architecture. 

Gwalior — is situated 194 miles from Delhi on the Central Rail- 
way, It has long been famous for its grand and imposing Fort. 

Humpi (or Vijayanagar) — ^The ruins of this ancient city cover- 
ing an extent of about 10 sq. miles on the south bank of Tunga- 
bhadra river near Hospet railway station on the Guntakul-Hubli sec- 
■tion of the Southern Railway is a witness to the rise and fall of this 
forgotten Hindu Empire which is said to be the finest and the great- 
est in South India, Humpi is the ruins of Vijayanagar, the ancient 
•capital of Vijayanagar Empire. The ruins are virtually a vast open- 
air museum of Hindu monuments in the Dravidian style of 
architeture. 

Hardxoar — ^It is situated at the place where the Ganges issues 
forth from the hills on its fertilizing career. Han-ki-Pari is a 
place of worship, which is a footmark of Vishnu imprinted on a stone 
into the upper wall of the ghat. 

Jaipur — The most t^ical Hindu city built of pink stone, was 
founded in 1728 by Sawai Jai Singh II. Its avenues and boulevards 
cut each other at right angles, dividing the city into straight blocks. 
There is also the famous observatory built about 1718 by the 
Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh. Haioa Mahal, Ram Niwas gardens, 
Albert Hall and Museum are the interesting places to visit. Seven 
miles from Jaipur is Amber, a deserted city with an old royal palace 
■overlooking the lake at the entrance to a rocky mountain gorge where 
Rajput architecture can be seen at its best. Jaipur is famous for 
•brass works, stone carving, ivory and sandalwood work, etc. 

Jabalpur — 616 miles from Bombay •with an elevation of 1,362 
ft. The Marble Bocks are situated 13 miles from Jabalpur. There 
rocks are magnesium limestone rocks over 100 ft. high. The finest 
impression of the rocks is to be got by moonlight. 

Kanyakurmri — The temple of Kanyakumari (the Virgin God- 
dess) is situated at Cape Comorin. This is the apex of the Indian 
peninsula, where Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean 
meet. This is one of the most picturesque spots of India. 

Patna — ^is the capital of Bihar and it spreads eight miles along 
the Ganga. Things worth seeing at Patna are the huge beehive> 


3 



34 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


shaped Gola 90 ft. high aad 420 ft. at the base. It xras built at the 
time of Warren Hastings for the granary ; Khuda Buksh Oriental 
Library is famous for its rare collection of Arabic and Persmn 
manuscripts ; the ancient city of Pataliputra lies buried under Patea 
which was once the capital of Chandragupta Maurya. It was also 

the capital of Asoka. . „ -r-r- 

Madurai— -was the capital of Pandiyan Kings and became 
famous in the 17th century under the Nayak kings. The huge 
temple of Madurai known as Minakshi Temple (Goddess with fish 
eyes) is the most famous of the South Indian temples and one of the 
finest edifices of Dravidian architecture. It is dedicated to Siva and 
his espouse Minakshi. The temple forms a parallelogram, 850 ft. 
by 750 ft. and is surrounded by nine gopurams one of which is 150 
ft. high. The most elaborate stone carving is found in the Hall of 
a Thousand Pillars. The other important buildings are all associat- 
ed with the name of Tirumala Naik whose palace is the perfect spe- 
cimen of secular architecture in Madras State. 

Pushkar — is famous for its lake and fair which is held in Octo- 
her-November. The lake is regarded as most sacred in India and 
the temple of Brahma close to the lake is supposed to mark the spot 
where the incarnation of the God took place. 


Kashmir — Altitude varies from 5,000 to 6,000 ft. Srinagar is 
the summer capital. It is 5,200 ft. with an area 11 sq. miles ; mean 
temperature in January and February is 25°P. Srinagar is now 
reached by motor road via Pathankot. Srinagar lies along the banks 
of Jhelum which is crossed by seven bridges. Kashmir has beauti- 
ful Mughal gardens built by the Mughal Emperors of Delhi, such as 
Shalimar gardens, Nishat Bag, Nasim Bag and Chashme Shahi. 
Following are the heights of some prominent places of Kashmir — 
Srinagar 6,200 ft. ; Gulmarg 8,700 ft. ; Phalgam 7,000 ft. ; Amamath 
13,000 ft. Places worth seeing in Kashmir are — ^Phalgam 60 miles 
from Srinagar ; Dal Lake ; Amamath — 97 miles from Srinagar. 

Lucknow — is the capital of Uttar Pradesh. The grandeur of the 
city dates from Asaf-ud-daula, the fourth Nawab. Luclcnow is 
known as the city of gardens. Outstanding among its buildings are 
the great Imambara with a hall 162 ft. long and 54 ft. wide, the 
Husainabad Imambara, Eumi Darwaza, Chattar Manzil and the 
Wingfield Park. 


Nalanda — Nalanda University was founded in the epoch of the 
Oupta kings and became one of the largest universities of Asia. 
Hien Tsang, the well-known Chinese traveller who studied at the 
university in the 7th century has left glowing accounts of its acti- 
vities. It consisted of 10,000 scholars lodged in special hostels en- 
dowed by foreign kings. Instruction was provided in separate col- 
vast library spread over three buildings. It flourished 
for 700 yearn until destroyed by fire by foreign invaders in the 12th 
eas^ards on the road from Patna stands 
Bakhtiarpur. Here a road branches off due south to Bihar Shariff 

leads to Nalanda station (6 miles), 
irom the station the excavation site is 2 miles. Throughout the 
distance of 56 miles from Patna, the roads are serviceable all the 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


35 


year round. The site has been excavated by the Archaeological De- 
partment of the Government of India. 

Saranath — is five miles outside Banaras. In the ‘Deer Park’ of 
Saranath, Gautama Buddha preached his First Sermon on Nirvana. 
The ruins of monastaries built more than 1,600 years ago draw 
Buddhist pilgrims from all over the world. Here stands the famous 
Asoka Pillar of polished sandstone whose lion capital was adopted 
by the new republic of India as the state emblem. The museum of 
Saranath contains may superb specimens of ancient art. 

Udaipur — is one of the most beautiful cities in India. 
The city is completely encircled by a bastioned wall to which there 
are five main gates or poles. It stands in a valley amid green hills 
on the banks of a large lake with little islands. On these rise from 
the water’s edge marble palaces of pure white that glisten in the 
sunlight. 

Maliabalipiiram — Also known as seven pagodas, on the coast of 
Bay of Bengal, 63 miles south of Madras. Easily accessible by 
roads, it is 18 miles from Chingleput on the Madras-Trichinopoly 
section of the Southern Railway. Monuments of Mahalipuram are 
heivn out of solid rock — such as (1) Five rathas, (2) Mahisasura 
Mandapa, (3) Krishna Mandapam, (4) Arjuna’s penance. These are 
the finest specimens of rock-cut and has relief figures in India. 

Tinichirapalli — ^Till recently known as Trichinopoly, is 213 
miles from Madras. The place has a famous rock Temple and also 
Teppakulam, a large tank with a mandapam in the middle. 

Tanjore — on the main line of the metre gauge section of the 
Southern Railway lies Tanjore, the last capital of the Chola 
Dynasty. The place is famous for its great Sri Brahadiswara 
Temple, known throughout the world for its massive architectural 
excellence. 

Bameswaram — At the extreme south-eastern limit of Indian 
peninsula stands Rameswaram where the great Rama himself is 
believed to have offered worship to Siva to expiate the sin of having 
killed in battle Ravana, the ten-headed ruler of Lanka. Rameswaram 
is little over two miles from Madurai and can be reached by a small 
branch line off Pamban, on the Dhanushkadi route. The temple of 
Sri Ramanathaswamy dates back to the 16th century. The glory 
of the temple is in its corridors. These extend to a total length of 
nearly 4,000 feet. Here the side coixidors are 700 feet long and 
open into transverse gallaries as rich in defect as themselves. 

ARCHITECTURAL & HISTORICAL LANDMARKS 
HINDU & BUDDHIST 

Ajanta Frescoes — Famous frescoes in the Buddhist caves of 
Ajanta, a village in Hyderabad State. It is reached by motor from 
Jalgaon station on Western Ry. — 37 miles from the station. The 
caves of Ajanta consist of 24 monasteries and 6 temples, some 
of which are 2000 years old. They are excavated on a wall of almost 
perpendicular rock, 259 ft. high, sweeping round in a hollow 
circle and extending a third of a mile from east to west. These 



36 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


caves are situated in tlie horse-shoe valley. Frescoes are now ranked 
among the masterpieces of the world’s art. The frescoes at Ajanta 
may be divided into narrative scenes, portraiture and decoration and 
illustration in the life of Buddha. . t • x, i = 

Ambar Palace — In the deserted capital of Jaipur, this Palace 
is considered to include the finest specimens of Rajput architecture. 

Barhut — Central India. The sculptures on the stone railing 
surrounding the Barhut stupa (second century B.C.) represent, with 
most careful exactitude, episode in the life of the Buddha and the 
former lives. 

Buddhist caves at Rarli — One of the most famous of rock-cut 
temples. It is the largest and the most harmonious. It dates from 
the first century B.C. It is 124 ft. long and 45 ft. wide internally. 

Bodh-Gaija Temple — ^The temple is built on the site of a 
shrine erected by the Emperor Asoka. It commemorates the 
moment when Gautama meditating under the trees of Bodhi attained 
enlightenment and quality of Buddha after seven years of mental 
conflict and penance. The tower of the temple of Bodh-Gaya rises 
to the height of 180 feet. 

Black Pagoda — Close to the sea-coast, north of Puri, stands the 
700 years old Konark temple. Legend runs that the Sun-God was 
once seen here rising out of the sea in his golden chariot. Where 
his shadow fell, devotees endeavoured to build a temple in the shape 
of the God’s chariot, complete with twenty-four wheels and seven 
horses. Tliough now partly in ruins, their symphony in stone still 
ranks as one of the India’s greatest architectural splendours. 24 
miles out of Puri, the road leading to Bhubaneswar, branches off at 
Pipli towards Konark, which lies 29 miles away. This road is moto- 
rable only between December and June. There is an inspection bun- 
galow near the temple, but no refreshments are available. 

Bclur Temple — Known as (^enna Kesava Temple, is situated 
in the Mysore State, the temple is one of those exquisite specimens 
of Hoysala architecture, built 1117 years ago by the munificence of 
the Hoysala King, Vishnuvardhana. Ferguson says — ^'Ihere are 
many buildings in India which are unsurpassed for deUcacy of detail 
by any in the world, but the temple of Belur surpasses even these 
for freedom of handling and richness of fancy.’ 

Chitore Fori — Symbolises the spirit of bravery and heroism of 
Gohilward and Sisodia Kings of Mewar. Chitore was the capital 
of gohilward and Sisodia King of Mewar from the 8th to the 16th 
century. The fort presents a vast panorama of temples, imposing 
palaces and towers which are now mostly in ruins. The most famous 
in the Tower of Wctory which was built by Rana Kumbha to comme- 
morate his victory over Sultan Mohammad Kliilji of Malwa in 1440. 

_ Bihvara Tcmpics— Near Mount Abu, the principal hill station of 
Ra3asthan are the wonderful Dilwara Temples. Five in number, 
they date from the 11th, 12th and 13th century and are built entirely 
carvings which decorate the interior walls and 
pillars of the temples are fantastically lavish, vet the general im- 
pression IS one of perfect harmony. The Temples are the Mmala 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


37 


Shah, buDt in 1032 and the temple of the two brothers Vastupala and 
Tejpala built between 1197 and 1247. 

Elephanta Caves — ^The Elephanta Island is about 6i mUes 
north-east of Apollo Bunder in Bombay harbour. There are seven 
caves in all, but the main cave marked No. 2 which contains the Siva 
shrine is the most important and contains the sculptured panels. The 
great three-faced idol representing Trimurti is the most striking 
among the sculptures in the caves. 

Ellora Caves — ^These caves can be conveniently reached from 
Aurangabad on Western Railv/ay and it is 71 miles from Manmad. 
The caves lie at a distance of 14 miles from Aurangabad. 
Ellora cave temples, 34 in number are perhaps the largest and most 
varied in India. There are three classes of caves, Hindu, Buddhist 
and Jain. Excavated in the scarp of a large rocky plateau, they are 
remarkable memorials of these great faiths. The most marvellous 
of all is the stupendous rock-cut temple of Kailasa, elaborately 
carved inside and outside. Hewn entirely out of solid rock, with its 
massive pillars and colonades, intricate gallaries, painted ceilings 
and huge sculptures, Kailasa is one of the world’s wonders. 

Gwalior Fort — is one of the most impressive strongholds of 
mediseval India. The ascent to the fortress is like that of some 
fabled palace of the Arabian Nights. Of the many palaces within 
the walls, the most splendid is that of the Man Singh. 

Golden Temple — At Amritsar, the famous Sikh Temple. The 
temple stands on a raised plinth 65 ft. square in the centre of the 
tank and is surrounded by verandas. 

Gomatesivara — Near the town of Sravana Belgola in the State 
of Mysore, is the giant figure of Gomateswara, the Jain sage. The 
figure is 67 ft. statue and is carved out of a single stone at the top 
of a hill. The image is probably 2,000 years old. 

Iron Pillar — only a few yards from Katub Minar stands the 
famous Iron Pillar of Chandra Varman, the Hindu King of 
Pushkaran. It is a solid shaft of wrought iron about 16 inches in 
diameter and 23 feet 8 inches in height. Purity of iron (99.97 p.c.), 
accounts for the absence of rust despite its exposure to sun and 
rain for over 1500 years. 

Mahabalipuram — or Seven Pagoda is situated on the south coast 
of Mai-as. Its temples are bas-reliefs and are cut from living rocks. 
The most famous is the ‘Descent of the Ganges’. This giant image 
dating from the seventh century is cut in a ^anite rock 90 ft. long 
and 43 ft. high. Another famous sculpture is ‘Vishnu reclining on 
the snake Ananta’. “Arjun’s Penance,” another bas-relief is the 
largest bas-relief in the world. 

Meenakshi Temple — Madurai is remarkable for its most pictu- 
resque temple, the Meenakshi Temple with its magnificent Gopurams. 
The Great Temple dedicated to the Goddess Meenakshi forms a 
parallelogram, 850 ft. by 750 ft. and is surrounded by nine Gopurams, 
one of which is 150 ft. high. One of its principal structures is the 
Hall of thousand pillars in which groups of figures are carved from 
single stone. 

Sanchi Tope — ^Famous Buddhist stupa in the Bhopal State, 26 



38 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


miles from Bhopal. Stupa is a hemispheriral mon^ent of hricks or 
stones. Sanchi Stupa is one of the _ oldest (third-first centu^ 
B C ) and best preserved Stupas of India. Stupa stands in the pp 
of a small hill and enclosed by the finest and oldest stone railmg 
in India. The stupa is 120 ft. in diameter and 56 ft. high. The most 
striking features of the Stupa are the gates which face four carainal 
points and measure 28 ft. 5 in. to the top of the third aphitectoe 
Q.nd are profusely carved with, scenes from Jataha stories. Xsear 
the Stupa is the new memorial erected to preserve the remains of 
the famous disciples of Buddha, Sariputta and Mangalana. 

Tower of Victory, Chitore — ^A famous Hindu monument raised 
hy Sana Humhha in 1450 to commemorate his victory over the com- 
bined armies of Malwa and Guzarat. It consists of nine stories and 


is 122 ft. high. 

Sirguya Frescoes — ^Are the earliest dateable Indian paintings. 
These are a group of Buddhist frescoes (100 B.C.) on the walls of a 
cave in Sirguya in Madhya Pradesh. 

Temple of Bhubaneswar — ^Near Puri, most famous of these are 
Rafrani and lAngaraj Temples. Eajrani Temple, erected in the 11th 
century is a gigantic tower covered with statues and surmounted 
hy receding layers of stones, the whole inward-curving tower ending 
in a great circular crown and a spire. Lingaraj Temple is the most 
perfect example of north Indian architecture. 

Kajuraho Temples — ^At Kajuraho in Bundelkhand are grouped 
about thirty temples dedicated to Siva, Vishnu or Jina. They date 
from about 950 to 1050. These temples are unrivalled for profusion 
of ornate detail. In the Kandarya Mahadeva temple, the largest of 
the group, the details of bewildering complexity are massed together 
to form a perfectly balanced unity. 

Saranath — At Banaras, there is the great Buddhist Stupa, a 
stupendous stone structure 104 ft. in height and 93 ft. in diameter. 
It commemorates the fact that here Gautama Buddha preached his 
doctrine to his first five disciples. 

Temple of Sri Rangam — ^^^o miles north of Tiruchirapalli, on an 
island formed by the bifurcation of the river Cauvery is Srirangam, 
famous for the temple of Vishnu which contains a hall of thousand 
columns and sacred shrine of Eanganathaswami. 

Ramcswaram Temple — ^The temple of Eameswaram is probablv 
the most perfect specimen of art in the Dravidian style. The holy 
town of Eameswaram is built on an island in Palk Straits. The 
great temple is in the form of quadrangular enclosure 650 ft. broad 
hy 1,000 ft. long. Its glory lies in its vast pillared corridors which 
extend to a length of nearly 4,000 feet. 


MUSLIM 

Fatchpnr Sikri — 23 miles from Agra stands the city of palaces 
built of red_ sand-stone by Akbar in 1569-1584. hlost important 
piece of art is Buland Darwaja, 176 ft. high built in commemoration 
of the conquest of Khandesh. Though the citv was abandoned for 
lack of adequate water supply, what remains of its deserted glory 



INDIAN INFORMATION 


39 


as enough to testify to the perfection which Indo-Muslim architecture 
had attained in the reign of Akbar. Fatehpur Sikri stands authentic 
witness of Akbar’s splendid effort to achieve a synthesis between 
Hindu and Muslim cultures. 

Gol Gambuz — At Bijapur, is the 2nd largest dome in the world. 
This has a floor area of 18,110 sq. ft. This is the largest space 
covered by any single dome, second largest being that of Pantheon at 
Rome v;hich has a floor area of 16,833 sq. feet. If the pendentives 
are also taken into account, the Gol Gambuz is the greatest domed 
roof in the world too. It was built in 1656 by Sultan Mohamed Adil 
Shah to be his last resting place. The 11 ft. wide world-famous 
whispering gallery hangs out in the interior of the building 109 ft. 
■6 ins. above the floor. The surface measurement of the dome includ- 
ing four octagonal towers is 205 sq. ft. and the height of the building 
from the base to the apex of the dome is 198 ft. 6 in. The exterior 
diameter measures 144 ft. whilst interior diameter is 134 ft. 6 in. 

Kutah Minar (238 ft. high) at Delhi — Is one of the masterpieces 
of Indian technology and art. It is the highest stone tower in India. 
It was completed by Kutab-ud-din-Aibak in 1199 and further deve- 
loped by Iltutmish in 1229, It is the first outstanding structure in 
the Islamic style. It is made of red stone and marble. It has five 
storeys separated by projecting balconies. 

The Fort, Agra — originally built by Akbar, the Fort saw many 
additions in the reign of the great builder, Shah Jahan, Its walls, 
70 ft. high with octagonal towers and crenellated ramparts enclose 
many relics of old splendour, great courtyards, gateways, audience 
halls, mosques and royal apartments. 

Red Fort, Delhi — The walls of Red Fort enclose the former great 
imperial palace of Shah Jahan. The wonders of Red Fort recall the 
pomp and pageantry, the wealth and magnificence of Mughal times. 
Built by the emperor Shah Jahan between 1639-1648, the fort is 
famous for its Diwan-i-lchas, Pearl Mosque etc. 

Jama Masjid — Known as India’s finest and biggest mosque. 
Jama Masjid was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan at 
Delhi during the period 1660-58. The masjid, raised on a lofty base- 
ment, is 201 feet in length by 120 feet and is flanked by two minarets 
130 ft. high. 

Mausoleum of Sher Shah — ^At Sasaram, is a gigantic solid and 
masculine example of Moslem architecture standing in the middle of 
a large tank. 350 miles from Calcutta by Grand Trunk Road, Sasa- 
ram stands in the left bank of the Sone river. 

Tai Mahal — ^Most famous tomb built by Shah Jahan in memory 
of his beloved wife — arises with its slender minarets in the midst of 
magnificent gardens. It is the result of collaboration between Indian, 
Turkish and European artists. The height of the dome is about 
230 feet. 



THE CALENDAR 

INDIAN CALENDAR — ^The Bikram or Samvat frz is most: 
-svidelv lised specially in northern India, Rajasthan, Gujarat and is 
believed to have been established by Vikrama^tya, the king qi 
Ujjain to commemorate his victory over Saka kings. But there is 
dispute over the identity of Vikramaditya as there are so many kings 
bearing this name. It commenced on February 23, 57 B.C. Samvat 
is a lunisolar year. . „ t j- 

The Saka or Sakabda era is used m some parts of South Indim 
There is a historical dispute as to the origin of this era. It is said 
to date from the Saka king, Salibahana or it begins -with the corona- 
tion of the Rushan king Kaniska, and dates from 3rd March, 78 A.D. 

Bengali Year rvas originaUy a reckoning for agricultural and 
revenue purposes instituted at the time of Emperor Akbar. In 
A.D. 1555-6 corresponding to Hijri 962-3, solar computation rvas in., 
troduced to the Muslim era Hijri vchich became the Fasli or harvest 
era of northern India and vas adopted as the current official era 
in Bengal. 

Other Eras — ^Tho Buddha era from 543 B.C. and Chaitanya era 
from 1407 AD. 

Kali Yuga — ^The oldest era of India is Kali Yuga. The Rail 
Tuga began on the 18th Feb., S102 B.C. Thus the EaR Tuga is 5058 
in 1956._ 

India’s National Calendar — Saka Year — The Government of 
India’s Calendar RefoTO Committee in their renort in 1955 re- 
commended the nationwide adoption of the Saka Year for the pur- 
poses of a unified National Calendar. The Saka Tear which begins 
on March 22 (March 21 in a leap year) has 365 days normally and 36? 
in a leap year. The 12 months of Saka Year are as follows: — ^number 
of days in the month and the first dav of the month (corresponding 
to the Gregorian Calendar) being shoiro in paranthesis : Chaitra (30 
except in a leap year ; March 22 except in a leap year) ; Vaisakha 
(31, April 21); Jaistha (31, May 22); Ashara (31, June 22); Srarana 
(31, July 23); Bhadra (31, Aug. 23^ Asvina (30, Sept. 23); Kartika 
(30, Oct. 23); Agrahayan (30, Nov. 22); Pausa (30, Dec. 22); Magha 
(30, Jan. 21); Phalgnna (30, Peb. 20). The Government of India 
has announced on 23rd October 1956 that from 1957, they have intro- 
duced a new calendar as recommended bv the Calendar Reform 
Committee. 

India begins a new year’s day on 22nd March. The day is 1st 
^ait:^ the y^_r 1879 of the Saka era. The succeeding months will 
be Yaisabna, Jaistna, Ashara, SrabaTia, Bhadra — each of 31 days aTid 
Aimna, Kartika, A^^hayana, Paasa, Magha and Phalguna, each SO 
days. ^ Chaitra Tnll have 30 days except in a leap year vrhen it will 
have ol. The Central Government has decided to adopt the new 
calendar for certain official purposes in conjunctin with Gregorian 



THE CALENDAR 


41 


(current) calendar. It is made clear, however, that Gregorian calendar- 
should continue to be used as hitherto for official and like purposes. 
The Government says there would be no deviation from the prevailing 
custom in the observance of holidays and it is not the intention that 
the new calendar should necessarily be followed for religions purposes. 

MAHOMEDAN CALENDAR — ^The Mahomedart era is based on 
Hijra or flight of Mahomed from Mecca to Medina. The first day 
of the era is not the actual date of flight but 16 th July, 622 A.D. 
Hijra is a purely lunar year consisting of 12 months containing in 
alternate sequence 30 or 29 days, -with the intercalation of one day 
at the end of the 12th month at stated intervals in each cycle of 
30 years, the object of the intercalation being to reconcile the date 
of the first of month with the date of the actual new moon. The 
mean lengrth of Hijra Year is 354 days 8 hours and 48 minutes and 
the period of mean lunation is 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes. 

MODERN CALENDAR— The Roman Calendar had at first Kk 
months and 304 days, each month being divided into Kalends, Nones 
and Ides. The Julian calendar introduced 45 B.C. by Julius Caesar 
added 66 days with an extra day in February every 4th year, thus 
gi-ving what we now call Leap Year. This Calendar was re-vised by 
Pope Gregory XIII (1502.85) who declared that 5 Oct. 1582 should 
be called 15 Oct., thus losing 10 days and also that a century should’ 
not be a Leap Year unless exactly dmsible by 400, hence 1900 was 
not a Leap Year hut 2000 -will he. This Gregorian calendar has heen 
adopted almost everywhere. 

JEWISH CALENDAR— is luni-solar, that is to say, the year 
is solar and month are lunar. In a cycle of 19 years the 1st, 2nd, 
4th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 19th, 12th, 13th, 15th, 16th and 18th year have 
12 months and the remaining years 13 months of 29 or 30 days each. 
The length of the ordinary year may be 353, 354 or 355 days and' 
that of the leap year 383, 384 or over 385 days ; thus the mean 
length of the year over a 19-year cycle is just over 365 days. The- 
years are reckoned from the creation of the world, the date of which 
is taken to be 3760 B.C. Tlius the year A.D. 1938 is A.M. {Anna 
Mundi) 6698-99. The day begins at sunset for the purpose _ of 
observing the Sabbath and the various feasts and fasts._ The time 
is 2 hours 21 minutes in advance of Green-wich time, being that of 
meridian of Jerusalam. 

ZOROASTRIAN CALENDAR — is employed by ’ Zoroastrians in 
India and Iran which began in June 16, A.D. 632. 

BUDDHIST CALENDAR— It is reckoned from the death of 
Buddha in 643 B.C. (the actual date being 487 B.C). The Buddhist 
year begins from Vaisakhi Pumima. Buddha was_ bom on the 
Baisakhi full moon day, he took his seat under Bodhi -tree at Gaya 
on full moon day to attain -wisdom. It was on the full moon day 
again that he left the world. 

HINDU CALENDAR — ^Hindus have employed luni-solar cycles 
made by the combination of solar years and lunar years so -treated 
as to keep the beginning of the lunar year near that of the solar 



42 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


year. In some parts of India solar years are used while in other 

parts lunar is followed : . , . . „ . , -ii. 

The solar year is divided into 12 months in accordance with tne 
successive Sankrantis or entrances of the Sun into the sidereal signs 
of zodiac. The names of the signs are as follows : 


Mesha, the ram (Aries). 
Vrishabha, the bull (Taurus) 
Mithuna, the pair ((Semini). 
Karkata, the crab (Cancer). 
Sinha, the lion (Leo). 

Kanya, the maiden (Virgo). 
Tiila, the scale (Libra) 


Vrischika, the scorpion (Scorpio). 
Dlianus, the bow (Sagittarius). 
Makara, the sea monster (Capri- 
corns). 

Kumbha, the water pot (Acqua- 
rius)). 

Mina, the fishes (Pisces).. 

But these are also hnown in some parts by another set of names 
preserving connection with lunar months — Chaitra, Vaisakha, 
Jaistha, Ashara, Sravana, Bhadra, Asvina, Kartika, Margasirsa or 
Agrahayan, Pausa, Magha and Phalguna. 

The astronomical solar month runs from the moment of one 
Sankranti of the sun to the moment of the neirt Sankranti and as 
the signs of the Hindu zodiac are all of equal len^h, 30 degrees, 
while the speed of the sun varies according to the time of the year, 
the length of the month is variable. 

The days of solar month be^n with sun-rise. The days arc 
named as follows: Ravivara, the day of sun (Sunday); Somvara, 
the day of the moon (Monday) ; Mangalvara, the day of the Mars 
'(Tuesday) ; Biidhvara, the day of Mercury (Wednesday) ; Brihas- 
pativara, the day of Jupiter (Thursday); Sukravara, the day of 
Venus (Friday) ; Sanivara, the day of Saturn (Saturday). 

The lunar year consists of primary 12 lunar months. It is of 
two principal varieties according as it begins with a certain day in 
the month of Chaitra or with the corresponding day in Kartika. 
The present names of the lunar months were derived from 12 out 
of the 27 Nakshatras, supposed to be companions of the Moon during 
12 full-moon nights. 

Important Eras — The beginning of important eras are as 
follows — 



B. 

C. 



Macedonian 

Sept. 

1 

312 

Grecian 

• • 

Sept. 

1 

5598 

Augustan 

Feb. 

24 

27 

Julian Period 

Jan. 

1 

4713 





Jewish 


Oct. 


3761 

A. 

D. 



Olympiards 

a . 

July 

1 

776 

Christian 

Jan. 

1 

1 

Foundation 

of 




Armenian 

July 

7 

562 

Rome 


April 

24 

753 

Muslim 

July 

16 

622 

NAMES 

OF 

MONTHS — January was named 

from 

Janus, 

god 


•who presided over the beginning of ever^hing. February from 
Febriia, a festival of purification held in that month by the Romans. 
Maritus is the Mars, who was originally a god of agriculture, his 
month being the one when crops are ordinarily planted. The origin 
of April is not kno-wn. Jlay is named from Maia, the mother of 
■Roman god Mercury. June is derived from Juno, the goddess of 
women and of marriage. July was formerly called quintilius from 
■qmntiis, the fifth, but -when Julius C:Bsar reformed the calendar, 



THE CALENDAR 


43 


lie changed the month’s name to Julius in his own honour ; Julius 
became July in English. August was originally called sextilis, after- 
wards was named August from the Emperor Augustus. Those from 
September to December are so called from the numbers Septem, 
■‘seven’, Octo., ‘eight’, November, ‘nine’ and December, ‘ten’. 

YEAR — Unit of time is marked by the revolution of the earth 
in its orbit round the sun. The Solar Fear is 365 days 5 hours, 48 
minutes 49-7 seconds. Calendar Year consists of 365 days, but a 
year the date of which is divisible by 4 -without remainder is called 
Leap Year and consists of 366 days, one day being added to the 
month of February. The last year of a century is not leap year unless 
its number is dmsible by 400 i.e. the years 1800 and 1900 had only 
365 days. Tropical Year is the time that earth takes to revolve 
Tound the Sun from equinox to equinox or 365.2422 mean solar days. 
Sidereal Year in which the observation is made on a star is 365 days, 
•6 hrs. 9 mins. 9 secs. 

TIME — ^Measurement of time is based on the time taken by 
■earth to rotate on its axis {day) ; by moon to revolve round the earth 
(month); and by the earth to revolve round the sun (year); Day 
•starts at midnight and is divided into 24 hours of 60 minutes, each 
■of GO seconds. The hours are counted from midnight up to 12 at 
-noon and these hours are designated A.M. and again from noon up to 
12 at midnight, which hours are designated P.M. The 24-hour 
reckoning however ignores A.M. and P.M. and the hours are num- 
bered 0 to 23 from midnight to midnight. 

Different ways of telling time — ^The usual division of the day into 
■“A.M.” (ante meridian) and “P.M.” (post meridian) groups of 12 
hours each has given way for same purposes to the “24-hour” day 
in many countries. On the “24-hour” clock the hour begins ■with 
zero at midnight and run to 23 ; thus 1-30 P.M. is called 13-30 o’clock, 
it is simpler than the 12-hour system and makes calculation easier, 
and so on. This system is in general use on railway systems. Since 
astronomers and navigators use it for tables and records. 

On ship board varieties of time are used. "Greemoich time" 
or time corresponding to that at Green-wich, England, is kept by 
an accurate chronometer for use in determining the ship’s position. 
The ship’s routine is however governed by "watches” and "bells.” 
The day is dmded into six “watches”, commencing at noon and each 
watch is dmded into eight parts marked by “bells.” One half an 
hour after a watch begins, “one bell” is struck. Half an hour later, 
or one hour after the commencement of watch, “two bells” strike, 
and so on upto “eight bells” when the watch changes and the bells 
■strike all over again from one to eight. 

Astronomers usually use sidereal time, which is fixed by observ- 
ing the transits of the stars. A sidereal day is the period of one 
rotation of the earth upon its axis. It starts at noon and contains 
■24 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds of mean solar time. A sidereal 
year contains 3665 sidereal days. 

Local Time — When the system of local time is used, it is 12 
o’clock (noon) at any region where sun is at its highest point in the 
sky, and shadows are cast in a line extending north and south. 


44 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Standard Time — is the system of time established by common 
usage or legislative action in any part of the world. Standard time- 
is the local time of standard meridian, but used over an entire time 
zone. The system of Standard Time by zones has been gradually 
accepted which differs from that of Greenwich by an integral number 
of hours, either fast or slow. 

Thne Zones — ^The 15 degree measurement divides Europe into- 
three time-zones — Greenwich, Mid-European (one hour faster). 
East European (2 hours faster). United States and Canada are 
divided into five time-zones — Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Mountain 
and Pacific, 


Examples of Zone System : — 
Fast on Greenwich Time 
12 hrs. F .. Fiji, New Zealand, 
hrs. F . . South Australia. 

9 hrs. F .. Manchuria, Japan, 
Korea. 

8 hrs. F . . East China, Philip- 
pine Islands, "West 
Australia, I n d o - 
China. 

VJhrs. F .. Malaya, Singapur, 
Java. 

6i hrs. F . . Burma, Andaman 
6 hrs. F . . East Pakistan. 

55 hrs. F . . India, Ceylon. 

45 hrs. F .. West Pakistan. 
Greenwich . . Great Britain, Ire- 
land, Portugal, Al- 
geria, French Mo- 
rocco, etc. 

Slow on Greenwich Time 
1 hr. S . . Iceland. 

3 hrs. S . . Greenland, Urugu- 

ay, Argentina. 

4 hrs. S . . {Atlantic) Canada, 

Central Brazil, Bo- 
livia, Chile. 

5 hrs. S .. {Eastern) E. 

States of U. S. A., 
Cuba, Panama, 
Colombia, Equador. 


35 hrs. F .. Iran. 

2 hrs.F .. {East European} 
Turkey, Greece, 
Finland, Egypt, 
Israel, Syria, South 
Africa. 

1 hr. F . . {Mid. European) 
Sweden, Norway, 
Netherlands, Ger- 
many, France, 
Austria, Yugosla- 
via, Switzerland, 
Hungary, Czecho- 
slovakia. 

7 hrs. S . . {Mountain) Cana- 

da from 102 °W to 
120 'W, Mountain 
States of U. S. A., 
Part of Mexico. 

8 hrs. S . . {Pacific) Canada 

West of 120°W, 
Western States of 

U. S. A. 

10 hrs. S . . Central Alaska, 

Hawaii. 

11 hrs. S . . Aleutian Is., West 

Coast Alaska, 
Samoa, Christmas 
Islands. 


Summer Time or Daylight Saving Tmic— Device to make more 
sunlight hours available for business, industry, leisure by setting all 
clocks forward one hour during summer, when sun rises earlv thus 
saving evening use of artificial light. This device was first’ used 
as national economy during World War I. 

Greenwich Mean rime— The International Meridian Conference 
held in 1884 established the meridian passing through Greenwich, 



THE CALENDAR 


45 


England as the prime meridian, from which the world’s time was to 
he reckoned. The world is considered as being divided into 24 zones 
each of 15° of arc, or one hour in time apart. The meridian of 
Greenwich (0°) extends through the centre of the initial zone and 
the zones to the eastwards are numbered from 1 to 12 with the prefix 
‘minus’ indicating the number of hours to be subtracted to obtain 
Greenwich time. The zones to the westward are similarly numbered, 
hut prefixed ‘plus’ showing the number of hours that must be added 
to get Greenwich time. 

International Date Line — ^is an imaginary line extending north 
and south through Pacific Ocean, and is the point at which the tra- 
veller must add or subtract a day from the calendar. On a journey 
westward across the Pacific, he must add a day (for example, by 
changing Monday, the 17th to Tuesday, the 18th) ; when travelling 
■eastward, he is required to set the date back one day, otherwise he 
will not be in accord with the local date when he returns to his 
starting place after making trip round the world. 

Indian Standard Time — ^The Indian Standard Time which is 
■5i hours ahead of Green-wich Mean Time was first adopted on 1st 
January 1906. It was based on the mean time of 82J°E longitude 
which passes through Banaras and Cocanada. Though it was used 
hy Railways and Post and Telegraph Offices, Calcutta had its own 
time 24 minutes ahead of it. During "World "War II, a uniform time 
hours ahead of Greenwich time was adopted in India. India now 
observes Indian Standard Time, which is 5i hours ahead of 
Greenwich. 

Longest and Shortest days — Longest day is the day on which the 
Bun attains its greatest distance from the equator, north or south, 
accordingly as the place is in the northern and southern hemisphere. 
This generally falls on June 21. Similar considerations apply to the 
shortest day of the year v/hich falls on December 22. 

Dog Days — The days are about the helical rising of the Dog 
Star, noted from ancient times as the hottest and most unwhole- 
some period of the year. The period of dog days are generally 
July 3 to August 15. 


HOLIDAYS 

Hindu Festival — Diirga Puja — ^A national festival in Bengal. 
The celebration signifies the triumph of good over evil and the sub- 
jection of animal passions by human beings. It is also symbolical 
■of womanhood’s strength and power to_ combat all forms of reaction. 
According to Puranas, a demon, Mahisasura was threatening gods 
and men. Durga, the embodiment of Divine Power took human 
form and bearing weapons in her ten hands slew the demon. Hence 
the form in which the goddess is worshipped is that of a warlike 
figure ha-ving ten arms and riding astride a lion. The goddess des- 
cends from her heavenly home, the Kailash to visit her children on 
earth three days every year, accompanied by her two sons, Kartik, 
a great warrior, and Ganesh, the God of Prosperity and two 
-daughters, Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth and Saraswati, the 



46 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Goddess of Learning. On tlie fourth day, the immersion ceremony 
takes place and the image of the Goddess is consigned to the waters; 
The tradition says that on the last day, Ramchandra of Ramayana 
offered special prayers to the Goddess and thus gained victory over 
Ravana, the Demon King of Lanka (Ceylon). 

Sivaratri — ^Festival in honour of the Hindu God Siva, one of 
the Hindu Trinity. It takes place in the month of February-March. 

Holi — ^Hindu festival in March. It marks the coming of the 
spring. The festival in general is held in honour of Krishna. The 
day is celebrated in greatest merriment and fun and coloured waters 
are thrown over relatives and other people. It is a great festival of 
northern India. 

Deivali — A festival of lights held in October-November. The 
festival is celebrated by means of illuminations and fireworks. In 
some States Hindu merchants begin their fresh account books. 
The legend says that its celebration began with the coronation of 
King Rama. 

Ganesh Chaturthi — A gg'eat Hindu festival of the "Western India 
generally takes place in September in honour of Hindu God Ganesh 
who is represented with four hands and an elephant’s head. This 
festival is also known as Ganapaty Day. 


Dusserah — It is a great festival of northern India : it usually 
takes place in the month of September or October. The festival 
takes place in honour of the victory of Goddess (Devi) over the 
buffalo-headed demon Mahisasur. The festival takes place for nine 
days known as Navaratri. It also commemorates the victory of 
Rama over the demon king Ravana. In all important towns of nor- 
thern India huge effigies of Ravana is made and burnt on the last 
day of the festival in great pomp and pageant. 

Sarastvati Puja — Usually takes place in the month of Magb 
(January-February) on the fifth day (Panchami) of the new moon. 
This day, according to Hindus, heralds the advent of spring. Sara- 
swati is the Goddess of Learning. 

Christian Festival — All Fool’s day — The first day of April, when, 
from centuries throughout the Christendom it has been customary to 
place irresponsible tricks on one’s neighbours. 

Arbor day— Annual tree planting day is generally observed 
throughout U.S.A., in parts of Canada and Great Britain. 

Bank Holiday — In Great Britain a secular day when by law 
banks are closed, and parties are exempt from presentment or nav- 
ment of negotiable paper. 

Candlemas dai/— In its ecclesiastical meaning Candlemas is the 
o Mary and is observed on February 

2. ':ais_ festival IS stactly kept by Roman Catholic Church 

C/insfmas— Meaning Christ’s Mass, is applied to the 'festival 
commemoraUng the birth of Christ celebrated on December 25. The 
exact date of Christ’s birth is unknown. January 6 and December 28 
however, were commonly chosen in the 4th century. The general 
adoption of December 25, first in the west and a little later^in the 
cast, dates from the 5th century. lacer in one 

Hasfcr— The season which commemorates the death and resur- 



THE CALENDAR 


47 


rection of Jesus Christ is universally regarded as the chief of Chris- 
tian festivals. Christians believe that Jesus was crucified on Good 
Friday and rose again from the dead after three days on Easter 
Monday. 

Good Friday — The Friday before Easter Sunday, celebrated in 
commemoration of the crucifixion of Jesus. 

Halloween — The name of the popular, boisterous autumn cele- 
bration means ‘holy eve’, the occasion being the eve of ‘All Hallows’ 
or ‘All-Saints’ Day’, November 1. It has the Pagan ori^n. 

Lent — A word from the Anglo-Saxon eencten meaning “spring- 
time”. It is employed to denote the forty days preceding Easter, 
the period observed in the Catholic Church as a fast. 

St. Valentine’s day — A festival which falls on February 14. The 
orgin of the observance of this day is uncertain. Among the many 
interesting folk customs of mediaeval France a ad England, was a 
gathering of young people on St. Valentine’s eve. ‘Valentine’ means 
sweet-heart. 

All Soul’s Day — Day of prayer for souls of the dead. 

Moslem Festival — Id-uz-Zuha or Hafcr-id— The festival comme- 
morates the ordeal of Ismail and the miraculous way in which at the 
last moment Providence came to his rescue. 

Hazrat Ibrahim, called Khalilulla, or the friend of God, was put to 
a terrible test when he was asked to sacrifice what was dearest to him, 
and he decided to offer the life of his beloved! son Ismail. As he 
was on the point of applying the knife to Is'mail’s throat, it was 
revealed to him that this was meant only to test his faith and that 
he would, on opening his eyes, find a ram which he should sacrifice. 

It has also a symbolical aspect : the sacrificial animal standing 
for the evil in human nature, which must be continually surrendered 
at the altar of God. This is celebrated on the 10th day of Zilhija. 

Mohurrum — is a period of mourning and is observed annually in 
remembrance of the martyrdom of Hassan and Hussein, the grand- 
sons of Prophet Mahomed, from whom the race of Syeds, the 
Muslim holimen is descended. Mohurrum is the name of the first 
month of the Muslim year but the mourning period lasts only for 
the first ten days. On the tenth day tabuts or tazyas made of various 
materials are exhibited and conveyed in procession through the 
streets. The tazyas are in the shape of mausoleums erected over 
the remains of Hussain who is buried at Karbala, the battle-field of 
Arabia on which he lost his life. 

Akhiri-Chahar Sumbha — held on the Wednesday of Safar when 
Mahomed recovered a little in his last illness and bathed for the last 
time. 

Sabi-barat — (night of allotment) — ^held on the 16th Saaban 
when it is supposed that human deeds are measured and their needs 
allotted. 

Ramzan and Id-id-fitr — ^Ramzan is the ninth month of the Mos- 
lem lunar year and is holy because the Quoran was revealed in that 
month. The fact is ordained in a magnificent passage of the Quoran. 
The fast springs from Quoranic instructions for the better commu- 
nion with God whom all men must honour and worship and that 



48 


HINDUSTAN TBAB.-BOOK 


those instructions are obeyed by the faithful with the greatest devo- 
tion and loyalty. The period begins with the first sight of the new 
moon of the month or if the day be overclouded and the moon invi- 
sible on the completion of the thirty days from the previous moon. 
Each day’s fasting must begin so soon as daybreak permits a white 
thread to be discerned from a black thread and it continues till sunset. 

Buddhist Festival — Full Moon of Vaisakha — ^is the thrice sacred 
.dav in the Buddhist calendar. On this day, imder the spreading 
emerald canopy of the Sal tree in the beautiful gardens of Lumbini 
-was bom of queen Maya, Prince Siddhartha, the Buddha to be. It was 
an another Vaisakha Pumima day, when Tathagata attained “Bodhi” 
or enlightenment under a Bodhi Tree at Gaya. On a third Vaisakha 
■PmTiima eighty years after the first that Buddha attained Maha- 
parinirvan in Kosi. 

Ashada Pumima — ^is in commemoration of the first sermon 
of the Buddha attained Mahaparinirvan in Kosi. 

Fas Pavarana — (End of rainy season lent) is held in October. 


NEW INDIAN STATES 

Bombay is the largest state in size and second largest in respect 
of population. 

Uttar Pradesh is the biggest of all States in population and 
ranks 4th largest in size. 

Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in area after 
Bombay. 

State of Kerala in the smallest of Indian States in size. 

Bengal is the second smallest state in size, 

Kerala is the most thickly-popnlated state in the whole of India. 

Uttar Pradesh has the largest block of members in the two 
Houses of Parliament, the second place being occupied by Bombay. 

Eajasthan is the third largest state in size. 

Mysore State brings together Kannada-speaking people previous- 
ly distributed in five States. 

Merger of the Punjab and Pepsu brings together Hindi and 
Punjabi-speaking people of two previous states into two zones of the 
new state. 

Kerala State brings together vast majority of Malayalam- 
speaking people together. 

State of Bombay is now bilingual and brings together about 26 
million Marhati-speaking people and about 16 million Gujrati- 
npeaking people together. 



ASTRONOMICAL DATA 

SOLAR SYSTEM — ^The solar system is made up of our sun, 
-the planets and other heavenly bodies which revolve round the 
«un. The bodies in our solar system include the planets, their 
satellites or moons, the asteroids and countless swarms of 
meteors. These are all held in their places by the pull of the 
sun. They travel round the sun receiving and reflecting light 
and heat. There are also difltuse bodies called comets, which 
revolve in highly elliptical orbits and develop tails when they 
are near the sun. The nine large planets are the most massive 
bodies in the solar system, next to the sun. These planets have 
thirty one satellites including our moon. The nine planets in 
order of their distances from the sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth, 
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The planets 
differ greatly from one another in size. The smallest planet is 
Mercury, which is about one sixteenth the size of earth. Venus 
is almost as large as the earth but Mars is only one seventh as 
large. Saturn is 730 times as large as our planet. Uranus is 
sixty-four times as large and Neptune is sixty times as large 
as the earth. Jupiter is more than 1,300 times as large as the 
earth. Every planet has two motions. It revolves round the sun 
■and at the same time it spins on its o'wn axis. 


Table of Planets 




Mean Dis- 

Period of 

Mean diam 

Axial rotation 



tance 

sidereal 

in miles 

(Sidereal) 



(.mills, of 

revolution 





m. from 

in years 





siin) 




Mercury 


36-0 

0-24 

3,000 

88 days 

Venus 


67-0 

0-62 

7,600 

225 days 

Earth 


92-9 

1-00 

7,927 

23 h. 56 m. 

Mars 


141-6 

1-88 

4,200 

24 h. 37 m. 23 s. 

Jupiter 


483-3 

11-86 

88,700 

9 h. 55 m. 

Saturn 


886-0 

29-46 

75,100 

10 h. 14 m. 

Uranus 


1782-8 

84-02 

30,900 

Cll h. 

Neptune 


2793-5 

164-8 

33,000 

C16 h. 

Pluto 


C3700 

24-8 

C3,650 



SUN — There are countless millions of far distant self-luminous 
gaseous bodies called stars and each one is in itself a sun. Our sun 
■is at a average distance of 93,000,000 miles from the earth. This 
<3istance could be covered in about ten years by a rocket ship 'travel- 
ling a thousand miles an hour. It has a diameter of 886,000 miles, 
a surface temperature of about 12,000°P. It has a surface area ap- 
proximately 12,000 times that of the earth and in volume or bulk it 

4 



50 


HINDUSTAN TnEAR-BOOK 


is about 1,306,000 times the size of the earth. By the force of its 
gravitational attraction, the Sun keeps the planets in their regular 
orbits and pulls them -with it through space at the rate of about 12 
miles per second. Dark spots on the surface — Swn Spots — may be 
seen from time to time. These are actually immense funnels up 
•which s'wirling gases, cooling as they approach the surface, are 
rushing from the interior. 

•EARTH — ^The earth is about 93,000,000 miles from the Sun. 
It travels 19 miles per second as it speeds round the sun (once in 
8651 days). It has an area of about 197,000,000 sq. m. Its diameter 
at the equator is 7,926.56 miles. Its diameter through the North 
about 27 miles. Besides spinning on its axis, the earth moves round 
the Sun. The path of the earth round the Sun called its orbit, is 
not a circle but an oval or ellipse and the plane in which the Earth 
moves is said to be Plane of the Ecliptic. The time taken to com- 
plete one revolution round the sun is one year i.e., 3651 days approxi- 
mately. The seasons are due to the changes of the earth’s position 
in the course of its revolution about the Sun and to the inclination 
of its axis. 

flIOON — is the only satellite of the earth, round -which it revolves 
in 27.32 days at a mean distance of 238, 860 miles. It has no atmos- 
plaere, and it shines entirely by reflected light of the Sun. The moon 
^s much to do with our tides, its gravitational attraction piling up 
■water on the earth’s surface. 

OTHER PLANETS — Mercury is the smallest of the major 
planets and the one_ nearest the sun. Its diameter is about 3,000 m., 
its period of revolution is 88 days and its distance from the sun varies 
from 28,500,000 to 43,350,000 m. Venus is second of the planets in 
order of distance from the sun. Its mean distance from the latter is 
67,200,000 m., and it revolves in its orbit in 225 days. Its diameter is 
about 7,600 m. It is the evening star seen in the western sky. ilf nrs 
has a mean distance of 141,650,000 m. from the sun. Its mass is only 
about one-tenth that of the earth and its diameter is little more than 
half. Its period of rotation is 24 hrs. 37 min. 23 secs. It has two 
very small satellites. It is the planet which scientists believe is 
most likely to have animal life. Jupiter is the largest of the planets 
with 12 known satellites. Its mean distance from the sun is 483 
million miles and its time of revolution is 11.86 years. Its diameter 
is 11 times that of the earth. It rotates on its axis in a less than 10 
hours. Saturn s mean distance from the sum is about 886,000,000 m., 
and it has a unique set of planetoid rings and at least 12 satellites. 
Vramis was discovered by Herschal in 1781. Its diameter is 30,000 m. 
and it revolves once round the sum from which it is 1,782,800,000 m, 
distant, in 84.02 years. It has four main satellites. Neptune has a 
diameter of 31,000 m. The distance from the sun is 2,793i million m. 
Neptune_has one satellite and the time taken for one revolution round 
the sun is 164.8 years, Pluto is the outermost of the known planets. 
Its distance from the sun is about 3,700 million miles with a 248-j'ear 
revolution period. 

ASTEHOIDS — are also called minor planets. They are of small 
bodies which revolve round the sun in orbits Ijdng between those of 



ASTRONOMICAL DATA 


51 


Mars and Jupiter. Known asteroids now number over 1,500. New ones 
are constantly being discovered. The largest is Ceres, 485 miles in 
diameter. Some of these celestial bodies are perhaps nothing more 
than great masses of rock flying round the sun. The largest aste- 
roids are : Ceres, 485 miles in diameter, Pallas 280, Jimo 160 and 
Vesta 241 (miles). 

COMETS — ^A heavenly body of a luminous and nebulous appea- 
rance that moves round the sun in an orbit that is normally elongated 
ellipse. A comet consists of three parts : the nucleus or head, which 
contains an enormous number of small bodies, some like dust 
particles and others probably many yards in diameter ; the coma 
which surrounds the nucleus is of a gaseous nature ; and the 
tail which consists of small dust-like particles carried away from the 
nucleus by the gases in the coma and then repelled by sunlight. The 
tail sometimes looks formidable and it may be many millions of miles 
in length, but it is quite harmless and sometimes the earth has passed 
through the tail of a comet without ill effect. About 1,000 comets 
are known. A few comets travel in hyperbolic orbits, never return- 
ing, but most comets return over a period of years. The most famous 
is Halley’s Comet which can be seen every seventy years. 

JIETEORS — Meteors are pieces of matter which fall to earth 
out of space. They plunge into earth’s atmosphere at great speed 
and become incandescent from the resultant friction, so that they are 
seen in the sky as fireballs or “shooting stars’’. The majority of 
meteors are burned up long before they strike the earth’s surface 
and those which reach the ground are known as meteorites. Millions 
of them enter our atmosphere every-twenty four hours and probably 
not more than one or two a day survive to strike the ground as 
meteorites. Hence meteors which reach the earth are called mete- 
orites. The largest meteorite ever found is located near Grootfontein, 
South-West Africa which weighs between 60 to 70 tons. The second 
largest meteorite (weight 36J tons) was found at Cape York, 
Greenland. 

CONSTELLATIONS — Group of fixed stars named after a my- 
thological person, animal, etc. It must have been earliest observers, 
several thousand years B.C. who recorded that the ‘fixed’ stars are 
not scattered uniformly over the sky but appear to be grouped into 
figures, now named constellations. This confines us to stars visible 
to the naked eye, and also those of Milky Way. The constellations 
covering the whole celestial sphere are divided into three groups ac- 
cording to the regions in which they are seen — the Northern, the 
Southern and the Zodiacal. 

SATELLITES — The secondary bodies which revolve around the 
planets, as the planets revolve around the sun, are called satellites. 
With the exception of Mercury and Venus, all of the planets are ac- 
companied by one or more satellites. Earth has one satellite, moon ; 
Mars has two ; Jupiter twelve ; Saturn nine ; Uranus five ; and 
Neptune two. 

STARS — are luminous heavenly bodies, so far distant from the 
solar system that the light from the nearest star travelling at the 
speed of 186,000 miles per second, takes four years to reach the 



52 


HmOUSTAN TEAS-BOOK 


eaxfh. Unlike the planets, the stars shine hy their orni iignt. Stars 
are suns. Some of the stars are blighter and some of them are 
fainter than onr o'kti Snn. The total number of stars is probably in 
the neighbourhood of thjee to four billion ; a person rrith good eye- 
sight can see about 3,000 stars at any one time on a clear nigbt. The 
stars ‘twinkle’ as we gaze at them. This twinkling is caused hy 
refraction through the earth’s atmosphere. 

POLAR AURORAS — The Aurora Borealis (northern Bghts) and 
Aurora Austraiis (sonthem lights) are luminous atmospheric pheno- 
mena which occur in the Arctic and Antarctic regions respectively. 

They are patches of light, quivering beams or immense 
‘curtains’ with swaying folds appearing in the night sky. They may 
be white, red, yellow, green, violet. It has been definitely established 
that sun-spots* are the direct cause of these polar auroras. Ssm- 
spots are magnetic storms of vast dimensions on the surface of the 
Sun and they shoot out electrified particles into space. Those that 
come toward* the earth are dra-sni toward the earth’s magnetic poles 
and consequently these magnetic poles are the radiating centres of 
those electromagnetic waves in the sky that we commonly call 
Northern Lights or Southern Lights, depending npon whether we see 
them in the nothem or southern hemisphere. 

hlILKY WAT — Milky TFay is a hazy, somewhat irregular band 
of light abont 20” wide which completely encircles the heavens ana 
consists of dense clouds of stars. It is seen on clear, moonless summer 
evenings stretching entirely across the northern slqr. 


AT3IOSPHERE — The atmosphere is composed of air which sur- 
rounds or envelopes the whole ^rth. It is sometimes likened to a 
great sea of gases, at the bottom of which we live. This air which 
surrounds the globe afi'ects the light that comes to us from heavenlv 
bodies. It refracts (bends or changes the direction) lieht ravs that 
enter it. Due to this refraction, we see the Sun and the Aloon* before 
they rise and after they set. The ‘twjnldicg’ of the stare is caused 
fay convection currents in the air that have rauidlv changino- -refrac- 
tive effect on the light from the stars. Our twilight is produced bv 
the diffusion in the atmosphere of light from the Sun when it is 
below the horizon. Chemically the atmosphere is composed of 
m^gen, oorygen and ertremely minor amounts of argon, neon, 
helium, hyorogen and carbon dioside. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL INFORMATION 

RACES OF aiANKESTD 

RACES OF SIANKIND — No two human beings are exactly alike, 
but all human beings are alike in many respects. The cells that make 
up the body are same for all people. A biologist can tell certain cells 
of a human being from those of any other animal, but he cannot tell 
the cells of an Englishman or a German from those of a Chinese, a 
Negro or an American Indian. In the same way a biologist can tell 
human blood from the blood of lower animals, but all types of 
human blood are found among all stocks and races of man. For this 
reason, anthropologists say that there is only one race of people — 
human race. All human beings belong to one organic species called 
Homo Sapiens. 

RACE “A SOCIAL MYTH”— The United Nations Educational, 
Social and Cultural Organization in a statement on 8th July, 1950 set 
forth the following main points from the conclusions of international 
panel of world’s biologists, geneticists, sociologists, anthropologists 
etc. — 

(1) Racial discrimination has no scientific foundation in biolo- 
pcal fact. There is no proof that the groups of mankind differ in 
intelligence, temperament, or other innate mental characteristics, 

(2) The range of mental capacities in all races is much the 
same. 

(3) Extensive study yields no evidence that race mixture pro- 
duces biologically bad results. The social results of race mixtures 
arc to be traced to social factors. There is no biological justifica- 
tion for prohibiting inter-marriage between persons of different 
ethnic groups. 

(4) Race is less a biological fact than a social myth. As a 
myth it has in recent years taken a heavy toll in human lives and 
suffering and still keeps millions of persons from normal develop- 
ment, and civilization from the full use of the co-operation of pro- 
ductive minds. 

(5) Scientifically, no large modem national or religious 
^oup is a race. Nor are people who speak a single language, or live 
in a single geographical area, or share in a single cultural commu- 
nity necessarily a race. 

(6) Tests have shown essential similarity in mental characters 
among all human racial groups. Given similar degrees of cultural 
opportunity to realize their potentialities, the average achievement of 
the members of each ethnic grroup is about the same. 

(7) All human beings possess educability and adaptability, the 
traits which more than all others have permitted the development of 
men’s mental capacities. 

But as we view all mankind, we can see that people differ in 
the colour of their skin, in the colour and form of their hair, in eye 
colour, and in other external physical characteristics. On the basis of 



54 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


these differences, most anthropologists divide the manMnd into three 
or lour major stocks. Each of these stocks is divided into a mimher 
of smaller groups or races. , cr 

AIEANING of race — ^T here is no single trait which marks on 
one race or stocks from another. The overlapping of races and 
stocks with respect to any single trait is so great that a whole com- 
hination of traits is necessary to identify a race or stock. The fw- 
lowing is the commonly-accepted definition of race — A race is made 
up of persons who have a fairly definite combination of distinguish- 
ing physical traits which is handed on from parents to children. 

PURE RACE — There is hio pure’ races today. Some anthro- 
poligists believe that pigmies of Equatorial Africa are relatively 
pure as to race. For countless generations mankind has been cross- 
ing and recrossing, so far as races are concerned. Any given race 
in Europe has some genes or hereditary units, of almost all the other 
races of Europe. 

RACE SUPERIORITY — Science does not support the claim that 
some races are biologically superior or inferior to others. Civilization 
of any race may be advanced or retarded and the people within them 
may have greater or smaller opportunities for contact and for personal 
development. People, who live in an advanced civilization regardless 
of race or stock, develop much more rapidly than people who live in 
a retarded civilization. But this has nothing to do with abilities or 
aptitudes. 

CLASSIFICATION OF 3IANKIND — The various ways of classi- 
fying mankind are as follows — 

(1) Hair classification — Some ethnologists divide mankind into 
three kinds — Woolg hair, icavy hair, straight hair. 

(2) Colour classification — Some ethnologists divide mankind 
like this — Whites, Yellow-Broron and Blacks. 

(3) Stock classification — The human family has been divided 
into three or possibly four great aggregates of races usually call- 
ed stocks : — Caucasian, Mongo lian , Negroid and Australoid. First 
three are often referred to as “White’, bellow’ and ‘Black’. This is 
not really correct ; peoples of North-Central India are cancasoids, 
yet their skin colour is brown to dark brown. Variability also may 
he seen in stature ; the tallest people in the world are found in 
Denmark and Scottish Highlands, in East Africa and in southern- 
most Souft America — ^respectively Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloii 

The Caucasian or Indo-Exiropean Race CWhite) comprises the 
Persians, Jews, -Arabians, Hindus, Afghans, and the people of Nor- 
t^im Africa ; also the descendants of Europeans in America, South 
.Mnca, Australia, peoples of Europe, the adjacent shores of North 
Africa, nnd of Asia Alinor, and India. The following races also 
belong to Caucasian stock — Nordic or northwest European, Alpine 
or Central European, Mediterranean or south-west European, Baltic 
or north-east ^European, Dinaric or south-east European, Arnicnoid 
m western Asia Minor. These races are not, of course absolutely 
limited to those geographical areas. 

Mongolian Race (Yellow) is basically the peoples of Asia, 
but are also in the western hemisphere as the American Indians and 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL INFORMATION 


65 


are represented in Malaysia and in Oceania. The Mongoloids are 
Tisually divided into the following races ; Senic of China and Japan, 
Palearctic of Siberia, Turkic and Tungic or Mongolia of Central Asia 
and Malayan of Malaysia. In the Western Hemisphere, they are 
found as Eskimos and the Indians of the Americas. In Polynesia 
i.e., in Samoa Tonga, Hawaii, the Mongoloid stock is a basic element 
with Caucasoid and some Negroid admixture. 

The Negroids are the peoples of Africa and Oceania termed 
respectively the African Negroids and the Oceanic Negroids. The 
following are African Negroid races — True negro in S. Africa, 
Sudanie in Central Africa, Nilotic in East Africa, Hamitic in North- 
east and North Africa, Banttt in S. Africa, Bashman-Hottentot in 
Kalahari desert of S. Africa. The Oceanic Negroids are commonly 
called Melanesion or Papuan, and are chiefly found in Borneo, New 
Caledonia, Solomons Hebrides and Fiji. 

Australoids are found in Australia as Australian aboriginals and 
in Japan as the Ainu. They may possibly be an element in Mela- 
nesia and in Ceylon and South India i.e., Toda, the Vedda and other 

DISTRIBUTION OF BASIC STOCK— In percentages, world’s 
population is about 43 per cent. Mongoloid, 33 per cent Caucasoid and 
24 per cent Negroid. 

STAGES OF CIVILISATION OF MAN 

The terms employed refer to periods, not of time but of culture 
and are of local application only — ^it is not universal in all parts of 
the world. 

Stone Age — Age of human development in which primitive man 
was using stone implements and weapons. The Stone Age preceded 
the ages of bronze and iron. It is usually divided into four periods 
— (1) Aolithic or dawn of the stone age which lasted 6,000,000 years 
B.C.; (2) Paleolithic or old stone age lasting perhaps 400,000 to 

100.000 B.C. in which weapons and sharp stone tools were made from 
hard stone (flint) by chipping ; (3) Mesolithic, at traditional period 
intermediate between the old and new stone ages, lasting perhaps 
until 10,000 B.C. when arrow and spear-heads were made and (4) the 
Neolithic or New stone age in which tools were perfected by grind- 
ing and polishing the stone. The new stone age lasted in Europe 
for some 5,000 years. In different parts of the world, the stone age 
existed at different times. Fire was probably discovered some 60,000 
years before Christ. 

Bronze Age — ^The period when early man used bronze for his 
tools and weapons, this superseding the use of stone. Its date differs 
in various areas. In the East it began probably about 6,000 B.C. 
and in the West perhaps 2,000 B.C. and continued until about 

1.000 B.C. 

Iron Age — ^The cultural phase of human civilisation marked by 
the use of iron specially for edged tools and weapons. In Europe and 
'West Asia it usually followed the copper-using or bronze-using phase 
.or age; in Africa it directly succeeded the stone-age. In Europe, 



56 


HINDUSTAN- YEAR-BOOK 


iron working became general in the Mediterranean region abont 
1,000 B.C., subsequently two pre-Christian periods occurred, each of 
about 500 years. 

PRE-HISTORIC RACES 

Pithecanthropos erectus (erect ape-man or Java man) — ^This is 
generally believed to be the earliest manlike animal. Held to be a 
creature of pleistocene time about mid-way between the orang-utan 
and man (1891-1892). 

Sinaiithropos pektnensis (Peking man) — Of higher development 
than Java man, but of approximately same period. Fosilized re- 
mains of 10 individuals were found in a cave about 40 miles from 
Pekin between 1926 and 1930. The brain capacity is estimated to be 
about one-fourth larger than that of Java man. 

Aiistralopitheciis Africamis (erect man-ape) — A skuR was found 
in Cape Colony in 1925. _ 

Homo Heidelberg crisis (Heidelberg man) — ^Primitive man of ple- 
istocene period discovered in Heidelberg, Germany (1907). The jaw 
which are remarkably well-preserved, are unmistakably of human 
type. 

Neanderthal Man — Oldest kno-wn dolichocephalic (long-headed) 
race in Europe, living about 50,000 years before Christian era. 
Human remains were first discovered in 1857 near Dusseldorf, 
Germany, in Neanderthal, after which this type of human beings 
has been named. 

«,oo"To.Tw9S?r“ “ 

Note— Figures in parenthesis denote years in which discoveries 
were made. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SNFORHATION 


AREA OF THE CONTINENTS 


Europe 

Africa 

Asia 


Sq. miles Sq. miles 

3,773,958 Antarctica . . 6,362,625 

11,529,480 South America . . 6,825,876 

16,494,217 North America . . 9,358,976 

Australia . . 2,974,581 


WORLD DIMENSIONS 


Diameter of either 
Pole 

Diameter at equator 
Circ. of equator 


Miles 

Distance from 
7,900-00 Sun 
7,926-68 Superficial area 
24,901-08 Water area 
Land area 


Sq. miles 
the 

. . 93,000,000 
.. 196,836,000 
.. 141,050,000 
. . 69,786,000 


LONGEST RIVERS 


Mississippi-Missouri 

Amazon 

Nile 

Yangtse 

Yenisei 

Congo 


Miles long 

. . 4,500 Lena 

. . 4,000 Amur 
. . 3,850 Yellow River 
. . 3,400 Mekong 
. . 3,300 Niger 
. . 3,000 


OCEANS AND SEAS 


Miles long 
. . 2,648 
. . 2,621 
. . 2,610 
. . 2,610 
. . 2,600 


Ocens 

Pacific 

Atlantic 

Indian 

Arctic 


Area (sq. m.) 
. . 67,700,000 

. . 34,800,000 

. . 28,600,000 
5,541,600 


Greatest depths (ft.) 

35,640 (Marianas Trencli") 
30,246 (Puerto Rico) 
22,968 
16,500 


Seas 

Malayan Sea 

Caribbean 

Mediterranean 


Area (sq. m.) 
. 3,139,000 

. 1,667,000 

. 1,145,000 


(Gi-eatest depths (ft.) 
21,342 
23,748 
18,160 


HIGHEST MOUNTAIN PEAKS 


Range 

Everest Himalayas 
Godwin-Austen (Ir) Do. 
Kanchanjanga Do. 
Lhotse Do. 

Makalu Do. 

Nanda Devi Do. 

Nanga Parvat Do, 

Kamet Do. 


height Range height 

in ft. in ft. 

29,028 Aconcagua Andes 22,836 

28,250 Illampu Do 21,500 

28,146 Chlmborozo Do. 20,498 

27,890 McKinley Alaska 20,300 

27.790 Mount Logan Rockies 19.850 

26.646 Cotopaxi Andes 19,344 

26,629 Kilimanjaro Tanganaika 19,340 
25,477 Demevand Iran 18,600- 

Elburz Caucasus 18,481 



58 


HINDUSTAN TEAK-BOOS; 


HIGHEST & LOWEST ELEVATIONS OF THE WORLD 

Highest {jt.) I/oicest 

World & -4sfa— Mt. Everest . - 29,028 Jordan Talley, Dead Sea 

(Asia) — 1,290 ft. beIo~ 
mean sea level 

Africa— 'm. EHimanjaro 19,340 Qattara Depression 

‘ (Egypt) 440 ft. below 

sea level 

H. America— yit. McKinley - - 20,300 Death Talley, Califor- 
nia 275 ft. below sea 
level 

S. America — Mt. Aconcagna .. 22.8-35 Sea level 

Antarctica — Mt. Markham - - 15,100 Sea level 

Europe — ^Mt. Elburz (Cancasns) 18,481 Caspian Sea (U.S.S.R-) 

92 ft. below sea level 

Australia — ^Mt. Koscinsco - • 7,305 Lake Eyre, 40 ft. below 

sea level 

LAKES 

Area Area 

Sg. Miles Sq. Miles 

Caspian Asia-Europe . 170,000 Great Bear Lake 

Superior (N. America) 31.820 (N. America) . . 12,000 

Tictoria Nyanza (.Africa) 26500 Great Slave (N. America) 11,170 
Aral (Asia) . . 24400 Nayasa (.Africa) . . 11.000 

Huron (N. .America) . . 23,010 Erie (North .America) 9.940 

Michigan (N. .America) 22.400 Winnipeg (North America) 9.39S 

Tanganyika (.Africa) 12.700 Ontario (North .America) 7,540 
Baikal (Siberia) . . 12,150 Ladoga (Europe) . . 7,100 

Balkhash (Asia) . . 6,670 

VOLC.ANOE5 

Active feet Dormant feet 

Cutonasi (Ecuador) . . 19,550 Llullaillaco (Chile) . . 20544 

3It. Wrangel (U.SA.) 14.000 Demavend (Iran) .. 18,600 

Manna Loa (Hawaii) . . 13,675 Semerou (Java) . . 12.050 

Erebus (.Antarctic) ., 13,000 Halcakala (Hawaii) .. 10,032 

Nyiragongo (Belgian Guntur (-Java) .. 7,300 

Congo) . , 11,560 Pelee (W. Indies) . . 4,430 

Biamna (.Aleutian Is.) . , 11.000 Krakatoa (Sunda Strait) 2,600 

Etna (Cicily) . , 10.741 Two-Shima (Japan) . . 2,480 

Chilian ((^ile) . - 10,500 Extinct feet 

Nyamuragira (Belgian .Aconcagua (Chile) . . 22,976 

Congo) . . 10,150 Chimborazo (Equador) 20,500 

Paricutin (Merico) . . 9,000 Kilimanjaro (Tanga- 

.Asama (Japan) . . 8500 nyika) . . 19.340 

Hecla (Iceland) .. 5,100 .Antisana (Equador) .. 18.850 

Kilauca (Hawaii) . . 4,090 Elburz (Caucasus) . . 18.526 

Vesuvius (Italy) . . 3,700 Popocatapetl (Jlerico) 17,750 

Stromboli (Lipari Is.) . - 3,000 Orizaba (Mexico) . . 17.400 

Fujiyama (Japan) . . 12,395 



GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 


59 


TEN LARGEST ISLANDS 

feet Baffin (Canada) . . 197,754 

Greenland (Denmark) 840,000 Sumatra (Indonesia) . . 167,620 

New Guinea (Nether- Honshu . . 89,009 

lands, Australia) . . 316,861 Great Britain 

Borneo (Indonesia, (Mainland) . . 84,186 

Gr, Br.) . . 290,012 Victoria (Canada) . . 80,340 

Madagascar (France) 228,682 Ellesmere (Canada) . . 77,392 

DESERTS 


Gobi (Mongolia, Asia) 

Sahara (North Africa) 

Kalahari (South Africa) 

Libyan (East Sahara) 

Kizil Kum (Central Turkistan) 
Kara Kum (South-west Turkistan) 
Atacama (North Chile) 


Approx, size. 

300.000 sq. m. 
3,500.000 sq. m. 

120.000 sq. m. 

500.000 sq. m. 
70,000 sq. m. 

110.000 sq. m. 
400 m. long 


Talka Makan (South Sinkiang, China) . . 700 m. long 

Great Arabian (most of Arabia) .. . . 1,500 m. long 

Thar (N. W. India) . . About 300 m. by 380 ra. 

Great Australian (Western portion of Australia) About half the 

continent 


Nubian (East Africa) .. . . 100,000 sq. m. 

Colorado (S. E. California) .. . . 200 m. long 

Mohave (S. E. California) . . . . 15,000 sq. m. 


GEOGRAPHICAL SURNAMES 


Island of pearls — Bahrein (Per- 
sian Gulf). 

World’s lonliest island — Tristan 
De Cunha (Mid-Atlantic). 

Ttoof of the World — Tibet. 

Holy Land — Palestine. 

Island of Cloves — Zanzibar. 

Land of White Elephant — Siam. 

Empire City — New York. 

Pillars of Hcrcides — Strait of 
Gibraltar. 

Kev of the Mediterranean — 
Gibraltar. 

Rose-pink City — Jainur. 

Whiteman’s grave — Guinea coast 
of Africa. 

Sugar bowl of the world — Cuba. 

Windy City — Chicago. 

Venice of the North — Stockholm. 

Forbidden City — ^Lhasa. 

Land of Cakes — Scotland. 


China’s Sorrow — ^Hoang Ho. 

Gate of tears — Strait of Bab-el- 
Mandeb. 

Pearl of the Antilles — Cuba. 

The Corridor — A strip of land in 
Poland separating Germany 
from East Prussia. 

Granite City — Aberdeen. 

Eternal City — Rome. 

Gift of the Nile — Egypt. 

Land of the Midnight Sun — 
Norway. 

Land of Morning Calm — ^Korea. 

Hermit Kingdom — Korea. 

Playground of Europe — Switzer- 
land. 

City of Seven Hills — Rome. 

Land of Firing Sun—^apan. 

Dark Continent — Africa. 

Emerald Isle — ^Ireland. 

Land of Maple — Canada. 



60 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Land of Five Rivers— The Punjab. Bengal’s sorroju— Damodar. 
Gateway of India — Bombay. Never Never land — ^\'ast prairies 

City of Palaces — Calcutta. of northern Australia. 

Land of Golden Fleece — ^Aus- Queen of the Adnatic — ^Venice. 

tralia. The Down Under — .Australia. 

City of Sky-Scrapers — Nem York. Herring Pond — ^.Atlantic Ocean. 
Cockpit of'Ev.rope — The Balkans. Great White Tfay — Broadrray 
Land of Thousand Lakes — (Nenr Y'ork). 

Finland. City of Dreaming Spires — 

City of Magnificent Distances — Oxford. 

Washin^on D.C. Garden of England — Kent. 


LONGEST TUNNELS 


Miles _ IUjics- 

East Finchley-3Iorden . . 175 Einiutaka (N. Z.) . . 55 

Simplon (Switzerland-Italy) 125 Ricken, Switzerland . . 55 . 

.Appennine, Italy . . 115 Grenchenberg Do . . 55 

St. Gothard, Switzerland 95 Tauren. Austria . . 55 

Loetschbeg, Switzerland 9 Otira, A". Z. . . 5 

Mont Cenis, Italy . . 85 Ronco, Italy . . 5 

Cascade, U.S.A. . . 72 Hauenstein, Switzerland . . 5 

Arlberg, Austria . . 65 Colie di Tenda, Italy . . 5 

Moffat, U.S-A 6 Connaught, Canada .. 5 

Shimzu, Japan . . 6 


3I0UNT.4IN PASSES 

ft. high ft. high 

.Alpine (Colorado, U.S..A,) 13,550 St. Bernard (Siriss Alps) 8.100 
Bolan (Baluchistan) 5,880 St. Gotthard (Sv.-iss Alps) 6.936 

Brenner (Austrian Alps) 4,588 Shiph.a (Bulgaria) .. 4.300 
Khybar (.Afghanistan) 3,373 Simplon (Swiss .Alps) .. 6,595 

F.AMOUS CAYES AND CAIYIRNS 

Mamoth Cave (Kentucky. U.S.) 4 m. long 125 ft, high. 

Caverns of .Adelsburg (Trieste), 

Carlsbad Caverns (S. W. New Mexico). ct 

Cheddar Cave (Somerset). 

Fingal’s Cave (Scotland). 

Blue Grotto (Island of Capri, Italy). 


SHIP ( 
Length 
in vulcs 

White Sea (u.e.s.t.) . . 140 

Gotta (Sweden) . . 115 

Suez (Egypt) . . 100 

Volga-Moscow (rus.s.r.) 80 
Kiel (Germany) . . 61 

Ahlga-Don (u.s.s.t.) . . 60 

Panama (Panama Canal) 50 


lANALS 

Length 
in. miles 

Elbe-Txave (Germany) . . 41 

Manchester (England) . . 355 

Welland (Canada) .. 275 

Princess Juliana (Holland) 20* 
.Amsterdam . . 16? 

Corinth . . . , 4 

Sanlte Ste. Marie (U.S. — 



GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 


61 


GEOGRAPHICAL RECORD-BREAKERS 


Highest Mountain System 
Longest Mountain System 
Highest Plateau, 

Longest River 
Largest River (in_ volume) 
Largest River Basin 
Largest Salt Water Lake .. 
Largest body of Fresh Water 
Largest group of Islands . . 
Largest Artificial Lake 
Largest north to south 
stretch of land 

Largest inland sea 
Largest ship canal 
Deepest Ocean 
Highest Auto Road . . 

Highest Capital City 
Largest Island .. 

Densest population 
Hottest Region 


Coldest Regions 

Largest Continent 
Largest Poninsida 
Highest Country 
Biggest Ocean 
Most northerly Town 

Largest Desert 
Largest City 
Highest Peak 

Densely Populated Country 
Rainiest Place 
Largest Volcano 

Highest Active Volcano 
Smallest Continent 
Deepest Lake 
Highest Lake 

Saltiest Sea 

Smallest Independent State 
Largest Unbroken Political 
Unit 

Largest Delta 


Himalayas. 

Andes. 

Tibet. 

Mississippi-W[issouri, 4,500 miles long. 
Amazon. 

Basin of Amazon, 2,720,800 sq. miles. 
Caspian Sea. 

Superior. 

Malaya Archipelago. 

Lake Mead at Boulder Dam (U.S.A.). 

America : N. and S. extend from 
Arctic to the Antarctic Ocean. 
McditeiTanean Sea. 

White Sea Canal, 140 miles long. 
Pacific Ocean. 

Mount Evans Highway (Colorado, 
U.S.A.). 

La Paz (Bolivia). 

Greenland, 840,000 sq. miles. 

Monaco (33,898 per sq. mile). 
North-west Sahara, Azizia (Tripolita- 
nia), Death Valley (California), and 
Thar Desert of North-west India. 
Verkoyansk in North-East Siberia 
where temperature is 94° below zero. 
Asia. 

India. 

Tibet. 

Pacific Ocean. 

Hemmerfest, Norway, 275 miles north 
of Arctic circles. 

Sahara (Africa). 

London (Population, 8,346,000). 

Mt. Everest (29,028 ft.). 

China. 

Cherrapunji (Assam), 

Mauna Loa (crater 3.7 sq. m.). Largest 
volcanic mt. in cubic content. 
Kotopaxi (Equador), 19,560 ft. 
Australia. 

Lake Baikal (Siberia). 

Lake -Titicaca (Bolivia, 12,000 ft. 

above sea). 

Dead Sea. 

Vatican City (109 acres). 

U.S.S.R. 

Sundarban delta (8,000 sq. miles). 



62 


BINDTJSTAN yeak-book 


Longest ThorougTifare 
Highest City 

Largest coral fomwJtion . . 
Lowest body of water 
Deepest place in the ocean 


Broadway, New* Torli. 

Phari, Tibet, altitude 14,300 ft. 

Great Barrier Keef, (Australia). 

Dead Sea. 

Off the Island of Mindanao, Philip- 
pines sounding of 35,410 ft, reachA 


Tt'ORLD PSTREMES OP CLIMATE 

Coldest Place — ^^erkoyansk (Si- Highest mean annual tempera- 
heria) — 94°F (126° below free- tare — S6°F at Massawa, Eri- 
zing point) on Jan. 3, 1885. trea, Africa. 

Hottest Place — Azizia (Libya) — Lowest mean annual tempera- 
136°P (Sept. 13, 1922) and ture — 14 °F at FrambeLm, An- 
Death Valley (California) — tarctica. 

134 °P. (July 10, 1913). Wettest Place — 366 inches in 

Minimum recorded Rainfall — ^.04 one month at Cherrapunji. 
inch at Iquique, Chile — average Assam, July, 1E61. Average 
yearly fall during 40 years. annual rainfall is 424 and 499 

inches. 


WATERF.ALLS 

{The following arc notable chiefly for height) 

Height ft. Height ft. 

Angel (Venezuela) .. 3212 Garsoppa (India) .. 829 

Yosemite (U-S-A) .. 2425 Kaieteur (B. Guiana) .. 741 

Southerland (N.Z.) -. 1904 Maletsunyane (Basutoland) 6S2 

Ribbon (U.S.A.) , . 1612 Aughrabies (S. Africa) 450-480 

Gavarnie (France) - . 1385 Tequendama (Colombia) 475 

Staubbach (S^vitzerland) 9S0 Glomach (Scotland) .. 370 

Vettitfos (Norway) ,. 900 Grand Falls (Labrador) 316 

Multnomach (U.SA.) . . 850 


{The following combine considerable height with •colume) 

Ht, in ft. Width in Mac:, flood 
yds. flow in at. 

^t. per sec. 

Guaira (Brazil-Paragaay) .. 90-130 5.240 over 1,500,000 

Niagara (Canada-U.SA.) .. 158-1 75' 1.316 over 290,000 

Paulo -AJTonso (Brazil) .. 275 ' 19 over 500.000 

Iguassu (Brazil-Argentina) .. 237' 300 over 450.000 

Victoria (N.-S, Rhodesia) .. 236-354’ 1,530 250,000 

Khon Cataracts (Indo-Cbina) 50-70 14,000 over 1,750!000 

Cauvery (Siva Sundaram, India) 300’ 918 over 600,000 

Garsoppa (India) .. 829 17,800 120,000 

Aughrabies (S. Africa) .. 450-480 20 500,000 



GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 


6S 


POLAR RECORDS 
Arctic 


Year 

Explorer 


No. 

Latitude 

1854 .. 

E. K. Kane (U.S.) 


78° 


45' 

1871 .. 

Capt. Hall (U.S.A.) 


82° 


11' 

1875 .. 

Capt. Nares (G.B.) 


83° 


20' 

1882 ,. 

Lieut. Greely (U.S.A.) .. 


83° 


24' 

1892 .. 

Lieut. Peary (U.S.A.) 


83° 


27' 

1895 .. 

Fridtjof Nansen (Norway) 

Duke d’ Abruzzi (Italy) 


86° 


14' 

1900 .. 


86° 


34' 

1902 .. 

Lieut. Peary (U.S.A.) 


84° 


17' 

1904 .. 

Zeigler Polar Expedition (U.SA.) 


82° 


4' 

1906 .. 

Commander Peary (U.S.A.) 


87° 


6' 

1909 .. 

Commander Peary (U.S.A.) 


90° 

(Pole) 

, , 

1926 .. 

Commander Byrd (U.S.A.)* 


90° 

(Pole) 


1926 .. 

Amundsen -Ellswortb-N obile'j- 


90° 

(Pole) 


1928 .. 

Gen. U. Nobile f (Italy) 


90° 

(Pole) 


1937 .. 

Pavel Golvin, (Soviet Russia)^ 


90° 

(Pole) 


1937 .. 

Otto J. Schmidt and four others* 
(Soviet Russia) 

90° 

(Pole) 


1952 .. 

Lt. Col. Benedict (U.S.A.F.) 

• • 

90° 

(Pole) 

•- 


Antarctic 


Year 

Explorer 

No. 

Latitude 

1774 .. 

Capt. Cook (G.B.) 

.. 71° 


10' 

1823 .. 

Capt. Weddell (G.B.) .. 

.. 74° 


15' 

1842 .. 

Capt. Rose (G.B.) 

.. 78° 


10' 

1900 .. 

Borchgrevink (G.B.) 

.. 78° 


50' 

1902 .. 

Capt. Robert F. Scott ( G B.) 

.. 82° 


17' 

1909 .. 

Lieut. Shackletoii (G.B.) 

.. 88° 


23' 

1911 .. 

Roald Amundsen (Norway) 

.. 90° 

(Pole) 

• • 

1912 .. 

Capt. Robert F. Scott (G.B.) 

.. 90° 

(Pole) 


1935 .. 

L. Ellsworth* (U.SA.) 

.. 76°- 

79° 

68' 

1947 .. 

Adml. Richard Byrd* (U.S.A.) 

.. 90° 

(Pole) 



FIRST ASCENTS OF MOUNTAINS 

Mont. Blanc (France-Italy), Chimhorazo (Ecuador), E. 

M. G. Paccard & J, Balmat, 1786. ‘WTiyuiper, 1880. 

Jungfrau (Switzerland), J. R. Mt. Cook (New Zealand), W. S. 
& H. Meyer, 1811. Green, 1882. 

Matterhorn (Switzerland), E. Kilimanjaro (Tangansdka), 

"WTiymper, 1865. Meyer, 1887. 

Elbrus (Caucasus), D. W. Aconcagua (Chile- Argentine), 

Freshfield, A. W. Moore, & C. C. M. Zurbriggen, 1897. 

Tucker, 1868. 


*By airplane. 
fBy airship. 



^4 


nmOUSTAN TEAS-BOOK 


First Ascents of Mountains — {Condd.). 


Ut, St. Elias (Alaska), Duke 
-of Abruzzi, 1897. 

3ft. Kenya (Kenya), H. J- 
Macxnder, 1899. 

Ruv:eit:ori (Central Africa), 
Duke of Abruzzi, 1906. 

ML McKinley (Alaska), Par- 
ker-Brovnie Expdt. 

ML Logan (Alaska), A. H. 
McCarthy, 1925. _ 

Illampu (Bolivia), German- 
Anstrian Expedition. 

Kr iGodroin Ajssten, Karako- 
ram), Italian Expedition, July 31, 


1954. 

Everest (Nepal), British Ex- 
pedition, 1953. 

Kanchenjunga (Nepal), Bri- 
tish Exp. led by Charles Evans. 
Alay 25, 1955. 


ML Cho-Oyun (Nepalese Hi- 
malayas), by Aastnan Expedi- 
tion Oct. 19, 1954. 

Manga Parvat by Austrian- 
German Exp. led by Peter Schen- 
brenner, July 4, 1953. 

3If. Annap'uma by Maurice 
Herzog (French), June 3,’ 1950. 

ML Mwdtv.m (Jammu £; 
Kashmir) by French Exn. Aue. 
28, 1953. 

Lhotsc by Svriss Exnidition, 
May, 1956. 

Mahalu by French Expedition, 
May, 1955. 

Mansabi by Japanese Eraedi- 
tion. May, 1956. 


FA3IODS STRUCTURES OF THE MORLD 


Cheops Pyramid of Egypt — 
Near Gizeh, erected by the 
Pharaoh Cheops descended from 
the fourtla dsmasty in B. C. in 
2700-2675. Cheops had the Py- 
ramid bniit to serve him as a 
tomb. It is 481 ft. height, its 
base being 750 ft, square. 

Great Sphinx of Egypt— A 
st.one image of a crouching lion 
vrith a ^ human head, at Gizeh in 
norihern Egypt 'and carved about 
3500 B.C. The total height of 
Sphinx is about 66 ft., its body 
is* 189 ft. in length. 

Alhambra — A group of build- 
ings-erected chieSy between 1348 
and 1354 by the Moorish King 
A1 Ahmar and his successors oa 
■a hill above Granada in southern 
Spain. It is claimed to be the 
■crowning achievement of the 
iloors in Spain. 

Pantheon — ^At Rome -was built 
in 27 B.C, It was used as temple, 
laterally Pantheon was intended 
--as a temple of “all the Gods”. 


Leaning Tower of Pisa — A 
round white marble bell-tower 
at Pisa, Italy and containing 
eight stories enclosed by • colu- 
mns. The tower leans about 14 
feet out of the perpendicular, 
its height being 183 feet on the 
north side and 179 feet on the 
south side. It was built in 1350. 

Parthenon of Athens — cons- 
tructed in Acropolis, Temple of 
Athena, Goddess of Thought 
This most beautiful b-ailding of 
the world -was constructed by 
Pericles in 447-432 B.C. 

Great M’all of China — A vrall 
of about 1,500 miles long extend- 
ing along the boundary between 
nortliern China and "Mongolia. 
It was raised in 213 B.C. to serve 
as a rampart ' to defend the 
coun^ against foreign invasions 
'and in 1400 it -was reconstructed 
in stones. 

Great Buddhist Temple of Java 
— A monument of Buddhist ar- 
chitecture, known as Boro Bu&or 



GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 


65 


Famous Structures of the World — iConcld.). 


and built of volcanic lava bet- 
ween A.D. 750 and 850. It is 
one of the architectural wonders 
of the world. 

Acropolis at Athens — A hill 
about 260 feet in height located 
in south-eastern Greece. At the 
summit are ruins of numerous 
temples originally enclosed by 
Doric and Ionic columns and 
built of marble by Pericles and 
Cimon in the 5th century B.C. 
The most notable of these struc- 
tures include Parthenon which 
contained a gold and ivory statue 
of Athena. 

St. Peter’s at Rome — ^The 
largest Cathedral in the world 
covering an area of 18,000 
square yards is located in 
Rome, Italy. It was completed 
in 1632. The Cathedral’s Neat- 
est length is 636 feet, its height 
is 435 feet. 

Mayan Temples — ^Buildings 

erected by the Mayan Indians, S. 
America, who attained a high 
civilization before the birth of 
Christ. The temples, now in ruins 
were built on lofty pyramid-shap- 
ed terraces and were frequently 
ornamented with columns in the 
form of feathered snakes. 

Colosseum of Rome — ^The con- 
struction of this famous amphi- 
theatre was completed in 80 B.C. 
Its greatest circle had a dia- 
meter of 185 m. and its smallest 
156 m. and was 48.5 m. high. 
■ It seated 85,000 spectators. It 
served for circus performances, 
for the fight of the gladiators, 
animal fights etc. In this era 
the first Christians were thrown 
in the Colosseum to the wild 
animals. 

Potala of Tibet — ^The fortress- 
palace of Dalai Lama, the ruler 
of Tibet. The structure is over 

6 


900 feet in length and resem- 
bles a fortress with many gilded 
roofs and towers at various 
levels — the highest being more 
than 400 feet from the ground. 

Shawe Dagon Pagoda — A gild- 
ed bell-shaped structure at Ran- 
goon containing eight hairs of 
Buddha. Its base is 1,355 feet 
in circumference and the top is 
encased with gold leaf support- 
ing 1,500 little bells of silver and 
gold. It is 367 feet high. 

Lomonosov University of 
Moscow — was opened in 1953. 
It is the highest scientific build- 
ing in the world. It contains 32 
floors and 45,000 rooms. The 
Amphitheatre of Geo^aphic 
Education is situated in the 
centre. There are 112 elevetors 
for the service of the students 
and one can reach the top floor 
in 37 seconds. 

Taj Mahal — A domed square 
mausoleum of white marble at 
Agra in India built during the 
period from 1630 to 1649 by Em- 
peror Shah Jahan as a burial 
place for his wife Mumtaz Ma- 
hal. Tajmahal is the perfect 
gem of Moslem art. 

Colossus of Mysore — A statue 
of 57 feet in height representing 
Gomateswara, a saint of the 
Jain religion. It was carved in 
983 A.D. from a solid rock on a 
MU top that rises 470 feet above 
a plain in Mysore. The image 
is 26 feet broad at the shoulders. 

Angkor Vat — A structure 796 
ft. long and 588 feet wide in a 
city in Cambodia, French Indo- 
China, comprising a royal city 
of 59 sq. miles area and temple 
Angkor Vat. Built in 9th cen- 
tury by the Khmers, the enclosed 
temples, palaces and public 
building of stone are completely 



HINDUSTAN TEAR BOOK 


^6 


Famous Structures of the World — {Concld.). 


covered -with sculptured scenes 
which picture the life of Khmer 
civilization now extinct. The 
largest of five pagoda rises 250 
feet above foundations at the 
centre of the temple. 

' Kremlin of Moscow — was con- 
structed in the city surrounded 
by a wall. It contains several 


buildings and domes among 
which the most famous is the 
Tower of Ivan the terrible where 
the largest bell in the world is 
placed. 

Empire State Building—in 
New York is the tallest building 
of the world, 1,250 ft. high in 
102 stories. The building was 
completed in 1931. 


KNOW YOUR NEW COINS 

At present you count money in rupees, annas and pies. For 
your convenience the Government of India have decided to introduce 
Decimal Coinage from 1st April, 1957. 

Under the new coinage system, your rupee shall have 100 Nayd 
Paise. There will be seven new coins in use : — 


100 Nayc Paise 
60 Naye Paise 
25 Naye Paise 
10 Naye Paise 
5 Naye Paise 
2 Naye Paise 
1 Nayaa Paisa 


One rupee. 

One half of a rupee. 
Quarter of a rupee. 
1/lOth of a rupee. 
l/20th of a rupee. 
l/50th of a rupee. 
1/lOOth of a rupee. 


Tnipoi-tant Points — The rupee will remain the standard coin with 
^ no loss or gain in its value. The change-over from the old to the 
new coins will be gradual. For at least three years, both the old 
coins and the new coins would be current. During this period pav- 
ments can be made or accepted either in new or old coins or in both. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

LONGEST RAILWAY STATION PLATFORMS 


feet Bournemouth {Eng.) . . 1,734 

Storvik (Sweden) . . 2,470 Perth (Scotland) . . 1.714 

Sone (India) .. 2,415 York (Eng.) .. 1.704 

Kharagpur (India) .. 2,3.30 Cambridge (Eng.) .. 1,629 

Bulawayo (Rhodeeia) .. 2,302 Edinburgh (Scotland) .. 1.608 

New Lucknow (India) .. 2,250 Aberdeen (Scotland) .. 1,596 

Bezwada (India) .. 2,210 Trichinopoly (India) . .. 1,546 

Manchester Victoria Ex- Ranaghat (India) .. 1,522 

change (L.M.S.) .. 2.194 Crewe (Eng.) .. 1,509 

Jhansi (India) .. 2,025 Dakor (India) .. 1,470 

Kotri (N.W.R., Pakistan) 1,896 Victoria (Eng.) .. 1,430 

Mandalay (Burma Rail- New Castle (Eng.) 1,365 

ways) . . 1,788 Bristol (Eng.) . . 1,300 


LONGEST BRIDGES 
(With length in feel of waterways) 


Lower Zambesi (Africa) 11,322 Hardinge (Pakistan) .. 5,384 

Storsstromsbroen Victoria .Jubilee (Canada) 6,325 

(Denmark) .. 10,499 Moerdijk (Uelherlands) 4.698 

Tay Bridee (Scotland) 10.289 S.vdney Harbour (Anst.) 4.124 

Sone Bridge (India) .. 9.839 .Jacques Carlior (Canada) 3.890 

Godavari (India) .. 8.881 Queensborouch (U.S.A.) 3.720 

Forth Bridge (Scotland) 8.291 Ilrooklyn (U.S.A.) .. 3,451 

Rio Salado (Argentina) 6.703 Torun (Poland) .. .. 2.291 

Golden Gate (U.S.A.) .. 6.2fi0 Quebec Bridge (Canada) 3,205 

Rio Duke (Argentina) 6,866 


NOTABLE TELESCOPES 

REFRACTOR REFLECTOR 

Size Observa- Location Size Observa- Location 
in tory _ in tory 

inches inches 

40 Yerkea Williams Bay 30 Alleghny Pittsburgh, 

U.S.A, U.S.A. 

36 Lick Mt. Hamilton, 30 Risr.hoff- 

Califomia sheim Nice. Franco 

32-7 Vniv. of 30 Poidkova Leningrad 

Paris Meudon, France u.s.s.r. 

31-6 Astro- 200 Palomar - Mt. Palomar, 

physical Potsdam, Ger- California 

many 



68 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Notable Telescopes — {Conoid.') 


REFRACTOR 
Size ■ Observa- 
iinches) tory 
100 Mt. Wil- 
son 

82 McDonald 
74 Danlap 

72 Dominion 
Astro- 
physical 


REFLECTOR 

Location Size Observa- Location 
{inches) tory 

69 Perkins Delaware, u.s. 

Pasadena, Cali- 61 Harvard Harvard tr.s. 

fomia 60 Bloem- 

Mt. Locke, ti,s.A. fontein S. Africa 

Eichmoad Hill, 60 Mt. Wil~ 

Canada son Pasadena, tj.S. 

60 Cordoba Argentina 


Victoria, B.C. 


LIBRARIES OF THE WORLD 



Books 

Mss. 

Books 

Mss. 

British Museum 
Bibliotheque Na- 

6,000,000 

-• 

Bibliotheque Ro- 
yale (Brussels) 

2,000,00 

tionale {Paris) 
State Library 

6,000,000 

150,000 

Biblioteck Na- 
cional (Madrid) 

" 1 , 500,000 

{Berlin) 

State Library 

2,850,000 

• • 

Royal Library 
(Stockholm) 

800,000 

{Munich) 

Nationalbliothek 

2,000,000 

• • 

Lenin State Li- 
brary (illoscow) 

15,000,000 

(Vienna) 

Biblioteca Nazio- 

1,450,000 

•• 

Public Library 
(Leningrad) 

10,000,000 

nale {Naples) 
Biblioteca Nazio- 

1,400,000 

11,000 

National Diet Li- 
brary (Tokio) 

3,600,000 

nale (Florence) 
Biblioteca Nazio- 

3,450,000 

• • 

Library of the 
Congress 

nale (Rome) . 
University Library 

.1,940,000 


(Washington) 
New York Public 

10,000,000 

(Amsterdam) 

.1,500,000 

. . 

Library (N.Y.) 

5,800,000 


LARGEST BELLS 

Approximate Approximate 

weight in weight in 

tons tons 


Great Bell at Moscow 


St. Paul’s (London) 

17 

(World’s largest) 

220 

Great Tombs (Oxford) 

17 

Great Bell, Mingoon, 


Seus (France) 

13 

(Burma) 

125 

York 

12 

Great Bell (Peking) 

55 

Erfuz Cathedral (Prus- 


Novgorod (Russia) . 

31 

sian Saxony) 

13 

Bell (Cologne Cathedral) 

26 

Montreal (R. G. Cathe- 


St. Issue's Cathedral, 


dral) 

13 

(Leningard) 

22 

Big Ben (Westminster, 


Oulmutz (Austria) 

18 

Eng.) 

12 

Vienna 

18 

Gorlitz (Silesia) 

10 

Notre Dame (Paris) . . 

18 

Brugs 

10 



GENERAL INFORMATION 


69 


TALL BUILDINGS AND TOWERS 

No. of No. of 

stories feet stories feet 

Empire State (N.Y.) 102 1,250 Waldorf-Astoria 

Chrysler (N.Y.) 77 1,046 (N.Y.) .. 49 626 

Eiffel Tower (Paris) . . 984 Cathedrals 

60 Wall Tower (N.Y.) 66 950 Ulm Cathedral (Ger.) . . 629 

Bank of Manhattan St. John the Divine 

(N.Y.) . . 71 927 (N.Y.) . . 600 

E.C.A. (U.S.) . . 70 850 Cologne Cathedral . . 612 

Woolworth (N.Y.) 60 792 Rouen Cathedral (Pr.) . . 485 

City Bank (N.Y.) 64 745 Strausshurg Cathe- 

Terminal Tower (U.S.) 62 708 dral (Germany) .. 468 

600 6th Avenue 60 700 St. Stephen’s Cathe- 

Metropolitan Bldg. dral (Vienna) . . . . 441 

(N.Y.) .. 60 700 Salsbury .. 440 

Chanin Tower (U.S.) 66 680 Seville . . 400 

Lincoln (U.S.) 63 673 Antwerp . . 397 

Irvine Trust (U.S.) 60 664 Pyramid of Cheops 

General Electric (U.S.) 60 641 (Egypt) . . . . 460 


HIGHEST AND LARGEST DAMS 
Highest (Concrete) feet Largest (Earth fill and or rocTc- 

♦Grand Dixence (Switxer- fill) Cubic yds 

land) . . 921 Port Peck (U.S. 

♦Mauvoisin Do. .. 776 1940) .. 126,628,288 

Hoover (U.S. 1936) . . 726 Oahe (U.S.) . . 78,000,000 

Bhakra (India, 1954) . . 680 Garrison (U.S.) . . 69,000,000 

Shasta (U.S. 1945) .. 602 Fort Randall (U.S.) 27,000,000 

Kurobe No. 4 (Japan) . . 590 Kingsley (U.S. 1940) 26,000,000 

Tignes (France) .. 590 Gatun (U.S. 1912) 26,107,000 

Hungry Horse (U.S.) . . 664 Denison (U.S. 1944) 18,290,000 

Grand Coulee (U.S. 1942) 660 Sardis (U.S. 1940) 16,562,000 

Ross (U.S. 1950) .. 645 Hansen (U.S. 1940) 14,700,000 

Fontana (U.S. 1944) . . 480 Cherry Creek (U.S. 

Anderson Ranch (U.S.1950) 456 1950) . . 14,650,000 

Chambon (France, 1934) 450 

Pine Plat (U.S.) .. 440 

Detroit (U.S.) .. 440 

WORLD’S GREATEST RESERVOIRS 


Capacity 

Wainganga, (India) 33,300,000 
Lake Mead, Hoover 
(U.S.) . . 31,142,000 

Oahe . . 23,600,000 

Garrison . . 23,000,000 

Fort Peck . . 19,400,000 


Capacity 

Pine Portage . • 11,^3^000 

Roosevelt Lake, 

Grand Coulee .. 9,402,000 

Lac Casse, Canada 8,800,000 
Bhakra, India • • 7,400,000 

Hirakud, India . . 6,750,000 


♦Under construction. 



70 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


I 


WORLD’S LONGEST SPANS BY TYPES OF BRIDGES 


Type 


Bridge Location Y ear 

Completed 


Cable Suspen- 
sion 

Transporter 
Bridge 
Cantilever 
Steel Arch 
Eyebar Suspen- 
sion 

Concrete Arch 
Continuous Truss 
Simple Truss 
Continuous 
Girder 

Vertical Lift 
Wichert Truss 
Swing Span 
Tubular Girder 
Timber Span 


Golden Gate 

Sky Ride 
^Quebec 
Kill Van Kull 

’Florianopolis 

Sando 

Dubuque 

’Metropolis 

Dusseldorf- 

Neuss 

’Capecord Canal 
Homestead 
’Fort Madison 
’Britannia 
•McKenzie 
River 


Pretressed Con- 
crete Girder 
Bascule 

Simple Girder 
Masonry Arch 
Single- Leap 
Bascule 

Concrete Girder 


Worms 
•Soult Ste. 
Marie 

Harlem River 
Plauen 

•IGth St, 
Villeneuve 


San Francisco 1937 

Chicago 1933 

Canada 1917 

New York 1931 

Brazil 1926 

Sweden 1943 

Mississippi River 1943 
Ohio River 1917 


Rhine River 1951 

Massachusetts 1935 

Pittesburgh 1937 

Mississippi River 1927 
Menai Straits 1950 

Coburg 1926 

Germany 1953 

Michigan 1914 

New York 1951 

Saxony 1903 

Chicago 1919 

Seine River 1939 


BIGGEST, LARGEST, GREATEST, LONGEST 


Span 

(ft.) 

4,200 

1,850 

1,800 

1,652 

1,114 

866 

845 

720 


676 

544 

533i 

625 

460 

S80 

S76 

336 

330 

295 

260 

266 




Largest archipalago 
Highe.'Jt Mountain peak 
Largest Desert 
Largest Palace 
Biggest Ship 
Largest Diamond Mine 
Tallest Statue 


Tallest Church 
Largest Church 
Largest Diamond 
Rainiest Place 


. . Indonesia. 

.. Mount Everest (29.028 ft.). 

.. Sahara (Africa) 3,000,000 sq. m. 

.. Vatican (Rome). 

. . Queen Elizabeth (83.673 tons). 

. . Kimberly. South Africa. 

.. Statue of Liberty (N.Y.) from heel to 
head 111 ft. ; base of the pedastal 
to the top of the torch 305 ft. 

.. TJlm. Cathedral (Ger. 629 ft. high). 

.. Church of St. Peters (Rome). 

.. The Cullinan. 

. . Cherrapunji, Assam. 


•Railroad Bridge 



GENERAL INFORMATION 


71 


Biggest, Largest, Greatest, Longest — {Conoid.) 


Biggest & Deepest Ocean .. 
Longest Corridor 

Longest Rly. Platform 
liargest Pearl 
Largest Bell 

Largest Concrete Structure 
Largest Sewage Disposal 
Plant 

Longest man-made water 
supply line 
Deepest Mine 

Longest railway run .. 
Largest Telescope 

Largest Museum 
Longest River . . 

Largest River (in vol.) .. 
Largest Railway Station . . 

Largest Dome 

Largest Building .. 

Tallest To%ver .. 

Largest group of Islands .. 
Largest Delta . . 

Largest Royal Palace 
Deepest hole 
Highest capital city 
Highest Straight Gravity 
Dam .. 

Largest Theatre 

Longest Dam 

Highest Dam 
Largest Single Country 
Largest Freshwater Lake . . 
Highest Lake .. 

Loftiest active volcano 
Largest & populous continent 
Longest Wall 

Highest Suspension Bridge 
Tallest Building 


Pacific Ocean (64,000,000 sq. _m.). 
Rameswaram Temple Corridor, S, 
India. About 4,000 ft. long. 

Storvik (Sweden) 2,470 ft. 
Beresford-Hope Pearl (1,800 grams). 
Tsar Kolokol, Kremlin (Moscow) 
weights 220 tons. 

Grand Dixence (Switzerland). 

Chicago Sewage System (U.S.A.). 

Colorado Aqueduct (242 miles, U.S.A.). 
Ooregum Section of the Kolar Gold- 
Fields, Mysore, nearly 10,000 ft. deep. 
Riga to Vladivostock (6,000 miles).’ 

At Mt. Palomar, California, diameter 
of reflector is 200 inches. 

British Museum (London). 
Mississippi-Missouri. 

Amazon. 

Grand Central Terminal (New York) 
with 47 platforms. 

Gol Gambuz (Bijapur) 144 ft. in ac- 
tual diameter. 

The Pyramid at Gizeh, Egypt. 

Eiffel Tower, Paris, 984 ft. high. 

Malaya Archipelago. 

Sundarban Delta, 8,000 sq. m. 

The Palace at Madrid. 

An oil well of 15,279 ft. in Texas, U.S. 
La Paz (Bolivia). 

Bakra Dam (India) 680 ft. 

Blanquita Theatre (Havana) with- 
6,500 Seats. 

Gabel Awlia Dam, Egypt (16,400 ft 
long). 

Manvoisin ( Switzerland, _ 776 ft.). 

Brazil (3,285,319 sq. miles). 

Lake Superior. 

Lake Titicaca (South America), alti- 
tude 12,607 ft. 

Cotopaxi (19,550 ft.), Equador. 

Great Wall of China over 1,500 miles. 
Royal Gorge, Colorado, U.S.A. 12,740' 
ft. high. 

Empire State Building (102 stories, 
1,472 ft.). 



72 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Biggest, Largest, Greatest, Longest — (Concld.) 


Highest Country 
Largest office building 


Longest Tunnel 

Largest Peninsula 
Highest Tree 


Largest Island 
Densest Population 
Largest Planetary Body 
Biggest Park 

Largest Archway 
Highest City 
Highest Airfield 
Longest Thoroughfare 


.. Tibet (Averaging 16,000 ft.). 

. . Pentagon (U.S.A.) 34 acres, where 
32,000 people work daily ; floor area, 
approximately 6,500,000 sq. ft. has 
17 miles of corridor. 

. . Simplon (Switzerland) 12 m. 458 yds. 


long. 

India. 

Giant Sequoia tree, Hamholdt State 
Park, California— ^64 ft. high and 
estimated to weigh nearly 2,000 tons. 
Greenland (827,200 sq. miles). 

Monaco (5,000 per sq. m.). 

Jupiter. 

Yellowstone National Park (U.SA.). 
3,350 sq. miles. 

Sydney Harbour Bridge (Australia). 
Phari, Tibet, altitude 14,300 ft. 
Ladakh airfield (Kashmir), 14,230ft. 
Broadway in New York. 


GREAT INVENTIONS 


Invention 


Date 

Inventor 

Nation 

Adding Machine 


1888 

Burroughs 

U.S. 

Airplane 


1903 

Wright Bros. 

U.S. 

Air brake, railroad 


1868 

Westinghouse 

U.S. 

Airplane, hydro 


1911 

Curtiss 

U.S. 

Airship, Periol 


1898 

Dumont 

Brazil 

Airship, rigid 


1899 

Zeppelin 

Ger. 

Aluminium 


1827 

Wohler 

Ger. 

Antogiro 


1920 

Dela Cierva 

Sp. 

Automobile, gasoline 


1887 

Daimler 

Ger. 

Bakelite 

• • 

1908 

Baekeland 

U.S. 

Balloon 


1783 

Montgolfier Bros. Pr. 

Barometer 


1643 

Torriceli 

Italy 

Barometer, Aneroid 


1799 

W. J. Cante 


Braille alphabet 

, , 

1829 

Braille. 

Fr. 

Bicycle 


1842 

MacMillan 

Scotland 

Block Signals, Ry. 


1867 

Hall 

U.S. 

Burner, Gas 


1855 

Bunsen 

Ger. 

Cash register 


1879 

Bitty 

U.S. 

Camera lucida 


1807 

Wollaston 

Br. 

Camera obscura 


1660 

Porta 

It. 

Cinematograph 


1889 

Friese-Greene 

Eng. 

Do. Talking 


1927 


U.S.A. 

Caterpiller Tractor 

, , 

1903 

Holt 


Cellophane 

• . 

1912 

Brandenberger 

Swiss 

Celluloid 

. . 

1865 

Parkes 

Eng. 

Cement, Portland 

• • 

1845 

Aspdin 

Eng. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 


Great Inventions — (Confd.) 


Clock, Pendulum 
Cotton Gin 
Cream Separator 
Camera, Kodak 
Diesel engine 
Disk Record 
Dynamite 
Dynamo 

Elevator, brake , , 
Engine, automobile . . 
Engine, internal com- 
bustion 

Engraving, half-tone 
Electric light, incandes- 
cent 

Electric Fan 
Fountain Pen 
Galvanometer 
Gas lighting 
Gramophone 
Gun cotton 
Gyroscope 
Gyrocompass 
Gas mantle 
Glass, laminated 
Helicopter 
Heliograph 
Iridium 

Ice-making machine 
Indigo, synthetic 


1657 

1793 

1880 

1888 

1895 

1887 

1867 

1831 

1862 

1879 

1885 

1893 

1879 
1887 
1884 
1820 
1792 
1877 
1865 
1852 
1906 
1893 
1909 
1909 
1877 
1802 
1861 

1880 


Lamp, arc .. 1879 


Lamp, incandescent . . 1879 

Lamp, Mei-cury-Vapour 1912 
Lamp, Safety . . 1816 

Lightning rod . . 1762 

Linoleum . . 1860 

Linotype • . 1884 

Locomotive, 1st practical 1829 
Locomotive, Steam . . 1801 

Loom, power . . 1785 

Litho^aphy . . 1796 

Machine gun . . 1861 

Margarine . . 1868 

Match, Safety . . 1865 

Match, friction . . 1827 

Match, phosphorous . . 1831 
Mercerization of Tex- 
tiles . . 1877 


Huygens 

Whitney 

De Laval 

Eastman 

Diesel 

Berliner 

Nobel 

Faraday 

Otis 

Benz 

Daimler 

Ives 

Edison 

Wheeler 

Waterman 

Sweigger 

Murdoch 

Edison 

Schoenbein 

Foucault 

Sperry 

Welsbach 

Benedictus 

Breguet 

Mance 

Brewster 

Gorrue 

Baeyer 

Walker 

Brush 

Edison 

Hewtit 

Davy 

Franklin 

Walton 

Mergenthaler 

Stephenson 

Trevithik 

Cartwright 

Senefelder 

Gatling 

Mege-Mouries 

Lundstrom 

Walker 

Sauna 

Mercer 


Dutch 

U.S. 

Swedish 

U.S. 

Ger. 

Swedish 

Eng. 

U.S. 

Ger. 

Ger. 

U.S. 


U.S. 


ii.s. 

Ger. 

Scottish 

U.S. 

Ger. 

Fr. 

U.S. 

Aus. 

Fr. 

Fr. 

Eng, 

Eng. 

U.S. 

Ger. 

U.S. 

U.S. 

U.S. 

U.S. 

Eng. 

U.S. 

Eng. 

U.S. 

Eng. 

Eng. 

Eng. 


U.S. 

Fr. 

Swed. 

Eng. 

Fr. 

Eng. 



74 


HINDUSTAN TEAK-BOOK 


Great Inventions — (concld.) 


Jificropiione 


1877 

Berliner 

U.S, 

ilonotype 


1887 

Lanslon 

XJ.Sa 

lilotor A.C. 


1892 

Tesla 

TJ.S, 

Slotor Car (Petrol) 


1887 

Daimler I 

Ger. 

Jlotor Cycle 


1885 

(do) 

Ger. 

lilower, lavn 


186S 

Hills 

U.S. 

Movie Projector 


1894 

Jenkins 

U.S. 

Nvlon 

. . 

1937 

Du Pont 

U.S. 

Parachute descent, 1st. 

1785 

Blanchard 

Fr. 

Phosphorus 


1669 

Brandt 

Ger. 

Pendulum 


1581 

Galileo 

Italian 

Photo, Colour 


1891 

Lippman 

Fr. 

Photo film 


1888 

Eastmaii- 





Goodwin 

U.S. 

Photography 


1814 

Niepce 

Fr. 

Pin, Safety 


1849 

Hunt 

U.S. 

Piano 


1709 

Cristofori 

It. 

Powder, Smokeless 


1863 

Schultze 

Ger. 

Printing:, Movable type 

1440 

Guttenburg 

Ger. 

Printing Press, rotary 

1847 

R. Hoe 

Ger. 

Printing Press, Rotary 

1846 

Hoe 

U.S. 

Phonograph 

, , 

1877 

Edison 

U.S. 

Pneumatic Rubber Tyre 

1888 

Dunlop 

U.S. 

Propeller, Screw 


1837 

Cricsson 

Swedish 

Radar 


1922 

Taylor & Totmg 

U.S. 

Padio telephone 

• • 

1906 

Dp Forest 

U.S. 

Pmdio 


1895 

Marconi 

Ital. 

Radio beacon 


1928 

Donovan 

U.S. 

Padioactivity 


1896 

Becquerel 

Fr. 

Pailway, Steam 


1825 

Stephenson 

Eng. 

Rayon 

, * 

1883 

Swan 

Eng. 

Rubber, vulcanised 


1839 

Goodyear 

U.S. 

Revolver 


18.35 

Colt 

U.S. 

Record, Disc 


1896 

Berliner 

U.S. 

Semaphone 


1794 

Chappe 

Fr. 

Sextant 


1590 

Brahe 

Ger. 

Soda water 


1907 

Thomson 

Eng. 

Spectacles 

, „ 

1310 

Armatus 

It. 

Spectroscope 


1861 

Kirchhoff & 





Bunsen 

Ger. 

Steamboat 


1807 

Fulton 

U.S. 

Sewing Machine 

, * 

1846 

Howe 

U.S. 

Sleeping Car 

, * 

1897 

Pullman 

U.S. 

Steam Engine 

« « 

1765 

Watt 

Eng. 

•Spinning Jenny 


1769 

Jlargreaves 

Eng. 

Steel 

• « 

1857 

Bissemer 

Eng. 

5teel, Stainless 


1916 

Brearly 

Eng. 

Stereoscope 


18.38 

Wheatstone 

Eng. 

Talking Machine 

• • 

1877 

Edison 

U.S. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 


75 


Great Invention — (Concld.), 

Tanl<, military .. 1914 Swinton Eng. 

Telegraph, Magnetic 1837 Morse U.S. 

Telephone .. 1876 Be.l U.S. 

Tractor, Caterpiller .. 1900 Holt U.S. 

Telephone amplifier 1912 De Forest U.S. 

Telescope, Reflecting 1688 Newton Eng. 

Telescope, Refractive 1250 Roger Becon Eng, 

Televi.son .. P-ii'-il Sent 

Thermometer (Air) . . 1592 Galileo Itelian 

Torpedo .. In.O \v ..i.eiead Eng. 

Thermometer .. 1701 Reaumer_ Fr. 

Thermometer . . 1714 Fahrenheit Ger. 

Tire, Pneumatic . . 1888 Dunlop U.S. 

Typewriter .. 1868 Sholes U.S. 

Tank, Military .. 1914 Swinton Eng, 

"Welding, Electric . . 1877 Thomson U.S. 

"Waterproofing, rubber 1823 Macintosh Eng. 

Wireless Telephone . . 1902 Fessenden U.S. 

X’Ray . . 1895 Roentgen Ger. 

DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS IN ELECTRICITY 


1745 — Von Kleist : Leyden jar 
condenser. 

1752 — Franklin : Lightning rod 
and nature of lightning. 
1791 — Galvani: Theory of animal 

electricity. 

1800 — Volta (It.) : Electric bat- 
tery. 

1805 — Brugnatelli (It.) : Elec- 
troplating. 

1810 — Davy (Eng.) : Electric 
Arc lamp. 

1816 — Rene Lainnec : Stethos- 
cope. 

1823 — Sturgeon (Br.) ; Electro- 
magnet. 

1825 — Faraday (Eng.) : Ben- 
zine. 

1826 — Balard (Fr.) : Bromine. 
1828 — Henry ; Electromagnetism 

and induction. 

1831 — ^Faraday (Br.) : Electric 
dynamo. 

1832 — Morse : Electric telegraph. 
1834 — Moritz Jacobi ; Electric 


1861 — Paccinnote (It.) : Elec- 
tric armature. 

1870 — Gramme; First industrial 
dynamo. 

187G — Bell: Telephone. 

1878 — Crookes; Cathode ray. 

1878 — Edison : Electric incandes- 
cent lamp. 

1885 — Stanley ; Electric Trans- 
former. 

1888 — Hertz (Ger.) : Electrical 
Waves. 

1892 — Tesla ; Alternating cur- 
rent motor. 

1892 — Steinmetz : Laws of alter- 
nating current. 

1895 — Roentgen : X-ray. 

1896 — Marconi : Practical wire- 
less. 

1897 — Thomson : Isolation of the 
electron. 

1904 — Fleming; First diode radio 
lube. 

1907 — De Forest : Triode radio 


Motor. tube. 

1852 — Gauss: System of absolute 1914 — Coolidge ; Tungsten fila- 
clectric measurements. ment lamp. 

1925 — Baird : Television. 



76 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


medicine and physiology 

Circulation. ^ Blood 1907 Shull ; Development 


1737_Linnaeus 7“" Cla^sTfic^Uon 

■I > 70 ^ T and animals. 

1796— Jennp : Vaccination for 
small-pox. 

■ Chlorine. 

iRi^n = Iodine. 

= Iodine- 

1818— Faraday (Eng.) ; Ether 
(anaesthetic). 

1819— Laennec : Invention of 
stethoscope. 

1820— Pelletier _ & Caventon 

loor o • Quinine. 

1825 — Scheele (Swed.) : Glyce- 
cerine. 

1831 Eugene Souherran : Chlo- 
roform. 

1842— W. Long (U.S.) .-Anesthe- 
tic ether. 

1847— Stapson (Eng.) ; Chloro- 

1880 — Nicolaier : 


1907- 


. Salvarsan. 
McCollum : vita- 


of 


1880- 


. Discovery 
utanus germs. 

-Eberth (Ger.) ; Discovery 
IRS? bacillus. 

1882— Metchnikov : Function of 
18 R? corpuscles. 

Klobs: Diphtheria bacil- 


ius, — -ttoDim (U.S.) ’ 

1885— Pasteur (Fr.) : Prerentive 

of rabies. — waksman (TJ.S ) 

1890— T75tyii1 *' 


of rabies. 

1890— Emil von Behring (Ger)' 
189 4 S’-Phl^hcria antitoxin. 
1894— Kitasato : Discovery of 

ion., plague bacillus. 

1894— Roux : Perfection of diph- 
1 RQQ U}®ria antitoxin. 

1901 Aspirin, 

laui— Takamine : First hormone 
isolated. Isolation of ad- 
renalinc. 

1906 — ^Wasserman : Test fn. 

sj-phillis. ^ 


ciupineni of 

hybrid com. 

-Willslatter : Constitution 
inin chlorophyll. 

1910— Pavlov : conditioned re- 
flex. 

1910 — Ehrlich 

1912- 14 — E. V. 

mine A. 

Vitamin C. 
1913 Schick ; Test of suscepti- 
5919 tn diphtheria. 

1913— Goldberger : Cause and 
ir.ic control of pellagra. 
1915-16--E. V. McCollum : Vita- 

mine B. 

1918 ^Rabi (Ger.) ; Quinine, syn- 
thetic. 

1920— C^mette, Guerin (Fr.) : 

mIIIv t; Vitamin D. 

1922— E. V McCollum : Vitamin 
Insulin. 

1926— Minot, Whipple and Mur- 
phy : Liver treatment of 
ansemia. 

1932— Domagk ; Sulfa drugs as 
"sctericides. 

1994~n' = Deuterium 

1934— Domagk (Ger.) : Sulfani- 
lamidc. 

1935 W. M. Stanley : Virus, 
crystalized. 

1940— Roblin (U.S.) ; Sulfadia 
zine. 


vu.o./ : Strep- 
tomycin. 

1946— Du Vigneaud ; Synthetic 
penicillin. 

1948— B. M. Duggar (U.S.) ; An- 

reomycin. ^ 

1949— Armour & Co (U.S.) : 

ccine. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 


77 


THEORIES 

Alternating Current, Laios of : Heredity, Laws of : G. Mendel, 
Steinmetz, 1592. 1865. 

Atomic Theory : Joint Dalton, Intelligence testing, modem : A. 

1803. Binet & T. Simon, 1905. 

Atomic numbers : H. Moseley, Isotopes, Theory of : P. Soddy, 
1913. 1912. 

Atom Smashing Theory : Ra- Light, Electromagnetic theory 
therford, 1919. . of 3. C. MaKwell, 1873. 

Blood circidalion : W. Sarvey, Midtiple proportion, Laios of : 
1628. John Dalton, 1808. 

Classifieation of Plants & Ani- Molecidar hypothesis : A. Avo- 
wals : C. Lennaeus, 1737-53. gadro, 1811. 

■Combustion, Nature of : Lavoi- Ohm’s Law : G. S. Ohm, 1827. 

sier, 1777. Ongin of Species : Darwin, 

Conditioned Reflex : J. Pavlov, 1859. 

1910. Periodic table : D. Mendeleev, 

Displacement of water, Theory 1869. 

of : Archimedes, 3 Century Photo-electric cell. Principles of: 
B.C. A. Becquerel, 1839. 

Dynamic theory of heat : Kel- Psychoanalysis : S. Freud, 1904. 

vin, 1851. Quantum Theory : Max Von 

Electromagnetic Waves : Hertz, Plank, 1901. 

1886. Refraction of light. Laws of : 

Electron, Wave nature of : Louis W. Snell, 1621. 

de Broglie, 1924. _ Relativity, theories of : A. Ein- 

Evolution by natural selection : stein 1905-53. 

Darwin, 1859. Spectrum Analysis : R. Bunsen 

Falling bodies, law of : Galileo, & G. Kirchnoff, 1859. 

1590. Sidfanilamide Theory : Gelmo 

Gravitation, Law of: Newton, (Gr.), 1908. 

1687. Uranium fission theory : Hahn, 

Germ Theory : Pasteur, 1876. (Gr.), Bohr. (Danish), Fermi 

Gases, Laws governing : Joseph (Italian), Wheeler, Einstein 

Gay-Lussac, 1809. (U.S.). 

Water, Synthesis of : H. Cavan- 
dish, 1781. 

NOBEL PRIZES 

[Dr. Alfred Bernhard Nolel, a Sv.'edish Scientist, was' born in 
1833 and died in 1896. He was the inventer of dynamite. He left a 
fortune of £1,750,000 and a large part of this was bequeathed to a 
fund which was to provide annual prizes to those persons who had 
most contributed to the benefit of manldnd. These are five prizes, 
awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature 
and peace. Each prize is worth £ 12,000.] 

Physics 

1901 W. K. Roentgen (Ger.). 1903 A. H. Becquerel, France 

1902 H. A. LorenTz and P. and_ Pierre and Marie 

Zeeman (Denmark). Curie (France). 



78 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


Physics — {Conoid.). 


1904 Lord Rayleigh (England). 

1905 Philipp Lenard (Ger.). 

1906 3. J. Thomson (Eng.). 

1907 A. A. Michelson (U.S.). 

1908 G. Lippman (Fi-ance). 

1909 G. Marconi (Italy) and F. 
Braun (Germany). 

1910 J. D. Van der Waals (Hol- 
land). 

1911 W. Wien (Ger.). 

1912 Gustaf Dalen (Sweden). 

1913 H. Hamerlinghonnes 
(Denmark). 

1914 M. Von Laue (Ger.). 

1915 W. H. Bragg and W. L. 
Bragg (Eng.), 

1916 No oirnrd. 

1917 C. G. Barika (Eng.). 

1918 Max Planck (Germany). 

1919 J. Stark (Ger.). 

1920 C. E. Guillaume (Swite.). 

1921 A. Einstein (Ger.). 

1922 Niels Bnhr (Denmark). 

1923 R. A. Millikan (U.S.). 

1924 Karl M, G. Seigbahn 
(Sweden). 

1925 James Franck (Ger.). 

& Gustav Hertz (Ger.). 

1926 Jean B. Perrin (Fran'-e). 

1927 Arthur Compton (U.S.) 
and Prof. Charles T. R. 
Wilson (Ene.) 

1928 Prof. 0. W. Ricardson 
(Eng.). 


1929 Due L. V. de Broglie (Fr.). 

1930 Sir C. V. Raman (India). 

1931 No award. 

1932 W. Heisenberg (Ger.). 

1933 P. A. M. Dirac (Eng.) 
and Erwin Schroedinger 
(Austria), 

1934 No award. 

1935 J. Chadwick (Eng.). 

1936 V. F. Hess (Austria) and 
C. D. Anderson (U.S.). 

1937 C. J. Davisson (U.S.). 

(3. P. Thomson (Eng.). 

1938 E. Fermi (Italy). 

1939 E. 0. Lawrence (U.S.). 
1940-42 No awards. 

1943 Otto Sterm (U.S.). 

1944 I. I. Rabi ^U.S.). 

1945 W. Pauli (Austria). 

1946 P. W. Bridgman (U.S.). 

1947 Sir E. Appleton (Eng.). 

1948 P. M. S. Blackett (Eng.). 

1949 Hideki Yukawa (Japan). 
19.50 C. F. Powell (Eng.). 

1951 Sir John Cockcroft (Eng.) 
and E. T. S. Walton (Eire). 

1952 E. Purcell & Felix Bloch 

(U.S.) 

19.53 Prof. Fritz Zemike. 

1954 Dr. S. Max Bom & W. 
Botbe (Ger.). 

1955 W. E. Lamb & P. Kusch 

(U.S.). _ 

1956 — Walter H. Brattain. W. 
Shockley & John Bardeen 
(U.S.). 


Medicine and Physiology 

1901 EL A. von Behring (Ger.). 1909 T. Kocher (Germany). 

1902 Sir Ronald Ross (Eng.). 1910 A. Kossel (Germany). 

1903 N. R. Finsen (Denmark). 1911 A. Gullstrand (Sweden). 

1904 Ivan P. Pavlov (Russia). 1912 A. Carrel (America). 

1905 Rohert Koch (Germany). 1913 Char'es Richet (France). 

1906 Ramony Cajal (Snain) & 1914 R. Bamav (Austria). 

Camillo Golgi (Ita'v). 191.5-18 No nirnrd. 

1907 O. L. A. Laveran (Francel. 1919 Br. J. Bordet (Belgium). 

1908 Paul Ehrlich (Ger.) & E, 1920 August Krogh (Denmark). 

Metchnikoff (Fr.). 1921 No award. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 


7 & 


Medicine and Physiology — (.Concld.). 

1922 A. V. Hill (Eng.) and 1943 Henrik Dam (Copenhagen) 

Otto Mayerhotf (Ger.). and Edward Doisy (U.S.). 

1923 F. G. Banting and Dr. J. J. 1944 Joseph Erlanger and H. S. 

R. McLeod (Canada). Gasser (U.S.). 

1924 W. Einthoven (Holland). 1945 Sir A. Fleming, Sir How- 

1925 No award. ard Florey and Dr. E. B. 

1926 J. Fibiger (Denmark). Chain (Eng.). 

1927 Julius W. Jauregg (Aust.). 1946 H. J. Muller (U.S.). 

1928 Charles Nicolle (France). 1947 Dr. Carl F. and Mrs. P. 

1929 F. G. Hopkins (Eng.). Cori (Czechoslovakia) and 

& C. Eijkmann (Holland). B. A. Houssay (Brazil). 

1930 Karl Landsteiner (US.) 1948 Paul Muller (Swiss.). 

1931 Otto H. Warburg (Ger.). 1949 W. R. Hess (Swiss) & A. 

1932 Sir C. Sherrington & C. D. F. E. Moniz (Portu- 

E. D. Adrian (Eng.). gal). 

1933 T. H. Morgan (U.S.). 1950 E. C. Kendall & Philip S. 

1934 G. R. Minot, W. P. Mur- Hench (Switzerland) & T. 

phy and G. H. Whipple ReicKstein (Swiss.). 

(U.S.). 1951 Max Tbeiler (U.S.). 

1935 Hans Spcmann (Ger.). 1952 S. Waksman (U.S.), 

1936 Sir Henry Dale (Eng.) & 1953 Dr. Fritz A. Lipmann & 

Prof. Otto Loewe (Aust.). Dr. Hans A. Krebs. 

1937 Albert von Szent-gyorgyi 1954 Drs. J. F. Enders, F. 

(Hungary). Robbins & T. Weller (U.S.). 

1938 C. Heymans (Belg.). 1955 Hugo Theorell (Sweden). 

1939 Prof. G. Domagk (Ger.). 1956 Andre Cournand (U.S.), 

1940-42 No award. Dr. W. Forsmann (Ger.) & 

D. W. Richards (U.S.). 


Chemistry 

1901 J. H. Hoff (Holland). 1919 No award. 

1902 Emil Fischer (Germany). 1920 Walther Nemst (Ger.). 

1903 S. A. Arrhenius (Sweden). 1921 Frederick Soddy (Eng.). 

1904 Sir W. Ramsay (Eng.). 1922 F. W. Aston (Eng.). 

1905 A. Von Baeyer (Ger.). 1923 Fritz Pregl (Austria). 

1906 Henri Moissan (France). 1924 No award. 

1907 E. Buchner (Germany). 1925 R. Zsigmondy (Ger.). 

1908 Ernest Rutherford (Eng.). 1926 T. Svedberg (Sweden). 

1909 Wilhelm Ostwald (Ger.). 1927 H. Wieland (Ger.). - 

1910 Otto Wallach (Ger.). 1928 Dr. Adolf Windaus (Ger.). 

1911 Marie Curie (France). 1929 A. Harden (Eng.) and 

1912 V. Grignard and P. Saba- K. A. S. von Euler-Cheplin 

tier (France). (Sweden). 

1913 Alfred Werner (Swiss.). 1930 Hans Fischer (Germany). 

1914 T. W. Richards (Eng.). 1931 Carl Bosch and F. Bergius 

1915 R. Willstatter (Ger.). (Germany). _ . 

1916-17 No award. 1932 Irving Langmair (U.S.). 

1918 Firtz Haber (Germany). 1933 No award. 



HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


:S0 


Chemistry— 

1934 H. G. Urey (U.S.). ^ ^ 

1935 Frederic & Irene Joliot- 
Cuiie (France). 

1936 Feter J. "W. Dehye (Ger.). 

1937 W. N. Haworth (Eng.) & 
Panl Karrer (Swiss.). 

1938 E. Kuhn (Ger.).* 

1939 A. Bntenandt (Ger.) and 
Leopold Ruzicka (Swiss.). 

1940-42 No award. 

1943 G. Heresy (Hnn.). 

1944 Otto Hahn (Ger.). 

1945 Arttnri Mrtanen (Finland). 

1946 James B. Snmner, W. IL 
Stanley & J. H. Northrop 
(America). 


-{Concld.'). 

1947 Robert Robinson (Eng.). 

1948 Ame Telins (Sweden). 

1949 W. F. Giangne (U.SA.). 

1950 Otto Diels & Kent Adlei 
(Germany). 

1951 E. M. McMillian & G. T. 
Seaborg (U.S_A.). 

1952 Dr. A. J. P. Martin & E. 
L. M. Synge (Eng.). 

1953 Dr. H. Standinger 

1954 Dr. L. Pauling (U.S-A). 

1955 D. Mncent da Mgneaud. 

1956 Sir Cyril Hirshelwood 
(Eng.) & Prof. Nikolai 
Semenov (U.S.SJl.). 


Literature 


1901 Rene F. A. SnUy-Fmd- 
homme (France). 

1902 T. klommsen (Germany). 

1903 B. Bjomson (Norway). 

1904 F. Mistral (France) 

& Jose Ecbegaray (Spain). 

1905 H. Sienkiewicz (Poland). 

1906 G. Carduici (Italy). 

1907 Rudyard Kipling (Eng.). 

1908 R Eucken (Germany). 

1909 Selma Largerlof (Sweden). 

1910 Paul Heyse (Germany). 

1911 JL Maeterlink (Belgium). 

1912 G. Hauptmann (Ger.). 

1913 Rabindranath Tagore (In- 
dia). 

1914 'No avcard. 

1915 Romain Roiland (France). 

1916 V. Heidenstam (Sweden). 

1917 Karl Gjellerup and R 
Pontoppidan (Denmark). 

1918 No a-.card, 

1919 C. Spitteler (Swiss.). 

1920 Knnt Hamsun (Norway). 

1921 Anatole France (France). 

1922 J. Benavente (Spain). 

1923 VT. B. Yeats (Ireland). 

1924 TT. P.eymont (Poland). 
:1925 G. B. Shaw (Eng.). 

•Declined. 


1926 Grazia Deled da (Italy). 

1927 Henri Bergson (France). 

1928 Sigrid Undset .(Norway). 

1929 Thomas Mann (Germany)* 

1930 Sinclair Lewis (U.S.). 

1931 Erik A. Karlfeldt (Sweden). 

1932 J. Galsworthy (England). 

1933 Ivan (3. Bunin (Russia). 

1934 Luigi Pirandello (Italy). 

1935 No OTvard. 

1936 Eugene O’Neil (U.S.). 

1937 R. I»L du Gard (France) 

1938 Pearl S. Buck (U.S.). 

1939 Emil Sillanpaa (Finland). 
1940-43 No atrard. 

1944 J. Y. Jensen (Denmark). 

1945 Gabriela Mistral (ChSe). 

1946 Herman Hesse (Swiss). 

1947 Andre Gide (France). 

1948 T. S. Eliot (Eng.). 

1949 Y7. Faullmex (U.S.). 

1950 Bertrand Russell (Eng.). 

1951 Par Lagerkvist (Sweden). 

1952 Francois Mauriac (Fr.). 

1953 "Winston ChurchiU (Eng.). 

1954 E. Hemingway (U.S.). 

1955 Halldor K. Lanness 
(Iceland). 

1956 Juen R. Jimenez (Spain). 



GENERAL INFORMATION 


81 


Peace 


1901 Henri Dunant (Switzer- 
land) & F. Passy (Fr.). 

1902 Elie Ducommun and A. 
Gobat (Belgium). 

1903 W. R. Cremer (Eng.). 

1904 The Institute of Interna- 
tional Law (Belgium). 

1905 Bertha von Suttner (Aus- 
tria). 

1906 T. Roosevelt (U.S.). 

1907 E. T. Moneta (Italy) and 
Louis Renault (France) . 

1908 K. P. Arnoldson (Sweden) 
& Frederick Bajer (Den). 

1909 Baron de Constant (Fr.) 
& A. Beemaert (Belgium). 

1910 International Permanent 
Peace Bureau (Swiss.). 

1911 Prof. T. M. C. Asser (Hol- 
land) & A. Fried (Austria). 

1912 Elihu Root (U.S.). 

1913 H. la Fontaine (Belgium). 

1914-16 No award. 

1917 International Red Gross, 
(Geneva). 

1918 No award. 

1919 Woodrow Wilson (U.S.). 

1920 Leon Bourgeois (France). 

1921 K. H. Branting (Sweden) 
and Christian L. Lange 
(Norway). 

1922 F. Nansen (Norway). 

1923-24 No award. 

1925 Charles G. Dawes (Il.S.) & 
Sir A. Chamberlain (Eng.). 

1926 Aristide Briand (France) 
& G. Stresemann (Germ.). 


1927 F, Buisson (France) and 
Ludwig Quidde (Germany). 

1928 No award. 

1929 F. B. Kellogg (U.S.) 

1930 L. 0. J. Soderblom (Swe- 
den). 

1931 Jane Addams & Nicholas 
M. Butler (U.S.). 

1932 No award. 

1933 Norman Angell (Eng.). 

1934 A. Henderson (Eng.). 

1935 Carl von Ossietosky (Ger,). 

1936 C. de S Lamas (Argentine). 

1937 Viscount Cecil (Eng.). 

1938 Nansen International Office 
for Refugees (Geneva). 

1939-43 No award. 

1944 International Committee 
of Red Cross (Swiss). 

1945 Cordell Hull (U.S.). 

1946 Eamily G. Balch and John 
Mott (U.S.). 

1947 American Friends Service 
Committee (U.S.) and Br. 
Society of Friends Service 
Council (Eng.). 

1948 No aroard. 

1949 Lord Boyd-Orr (Scotland). 

1950 Ralph J. Bunche (U.S.). 

1961 Leon JohnaUX (France). 

1962 Albert Schweitzer. 

1953 George C. Marshall (U.S.). 

1954 No Award. 

1956 U. N. High Commissioner, 
for Refugees. 

1956 No award. 


INDIAN STONES AGAINST PLANETARY ACTIONS 


Sun [Ravi) . . Ruby 
Mars (Mangal) . . Coral 
Moon [Chandra) . . Pearl 
Mercury [Budh) . . Emerald 
Jupiter [Brihas- 
pati) . . Pokraj 


Venus [Sukra) . . Diamond 
Saturn [Shani) ., Sapphire 
Ascending Node. , Gomed 
[Rahoo) 

Descending Node. . Cat’s eye 
[Ketoo) 


6 



82 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


BIRTH STONES 

January— Garaet — Constancy. August — P eridot, Sardonyx— 

February — Amethyst — Sincerity. married happiness. 

March — Aquamarine, Blue Stone September — S apphire — clear 
— Courage. thinking. 

April — Diamond — Innocence. October — O pal. Tourmaline — 

May — Emarald — ^Love, Success. Hope. 

June — Pearl, Alexandrite Moon- November — Tapaz— 

stone — Health. December — Turquoise, Zircon — 

July — Ruby — Contentment. Prosperity. 

ANIMAL AND BIRD RECORDS 

Tallest Animal — Giraffe. Largest of the sea birds — ^Alba- 

Largest land animal — Elephant. tross. 

Easiest Bird — Swift, sometimes Fastest animal — Cheetah, 
flies 200 miles per hour. Largest sea animal — Blue Whale- 

Largest quadruped of the dog Smallest Bird — Humming bird. 
family — Wolf, Longest lived creature — Blue 

Largest animal of the cat Whale (500 years). 
family — Lion. _ Largest of the flat fish — ^Helibut. 

Largest of man-like or anthro- Longest necfc— Giraffe. 
paid apes — Gorilla. Largest living bird — Ostrich, 

Heaviest bird — Condor. ' 

PERIOD OF GESTATION OF VARIOUS ANIMALS 


Bear 

7 months 

Lion 

.. 16 weeks 


Beaver 

4 months 

Man 

. . 9 months 


Camel . , 

13 months 

Opossum 

. . 26 days 


Cat . 

55 to 63 days 

Pig 

p. 4 months 


Cow 

62 to 63 days 

Puma 

. . 15 weeks 


Elephant 

20 to 22 months 

Rabbit 

.. 30 to 32 days 

Fox 

62 to 63 days 

Rat 

. . 20 days 


Giraffe 

14 months 

Sheep 

. . 6 months 


Goat 

5 months 

Squirrel 

. . 30 days 


Guinea pig 

62 days 

Tapir 

. . 10 to 11 months 

Horse 

11 months 

Wolf 

.. 62 to 63 

days 

Kangaroo 

39 days 





SPEEDS 



In Air 

m.p.h. Arrow 

.. 200 

Carp 

0-9 

Woodcock 

. . 13 Dive bomber . . 725 

Plying fish 

35 

Vulture 

» . 89 Transport 

plane 195 

Sail boat 

30 

Robin 

. . 36 Bullet 2,000 ft. per 

Passenger liner 35 

Swallow 

. . 110 second. 


Light Cruiser 

50 

Homing pegion 

62 


Torpedo boat 

60 

Duck Hawk 

. . 180 In water 

m.p.h. 

Outboard motor 

Golden Eagle 

. . 120 Swimmer 

4-01 

boat 

74-39 

Fighter plane 

Perch 

1-3 

Racing speed 


(about) 

.. 700 Pike 

10 

boat 

141-74 



GENERAL INFORMATION 


83 


S p eeds — (Concld.) 




On land 

m.p.h. 


Runner 

21.7 

Gazelle 

60 Speed-test auto 

_ 

Turtle 

.01 

White-tailed 

mobile 

394-h 

Coral Snake 

0.72 

deer 

49 Cheeta 

70 

Race horse 

42-3 

Greyhound 

36 Steamlined 


Rabbit 

45 


train 

135 -h 




Skater 

25-3 


HEIGHTS AND DEPTHS 


Main achievements in the sky 
Highest flight by balloon carrying instruments . . 
Highest rocket flight 
Highest flight in plane 

Highest flight by passenger-carrying balloon 

On and under the land 
Highest point on land (Mt. Everest) 

Tallest structure (Empire State Building) 

Deepest oil well (Kern County, California) 
Deepest mine (gold mine, Johannesburgh) 

Under the Sea 

Deepest point reached by submarine 
Deepest point by man in rubber suit 
Deepest point by man in metal suit 
Deepest ocean bed in the Pacific Ocean 
Greatest depth man has reached in the ocean by 
bathycaphe 


140,000 ft. 
over 250 miles 
83,235 ft. 
72,395 ft. 


21,018 ft. 

1,472 ft. 
21,480 ft. 
9,180 ft. 


800 ft. 
450 ft. 
500 ft. 
35,640 ft. 

13,287 ft. 


LARGEST SHIPS 


Name Gross tons Length Breadth Depth Speed 




(ft.) 

(ft.) 

(ft.) 

[knots) 

Arcadia (Brit.) 

29,736 

687-7 

90-2 

35-7 

22 

Augustus (Italy) 

27,090 

680-4 

87-5 

33-0 

21 

Britannic (Brit.) 

27,666 

683-6 

82-4 

48-6 

18 

Capetown Castle (Brit.) 

27,002 

702-9 

82-6 

42-0 

20 

Caronia (British) 

34,183 • 

687-6 

91-4 

48-6 

22 

Cristoforo Colombo (Italy) 

29,100 

626-6 

89-9 

50-1 

23 

Edinburgh Castle (Brit.) 

28,705 

717-9 

84-0 

43-9 

22 

Georgic (Brit.) 

27,469 

682-8 

82-4 

48-6 

18 

Giulio Cesare (Italy) 

27,078 

680-6 

87-5 

33-0 

21 

Himalaya (Brit.) 

27,950 

681-7 

90-8 

36-5 

22 

Iberia (Brit.) 

28,000 

686-0 

90-7 

35-5 

22 

He do France (Fr.) 

44,356 

763-6 

91-9 

28-5 

23 

Liberte (France) 

61,839 

893-4 

101-9 

48-0 

26i 

Mauretania (British) 

35,674 

739-4 

89-4 

61-7 

23 

Nicuw Amsterdam (Neth.) 

36,667 

713-7 

88-3 

60-0 

215 

Orcades (British) 

28,164 

681-7 

90-8 

35-5 

22 



84 


HINDUSTAN TEAR-BOOK 


Oronsay (British) 

Orsova (British) 

Pasteur (France) 

Pretoria Gastle (British) . 
Queen Elizabeth (British) 
Queen Mary (British) 
United States (U.S^A.) 


Ships — 

{Coneld.) 




27,632 

681-7 

90-8 

35-5 

22 

28,790 

690-0 

90-6 

35-5 

22 

30,447 

670-7 

88-0 

52-6 

22 

28,705 

717-9 

84-0 

43-9 

oo 

83,673 

987-4 

118-6 

68-4 

2Si 

81,237 

975-2 

118-6 

68-5 

2Si 

53,329 

916-S 

101-6 

39-0 

29 


ATLANTIC BLUE RIBAND 

1935 Normaiidie (France) 80,000 tons 4 days 3 hrs. 2n. 

1936 Queen Mary (British) 81,237 tons 4 days 0 hrs. 27ib. 

1936 Queen Mary (British) 81,237 tons 3 days 23 hrs. 57m. 

1937 Normandie (Prance) 80,000 tons 3 days 23 hrs. 2m. 

1938 Queen Mary (British) 81,237 tons 3 days 21 hrs. 45m. 

1938 Q!ice7z Mary (British) 81,237 tons 3 days 20 hrs. 42m. 

1952 United States (U.S.A.) 53,329 tons 3 days 10 hrs. 40m. 


RECORD FLIGHTS AND JUMPS 
Longest flight of Record distance of 

homing pegeon 7,200 miles ski jumper 350.96 ft. 

Firing range of Longest recorded 

average heavy kick of a football 88 yds. 

Gun over 20 miles Record baseball 

"White-faced gib- throvr 44S ft. 5i is. 

bon’s leap 40 ft. 

Jump of a grass- 
hopper 16 ft. 8 in. 


DECORATIONS & MEDALS 


^^ctoria Cross (Great Britain) 
Iron Cross (Germany) 

Legion of Honour (iSance) 
Croix de Guerre (Prance) 
Victory Medal (U.SN.) 

NATIONAL AND 
China . . Narcissus. 

England . . Rose. 

France . . Fleur-de-lis. 

Germany . . Comflorver. 

Greece . . Laurel. 

India . . Lotus. 

Ireland . • Shamrock. 

Italy . . LUy. 

Mexico .. Cactus. 

Switzerland . . Chrysanthemum 
Japan .. Edelweiss. 

Scotland . . Thistle. 


Militarj’ Cross (Belgium) 

Medal for Valour (Italy) 

Order of the Patriotic "War 
(Soviet Union) 

Order of the Rising Sun (Japan) 

STATE FLOIiERS 

Spain . . Pomegranate. 

U. S. A . . Golden rod. 

Persia .. Rose. 

IVales . . Leek or DaS’odils 

Prussia . . Linden. 

Canada . . Maple leaf. 

Egypt . . Lotus. 

Holland . . Tulip. 

Australia . . Golden Wattle. 

Denmark . . Forget-me-not. 

Spain . . Red carnation. 



WORLD GAZETTEER 

(A BRIEF GUIDE TO THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD) 

ABYSSINIA — An empire in East Africa, official name Ethiopia, 
The Emperor directly controls the government, though there now is 
a Council of Ministers, a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. All 
members are appointed by the monarch. The actual form of govern- 
ment is thus the personal rule of the Emperor. Population — 
15,000,000. Eritrea, a country of E. Africa, a former Italian Colony 
was federated with Ethiopia in 1952. Capital — Adis Ababa. 

AFGHANISTAN — A mountainous Moslem kingdom lying bet- 
ween Pakistan, Iran and Soviet Union. Afganistan runs all the way 
from Iran eastward to China and forms a long barrier between 
Soviet Union and Pakistan. The Government is constitutional 
monarchy. Under the Constitution of Oct. 31, 1931 there is a 
Senate of 43 nominated members and a National Council of 171 
elected members with a Grand Assembly which is summoned on 
important occasions. The administration is entrusted to the Council 
of Ministers. The laws of Afghanistan are based on the “Shariat” or 
Islamic law and tribal custom. The main routes to Pakistan 
passes through the mountains, the chief being Khyber from 
Kabul and Bolan from Kandahar. The country is mountainous and 
undeveloped. It can be reached only by a few high passes. There are 
no railways and navigable rivers. Afganistan’s rough mountains 
have prevented the building of railroads. This has discouraged trade 
and travel in the country. The country is divided into seven 
major provinces. Each province is under a governor. Languages 
spoken — Pashtii & Persian. Area : 270,000 square miles. Popula- 
tion — 13,000,000. Capital — Kabul. 

ALBANIA — A mountainous Baltic republic in southern Europe 
bounded by Yugoslavia, Greece and Adriatic Sea, was incorporated 
with Italy in 1939 but now a free republic. Under 1946 constitution, 
Albania has a typical Soviet Government. Supreme power is vested 
in the popularly elected national assembly, to which the Cabinet, 
headed by the premier is responsible. Area : 10,029 sq. m. Popula- 
tion — 1,250,000. Capital — Tirana. 

ANDORRA — Republic of Europe in the Pyrenees mountains 
under the joint suzerainty of France and Spanish Bishop of Urgel. 
It has enjoyed undisturbed sovereignty since 1278. Area : 191 sq. m. 
Pop. 5,231. Capital — Andorra. 

ARABIA — A peninsula in south-west Asia inhabited by Arabs, 
was a single political unit, now comprises the following States — 
Aden Colony (British), Aden Protectorate, Bahrein Islands (Sul- 
tanate), Kuwait (Sheikdom), Oman and Masqat (Sultanate), Qatar 
(Sheikdom), Saudi Arabia, (Kingdom), Trucial Coast (Sheikdoms), 
Y’emen (Kingdom). 



86 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Smidi-Arahia — is the most important state of the peninsula 
occupying nearly four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula. It consists 
of Nejd, Hejaz and its dependencies. Area ; 927,000 sq. m. Popula- 
tion — 6,500,000. Capital — Riyadh. 

Sheikdom of Kmvait — is an independent Arab Sheikdom. It 
extends along the shore of the Persian Gulf from lTaq_ to Saudi 
Arabia. The principality has one of the world’s richest oil reserves. 
Capital — Kmuait. 

Sultanate of Oman and Masqat — occupies the mountainous 
south-eastern part of the peninsula. The State is best known for its 
date cultivation. Capital — Mascut. 

Qatar — occupies the whole of the Qatar peninsula in the_ Per- 
sian Gulf. It is ruled under British protection by a Sheik. Capital — 
Doha. , 

Sheikdoms of Trucial Coast — extend along part of the Gulf of 
Omah and southern coast of Persian Gulf. It is ruled by seven semi- 
independent Sheikhs. 

Kingdom of Yemen — is an independent state occupying the south- 
western extremity of the peninsula. Capital— SctTum. 

Aden — is a British colony and protectorate situated on the 
volcanic southern tip of the Arabian peninsula along the Gulf of 
Aden. The 20-odd sultans who rule their respective territories m 
the protectorate are resnonsible to the British Governor of Aden. 

Baherein Islands — ^These islands form an archipelago in the 
Persian Gulf and are nominally an independent Sheikdom but are 
actually a protectorate of Great Britain, The islands are important 
for their oil, pearl, fisheries and strategic position. Area 213 sq. m. 
Capital — M anamah. 

ARGENTINA — Second largest South American Republic. It is 
Federal Union of sixteen provinces and eight territories. The_ cons- 
titution is modelled on that of U.S.A. but each province enjoys a 
large measure of autonomy. -The executive is in the hands of the 
President, who selects his Cabinet. The National Congress consists 
of a Senate of 30 members and of a House of Deputies of 149 mem- 
bers, ^th 11 non-voting delegates from National Territories. Argen- 
tina is regarded as the most important nation in Latin America 
besides Brazil. Economically it is the most developed of all : it has 
43 p.c. of the foreign trade of South America. 64 p.c. of all South 
American railwards and 55 p.c. of all automobiles. Argentina is a 
world leader in wheat, corn, flaxseed ; alfalfa grown for feed to sup- 
port huge heads of cattle is main crop ; it also leads in beef, mutton, 
hides and wool. The language is Spanish. Area : 1,079,965 sq. m. 

Pop. — 18,379.000. Capital — Buenos Aires. 

AUSTRALIA — is a self-governing member of the British 
Commonwealth of Nations and is a federal union of eight states — 
Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland, Northern Territory. South 
Australia. New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital terri- 
tory. TTie government is that of a Federal Commonwealth within 
the British Commonwealth of Nations, the executive power being 
vested in the Sovereign (through the governor-general), assisted 



WORLD GAZETTEER 


87 


by a Federal Ministry. Australia is primarily an agricultnral coun- 
try, one of the world’s greatest producers of wheat and wool, hut 
industralisation has been extensive. There is much unique flora, e.g. 
giant encal^tus, and fauna, e.g. kangaroo, wallaby and wambat, 
platypus, sping anteater, koala bear and many unusual birds. Wool 
is Australia’s greatest primary industry which produces 27 p.c. of the 
world’s wool and 57 per cent of its marino wool. Australia is also 
one of the largest producers of wheat. Area : 3,000,000 sq. m. 
Pop. — 8,986,842. Capital — Canherra. 

AUSTRIA — is a country of Central Europe. 'The country be- 
came a free independent nation on the 15th May, 1955 for the first 
time since German troops entered into the country in March 1938. 
Austrian State Treaty signed on May 15. 1955 liberated Austria from 
seventeen years of foreign occapation, first by the Nazis and then by 
the Allies. 'The Treaty reestablished Austria as “a sovereign in- 
dependent and democratic state with frontiers of Jan. 1. (1938 before 
Hitler seized the country). Austria agreed never to form an economic 
or political union with Germany. It is a federal republic comprised 
of nine provinces (including Vienna), each of which has its own 
elected assembly for the control of regional affairs. TTie federal 
parliament consists of two houses. The President of the Republic 
is elected by national popular vote for a term of six years. 'The 
Government is administered by the Chancellor and his cabinet. Area: 
32,388 sq. m. Pop — 6,912,959. Capital — Vienna. 

BELGIUiM — ^North-west European Kingdom. Government is 
consitutional hereditary monarchy with a bicameral legislatare con- 
sisting of the King, the Senate, and the House of Deputies. Bel- 
gium is the most densely populated country in Europe. Belgium is 
also a great colonial power ; she possesses Belgian Congo in Central 
Africa which is one of the world’s largest copper producers, the 
greatest producer of radium and also producer of gold and diamond. 
'The Belgrian Colonial Empire consists of Belgiam Congo (Africa) 
and Ruanda-Urundi (U.N. Trust territory). Total area : 11,755 

sq. m. Pop. — 8,757,691. Capital — Brussels. 

BHUTAN — Bhutan is a small semi-independent state lying on 
the south-east .slope of the Himalayas, bordered on the north by 
Tibet and on the east, south and west by the Indian Union. 'The 
inhabitants are Mongolians and follow Buddhism. Agriculture is 
the chief industry. The country is governed by the hereditary king. 
A treaty signed with India in August, 1949 increased India’s subsidy 
to Bhutan and placed Bhutan’s foreign affairs under Indian control. 
Area : 18,000 sq. m. Pop. — 300,000. Capital — Ptinakha. 

BOLIVIA — South American Republic located in the west central 
portion of the South America, Bolivia is a republic, electing by 
popular vote a president every four years, 927-member Senate 
every six years and a 111-member Chamber of Deputies every four 
years. The president appoints the 10 members of his cabinet. Area : 
416,040 sq. m. Pop. — 3,054,000. Capital — La Paz. 

BRAZIL — By far the largest country in South America and 



88 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


occupies nearly half of South America. In the world, it ranks after 
U.S.S.R., China and Canada. Brazil is a federation of 
twenty States, five territories and one federal district. The Presi- 
dent is popularly elected for a five-year term. The National Con- 
gress is composed of two houses — ^the Senate and Chamber of Depu- 
ties. Brazil leads the world in the production of coffee and castor 
beans and ranks second in cacao. The coffee crop represents 
three-quarters of the world's supply. The language is Portuguese 
with many dialects. Area : 3,291,416 sq. m. Pop. — 55,772,000. 

Capital — Rio de Janerio. 

BULGARIA — Balkan Republic. The constitution of 1947 mo- 
delled after that of Soviet Union provides that the unicameral Na- 
tional Assembly is the supreme organ of the State. The legislation 
has enacted complete state ownership or control of industry, banking, 
foreign and internal trade and collectivization of agriculture.^ The 
Assembly elects a 15-member presidium, the president of _ which_ is 
the nominal chief of state ; governmental administration is carried 
on by the Premier and his cabinet who are responsible to the Assem- 
bly. Area : 42,848 sq. m. Population — 7,160,000. Capital — Sofia. 

BURMA — Burma's independence from Great Britain became 
effective on Jan. 4, 1948. A Constituent Assembly was elected 
on April 9, 1947 ; and the Constitution adopted on Sept. 24, 1947. The 
orientation of the government is toward moderate socialism which 
places emphasis on joint government-private enterprise, exploita- 
tion of natural resources, government ownership of transport and 
utilities, the e.xtension of co-operative enterprises and land 
nationalisation. The Constitution provides for a government headed 
by the president, who is elected by the two houses of Parliament 
meeting in a joint session. The Union Parliament elected for 
four-year terms, consists of the Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber 
of Nationalities. "With the Burma proper it has four frontier areas 
— ;S_han, Kachin, Karen and Karenni States and the Chin Special 
Division. Due to continued political unrest Karen State w’as formally 
inangurated in June 1954. The principal productions are teakwood, 
rice, cotton, maize, tobacco, tin, silver and petroleum. The rubies, 
sapphires and jade found in Burma, are unsurpassed in quality. The 
Area : 3,845,744 sq. miles. Population — 14,009,429 (1951). Capital— 
Rangoon. 

CANADA — ^is an independent and Sovereign member of the 
British Commonwealth of Nations with the second continuous 
land area in the world, stretching across the northern part of the 
north American continent. It is a federal union of 10 provinces 
whose powers are laid doxm in British North America Act of 1867. 
The executive powers rest nominally in the hands of the Governor- 
General who represents the English Queen. Actually Governor- 
General acts only with the advice of the Prime Minister and 
members of the Cabinet. The Parliament has two houses — a 
Senate and a House of Commons. Canada is one of the world's 
leading sources of wheat, enormously rich in forests ; also ores, 
metals, oils and other raw materials are produced in quantities. 



WORLD GAZETTEER 


89 


Canada leads the world in production of newsprints, asbestos, nickel 
and platinum. Of special interest is the uranium ore mined in the 
northern Canada, one of the only two places so far known in the world 
where raw material for atomic energy can be mined easily. Cana- 
dian fishing are among the most extensive and prolific in the world. 
Area ; 3,845,744 sq. miles ; Population — 14,009,429 (1951). Capital — 
Ottawa. 

CENTRAL AFRICAN FEDERATION— was established by Act 
of the British Parliament in 1953. It affects Northern and Southern 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia 
have a Governor, an executive council and a legislature, Nyasaland 
is a protectorate. Under the Constitution of 1953, federation has a 
virtual self-governing status and each of the three territories will 
retain status in local matters. 

CEYLON — The island of Ceylon lies in the Indian Ocean 13 miles 
off the southern tip of India at its closest point. It is now a self- 
governing Dominion of British Commonwealth from 1948. Under the 
new Constitution, Ceylon’s Government is headed by the Crown-ap- 
pointed Governor-General, who is advised by a Council of Ministers 
headed by a Prime Minister. The bicameral parliament consists of 
a House of Representatives and a Senate. The administration of the 
island is in the hands of the Cabinet of Ministers who are collectively 
responsible to the legislature. Area : 25,332 sq. m. Population — 
8,384,000. Capital — Colombo; Flag : dark red ■with yellow border 
finials in corners, yellow lion symbol in centre ; two vertical stripes 
of green and saffron at pole 

CHILE — A democratic State lies on the west coast of South 
America. In Chile, the only natural nitrate in the world is found. 
So sixty per cent of the world’s iodine is obtained as a by-product of 
nitrate processing. World’s second largest copper is Chile, official 
language is Spanish. Area : 286,397 sq. m. Population — 6,238,000. 
Capital — Santiago . 

CHINA — Republic of Asia since 1912. It is second in size and 
first in population among the countries in the world. It occupies a 
vast area in south-east Asia including China proper, Manchuria, 
Mongolia, Tibet and Sinkiang (E. Turkestan etc.) ; most densely 
populated country in the world. Soviet-type of government has been 
established by the communists in 1949 who control whole of China 
except Formosa. The Chinese People’s Republic established in 1949, 
has as its primary legislative body the Central People’s Government 
Council and as its executive the State Administrative Council. There 
are subsidiary bodies dealing with military affairs, justice, finance 
etc. Provincial People’s Governments have been set up for the pro- 
■vinces. Three religions of China are Confuseanism, Taoism and 
Buddhism. China proper : 3,760,339 sq. m. Population — 463,493,418. 
Capital — Peking. Two separate governments however continue to 
claim sovereigntly over all China. Republic of China under Chiang 
Kaishek governs only the island of Formosa, on the other hand 
Communist China controls the 18 provinces on the continent. Civil 



90 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


war between Republic of China and Peoples’ Republic of China 
continue unabated. 

C0L03IBIA — South American Republic located in north-west of 
South America. Area : 447,536 sq. m. Pop. — 12,657,070. Capital — 
Bogota. 

COSTA RICA — is the most southern State of Central America. 
The Government of Costa Rica is republican, democratic and repr^ 
sentative. Government functions are exercised through four semi- 
independent but interrelated branches : the Executive, the Legisla- 
tive (Single Chamber), Judiciary and the Electoral Organisation. 
Area : 32,000 sq. m. Pop. — 898,000. Capital — San Jose. 

CUBA — The Pearl of Antilles is the largest island in the West 
Indies. It is the largest sugar cane producer in the world. Tobacco 
ranks second in importance. The Government is by the President, 
Senate and House of Representatives. Area : 44,164 sq. m. Pop. — 

5,926.000. Capital — Havana. 

CU5IBODI.4. — became an independent country in 1955. National 
Assembly in September 1955 declared the country’s independence 
from France. (Constitutional reform included a parliamentmr gov- 
ernment and the vote for women. Population : 3,800,000. 

CZECHOSLOVAKI.A. — A central European republic formed in 
1918 as one of the succession states of the Austro-Hungurian 
Empire, it then comprised Bohemia, Moravia, with .Austrian Silesia, 
Slovakia and Ruthenia. Ruthenia was however ceded to Russia in 
1945. In 1948, after the establishment of the People’s !^public, the 
old provinces were abolished and the countrj* was divided into 
19 regions . It has a Soviet type constitution promulgated 
on June 8, 1948. There is an unicameral Parliament, the supreme 
organ of the State with control over Courts and Civil Service. The 
government is headed by the President elected by Parliament for a 
seven-year term and the Prime Minister and his cabinet, who are ap- 
pointed by the President but are responsible to the Parliament. The 
constitution contains guarantees of civil liberties and provides that 
the state shall conduct all economic activity in the public interest 
on the basis of single economic plan. Czechoslovakia possesses one 
of the richest territories in Europe, both in the matter of natural 
resources and industrial developments. Area : 49,330 sq. m. Pop. — 
12,815,000. Capital — Prague {Praha). 

DENMARK — Kingdom of north Europe. The Government is a 
hereditary monarchy. The King and Parliament jointly hold legis- 
lative power. There is an unicameral Parliament of 179 members. 
Danish dairy products are world famous and the country in normal 
times exports more butter than any in the world. Area: 16,576 sq. m. 
Population — 4,405,000. Capital — Copenhagen. 

DOMINKILAN REPUBLIC — The Republic (formerly San Do- 
mingo) occupies the eastern two-thirds of the island which Colum- 
bus named La Espanola (now Hispaniola) when he discovered it on 
his first voyage in 1492, lies east of Cuba between -Atlantic Ocean 
and the Caribbean _ Sea. Area : 19,300 sq. m. Pop. — 2,167,000. 
Capital — Cuidad Trujillo. 



WORLD GAZETTEER 


91 


EQUADOR — Republic in the Pacific coast of South America : 
Equador is the world’s chief source of the supply of balsa, a light 
wood. Area : 287,000 sq. m. Population — 3,300,000. Capital — Quito. 

EGYPT — An independent Kingdom of N.-E. Africa. It is the 
largest and the most influential of Arab States. In Oct. 1951 Egypt 
abrogated the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian treaty of alliance due to the 
failure of negotiations for the revision of the 1936 treaty because 
of the British refusal to recognise Egyptian sovereignty over the 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The army led by Gen. M. Naguib seized 
power on July 23, 1952 and King Parouk abdicated in favour of his 
infant son. The monarchy was abolished and republic proclaimed 
on June 18, 1953 with Naguib holding the posts of both provisional 
president and premier. He relinguished the latter post on April 18, 
1954 to Gamal Abdel Nasser, leader of the ruling Military Junta. 
An agp-eement was reached with Britain on July 27, 1954 on broad 
terms for evacuation of the Suez Canal Zone. A new constitution 
is to be drafted during three-year transitional period beginning in 
1953. Area : 386,000 sq. m. Pop. — 22,000,000. Capital — Cairo. 

EL SALVADOR — is the smallest of the six Central American Re- 
publics and the only one without an Atlantic Sea coast. Area : 13,176. 
Population — 1,986,000, Capital — San Salvador. 

FINLAND — Republic in N.-W. Europe declared an independent 
state in 1917 ; fringed by islands and dotted with lakes, the State 
was an autonomous Russian State, but proclaimed an independent 
state in July 29, 1917 and a republic in 1919. Under the constitution 
there is a single Chamber composed of 200 members elected by 
universal suffrage. The legislative power is vested in the Chamber 
and the president. The highest executive power is held by the 
President who is elected for a period of six years. One of the chief 
occupations in Finland is lumbering : articles made from wood in- 
clude matches, constructional timber, paper and cellulose. The Pre- 
sident is chosen for a term of six years. Area : 130,165 sq. m. 

Pop.— 4.11,835. Capital — Helsinki. 

FORMOSA — Island off the coast of China held by the 
Nationalist forces. Area : 13,800 sq. m. Pop. 7,617,753. Capital — 
Taipei. 

FRANCE — Republic of Western Europe bordering on Spain in 
the S.-W. Italy, Switzerland and Germany in the E., Belgium and 
Luxemburg in the N.-E., and facing the Mediterranean, Atlantic 
Ocean and English Channel on the S., W. and N. resnectively. 
The Constitution of the Fourth Republic came into force in Dec. 1946 
and vested the Government in the National Assembly elected by the 
universal suffrage, and the Council of the Republic, an advisory 
body elected by the Commissions and depts. Both are assisted by an 
Economic Council. The President of the Republic is elected by both 
houses, presides over the Council of Ministers, the Supreme Council of 
Justice and the Armed Forces, and nominates the President of 
the Council of Ministers at each new legislature. _ The President of 
the Council arranges his cabinet and must have his policy approved 
before his ministers are appointed. 



92 


HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


Under the Constitution, the French Union consists of 90 De- 
partments of Metropolitan France, seven Overseas Departments and a 
number of Overseas Territories, Trust Territories and Associated 
States. 

GERMANY — After the fall of Germany in the WorId_ War II, 
for the purposes of control, Germany was divided in 1945 into four 
national occupation zones each headed by a military governor assisted 
by appropriate supervisory and operating staff. Efforts to unify 
Germany were totally unsuccessful, and the western powers were 
unable to agree with U.S.S.R. on any fundamental issue. So on 
May 31, 1948 U.S. Britain, France and Benelux countries agreed to 
set up a German State comprising the three western zones. The 
Federal Republic of Germany came into formal existence on_ Sep- 
tember 1, 1949 when Allied High Commission transferred to it the 
administration of the U. S., British and French Zones of occupation 
of Germany. On May 8, 1949 the German Constituent Assembly at 
Bonn approved the constitution for Western Germany. 

The Constitution provides for a parliament with two houses. 
A special assembly chooses the president for Five Years. The presi- 
dent nominates the chancellor subject to the approval of the lower 
house. The occupying powers, France, Britain and U.S. restored the 
civil status. Sept. 21, 1949. The U.S., Great Britain and France con- 
cluded peace contract agreements with Westem Germany in 1952 
restoring nearly complete independence and making it a member 
of the free European Community. Further protocols signed in Oct. 
23, 1954 by Westem Germany and 14 other westem nations gave the 
Federal Republic virtual Sovereignty. Following the ratification oi 
agreements, the Republic became officially independent on May 
5, 1955. 

German Democratic Republic comprises Soviet zone of occuji^ 
tion of Eastern Germanj'. It was proclaimed on Oct. 7, 1949 wim 
its seat at Berlin on the basis of a Constitution adopted on May 30, 
1949 by a People’s Congress. The Constitution is Soviet in nature. 
The Soviet Union proclaimed it a Sovereign republic, March 26, 1954. 
Area ; 94,723 sq. m.; Population : 49,516,000 ; Capital — Bonn. 

GREAT BRITAIN & NORTHERN IRELAND— The United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland comprising England, 
Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Island of Man and the Chaniml 
Islands lies on the north-west comer of Europe. Parliament is the 
legislative governing body for the United fcngdom with certain 
powers over the dependent Empire but none o\'er the Dominions. It 
consists of two houses — the House of Lords and the House of 
Commons. United _ Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a 
queen and a Parliament. Supreme legislative power is vested in 
Parliament. The executive power of the Crown is exercised by the 
Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister. Great Britain is second only 
to U.S.A. among the industrial nations of the world, hlost im- 
portant manufacture is heavy goods such as machinery, tools, bridges 
and locomotives. Area : 94,300 sq. m. Population — 51,113,000. Capi- 
tal — London. 



WORLD GAZETTEER 


93 


GREECE — is located at Balkan peninsula in south-western 
Europe stretching down into Mediterranean Sea. Greece is a cons- 
titutional hereditary monarchy. Nominal executive power is vest- 
ed in the king but the government is administered by the Council of 
Ministers, headed by the Premier who must enjoy the Assembly's 
confidence. Area : 51,246 sq. m. Pop. — 8,150,000. Capital — Athens. 

GUATEMALA — Republic of Central America. Area : 42,042 
sq. m. Pop. — 3,012,000. Capital — Guatemala. 

HAITI — It occupies the western third of the island known as 
Hispaniola, the second largest of the Creator Antilles lying between 
Cuba on the west and Puerto Rico on the east. It is the only 
negro republic v;ith western hemesphere. Area : 10,714 sq. m. 
Pop. — 3,112,000. Capital — Port-au-Prince. 

HONDURAS — ^Republic of Central America. Area : 43,227 sq. 
m. Population — 1,533,000. Capital — Tegucigalpa. 

HUNGARY — European Republic formed out of Austro-Hun- 
gary ; it is abode of the Magyars. The Soviet type of constitu- 
tion was adopted by the Parliament on August 18, 1949 which de- 
clared Hungary to be a ‘people’s republic’. The supreme organ of 
state control was declared to be the Parliament with deputies elect- 
ed for 4 years by direct vote. When Parliament is not in session, 
power is exercised by the presidium headed by the chairman. Exe- 
cutive power is vested in the cabinet headed by the premier. Hun- 
gary’s bauxite deposits are considered one of the largest in the world. 
Area : 35,902 sq. m. Population — 9,500,000. Capital — Budapest. 

ICELAND — Island in the North-Atlantic Ocean, now republic ; 
it is close to the Arctic circle in the North Atlantic ; constitutionally, 
the president is elected for four years by popular vote. Executive 
power of the state resides in the prime minister and his cabinet. 
The Althing is composed of two houses. Iceland has no army or 
navy. Area : 39,758 Pop. — 152,506. Capital — Reykjavik. 

INDIA — ^It is now independent Republic since 1950. The domi- 
nion is one of the largest and richest nations in the world. Area : 
1,221,889 sq. m. Pop. — 356,891,624. Capital — Ne^v Delhi. 

IRISH REPUBLIC — Is now sovereign independent and democra- 
tic state from 1949 and the constitution affirms the right of the Irish 
nation to choose its own form of government; to determine its rela- 
tions with other nations and to develop its life in accordance with its 
own genius and traditions. The head of the State is the President 
elected by the direct vote for 7 years. The parliament consists of the 
Dail elected by the universal suffrage and proportional representa- 
tion and the Senate of 60 members. Area ; 26,600, sq. m. Pop. — 
2,997,000. Capital — Dublin. 

INDONESIA — is a republic of S. E. Asia comprising territory 
formerly, known as the Dutch East Indies. Indonesia comprises 
about 3,000 islands, the five largest being Java, Sumatra, Western 
Borneo, Celebes and Western New Guinea. Indonesia is one of the 
richest countries in natural resources. There are vast supplies of 



94 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


tin, oil and coal, and sizable deposits of bauxite, manganese, copper, 
nickel, gold and silver. Until March 1942, Indonesia was a Nether- 
land overseas territory. Following Japanese Military occupation 
(1942-45) Indonesian Nationalists proclaimed a republic, Aug. 17, 
1954. Pour years intermittent warfare between Netherlands and 
Indonesian forces were terminated by agreements signed Nov. 2, 1949 
transferring sovereignty. Over all Indonesia except Netherlands 
New Guinea to the new Interim Government known as Republic of 
the United States of Indonesia. On July, 1950 member states agreed 
to form a strongly Centralised Government and accordingly a Unita- 
rian state with an amended constitution was proclaimed and its name 
was changed Republic of Indonesia. The Netherlands-Indonesia 
Union with Netherlands Queen at its head created in 1949 began to 
dissolve, Aug. 10, 1954, when new protocols governing future relation- 
ship were signed. Legislative power is in the hands of a House of 
Representatives numbering about 212. Area : 905,522 sq. m. 

Population — 81,100,000. Capital — Jakarta. 

IRAN — ICingdom of Western Asia, also known as Persia, Iran 
is a constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by a 
cabinet headed by the prime minister who is appointed by the Shah 
and is responsible to the Majlis (Parliament) which has 136 popu- 
larly-elected members. The Shah has power to dissolve the Majlis. 
Iranian oil field in the south-west territory at the head of the Persian 
Gulf is the richest single field in existence. Area : 628,060 sq. m. 
Population — 19,000,000. Capital — Tehran. 

ISRAEL — The Jewish State in Palestine was established in 1948 
in fulfilment of the aspirations of Zionism and following a decision 
of U.N. Assembly on the partition of Palestine between Jews and 
Arabs. Israel is a democratic State. It occupies the major portion 
of Palestine. It lies on the western edge of Asia bordering on the 
Mediterranean Sea. On Nov. 2, 1917, British Government made a 
declaration, known as Balfour Declaration which viewed with favour 
the establishment in Palestine of a home for the Jewish people. 
This principle was incorporated in the mandate to Britain which 
came into force in 1923. The British mandate on Palestine ended 
at mid-night on May 14, 1948 when the Jewish National Council pro- 
claimed a Jewish State of Israel. This led to the war against Israel 
by Arab States. But armistice agreement was signed under U.N. 
auspices which left Israel as an independent State. The declaration 
of independence of the Jewish National Council on May 14, 1948 
stated that the new nation would be “based on the precepts of liberty, 
justice and peace taught by the Hebrew prophets.” The constitu- 
tion provides a republican form of government headed by a President 
elected for a 6-year term by the Chamber of Deputies. Legislative 
power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, the members of which 
are elected by the vote of all citizens. The government is adminis- 
tered by the cabinet, which is headed by the premier and is respon- 
sible to the Chamber of Deputies. Area : 8,048 so. m. Ponulation 

1,698,000. Capital — Jerusalem. 

IRAQ— Arab Kingdom in the Middle East ; formerly known as 



WORLD GAZETTEER 


95 


Mesopotamia ; now one of the states lying between Arabia and Iran ; 
created as a result of World War I when under the treaty of Lous- 
anne (1923), Turkey renounced the sovereignty over Mesopotamia. 
The constitution is a constitutional monarchy, hereditary in the 
family of King Faisal with a Chamber of Deputies of 155-members 
elected by manhood suffrage and a senate of not more than a quarter 
of the total number of Deputies ; the Senators are appointed by the 
King. Iraq is one of the great oil-producing countries of the world. 
Area : 171,600 sq. m. Population — 5,100,000. Capital — Bagdad. 

ITALY — Republic of Europe, stretching from the Alps south- 
east into Mediterranean with the islands of Sicily, Sardania, Elba 
and 70 smaller ones : under Italy’s nev.r Constitution of 1948 the 
state is described as a “democratic republic founded on work’’ 
The President is elected for seven years by parliament in joint 
session with regional delegates. The Cabinet headed by the 
premier and nominated by the president, must enjoy the confidence of 
parliament which is composed of the Chamber of Deputies popularly 
elected for a five-year term and the senate. Italy is ordinarily the 
world’s largest producer of mercury ; it is also an important producer 
of sulphur. Area : 116,228 sq. m. Population— 46,889,000. Capital 
— Rome. 

JAPAN — Island Empire of Asia, is situated in the North Pacific 
Ocean off the coast of China and Siberia. It was under the control 
of Allied powers upto 1951. The new constitution effective on May 3, 
1947, made drastic changes in Japan’s political system. The Emperor 
retains only ceremonial functions and the executive power is vested 
in the cabinet, headed by the premier and collectively responsible to 
the Diet. Law-making power is solely vested in the Diet, composed 
of two houses — House of Representatives popularly elected and 
House of Councillors. A bill of rights guarantees certain basic- 
liberties. 

On Sept. 8, 1951, 48 nations signed a treaty of peace with Japan 
restoring Japan’s sovereign equal status in the community of nations. 
On the same day U.S. and Japan signed a bi-lateral treaty under 
which U.S. obtained the right to maintain armed forces in post- 
treaty Japan. Area : 142,644 sq. m. Population — 88,000,000. Capi- 
tal — Tokio. 

JORDAN (Hashemite Kingdom of) — ^was formerly known as 
Trans-Jordan, is an independent state of western Asia, formerly an 
Arab State in the Palestine mandate. Conquered from the Turks by 
the British in World War I Jordan was separated from the Palestine 
Mandate in 1920 and placed in 1921 under the rule of Abdulla ibn 
Hussain. In 1923 Britain recognised Jordan’s independence subject 
to the mandate. During World War II, Jordan co-operated com- 
pletely with Britain. On March 22, 1946, Britain abolished the 
mandate and recognised the full and complete independence of Jordan. 
Under the new constitution of 1952, legislative power is vested 
in Parliament. Area : 37,500 sq. m. Population — 1,500,000. Capital — 
Amman. Jerusalem. 

KOREA — East Asiatic country on a peninsula between Manchu- 



96 


HINDUSTAN 'YEAE-BOOK 


ria and Japan. It ■was an independent country in ancient times, 
•was placed under Chinese sovereignty in 1627 and •was annexed by 
japan in 1910. At the World War 11 in 1945 Russian trops occupied 
the northern half of Korea do-wn to the 38th parallel and U.S. troops 
occupied the southern half. Russia set up a puppet government 
wliich on May 1, 1948 proclaimed jurisdiction over the whole coimtry. 
With U.N. supervision, elections were held in South Korea and the 
Republic of Korea was declared ■with Seoul as capital, Aug. 15, 1948. 
Russia announced on Jan. 1, 1949 that occupation troops had been 
•withdra^wn from North Korea. U.S. •withdrew its last troops from 
South Korea on June 29, 1949. Early on the morning of Sunday, 
June 25, 1950, the Communist North Korean army invaded the 
Republic of Korea, attacking south ward across the 38th parallel. 
U.S. armed intervention was ordered on June 27, 1950 and on the 
same day the U.N. invoked military sanctions against North Korea. 
After several months of fighting several hundred thousand Chinese 
Communist troops entered the conflict. An armistice was signed at 
Panmunjon on July 27, 1953. The armistice contemplated an inter- 
national political conference on the status of Korea but negotiations 
for arranging broke down. The question was discussed ■without 
result at the Geneva Conference on Far Eastern problems (April 26— 
June 19, 1954). 

South Korea is a republic -with legislative powers vested in a 
bicameral parliament and executive power in a popularly elected 
President and a cabinet headed by a premier. North Korea is a 
typical soviet State under the constitution adopted on Sept. 2, 1948. 
U.N. Security Council declared North Korea as aggressor and deman- 
ded its ■withdrawal to the 38th Parallel. An armistice was signed 
by the United Nations and communist delegates at Panmunjon 
on July 27, 1953. 

LEBANON — The Republic of Lebanon is in the Levant. It 
occupies a strip of land along the Mediterranean coast about 120 
miles long and 30 to 35 miles wide. It is formed from the five 
former Turkish Empire districts of North Lebanon, Mount Lebanon, 
South Lebanon. Beirut and Bekaa and became independent on Sept. 
1, 1920. The States were administered under French mandate 1920- 
1951. In 1941 France jdelded its powers to the Syrian and Lebanese 
governments. Foreign troops were withdra'wn in 1946. Area : 
4,000 sq. m. Pop. 1,383,000. Capital Bcimt. 

LIBERIA — Independent Negro Republic of West Africa on the 
Guinea Coast. It is Africa’s only republic. The government is 
modelled after that of the United States. Area : 43,000 sq. m. 
Population 2,750,000. Capital — Monrovia. 

LIECHTENSTEIN — is an independent Alpine principality bet- 
ween Austria and Switzerland. The constitution of 1921 provides 
for a legislature of 15 members elected by direct universal suffrage. 
Area : 62 sq. m. Pop. — 13,571. Capital — Vaduz. 

LIBYA — Ivingdom of North Africa comprising Tripolitania, 
Cyrenaica and Fezzan with a Mediterranean coastline of nearly 1000 
miles between Egypt and Tunisia and stretching appoximately the 



WORLD GAZETTEER 


97 


same distance south to the Sahara. In 1912 an Italo-Turkish war 
left Libya in Italian hands. After the Italian defeat of 1943 Tripoli 
and Cyrenaica remained under British and Fezzan under French 
military government. In comformity with a resolution of the 
General Assembly of U.N. on Nov. 21, 1949, Libya became on Dec. 24, 
1951 the first independent state created by the United Nations. Libya 
has a federal form of government and a hereditary monarchy. 
Government is by a two-chamber parliament. Area : 679,340 sq. m. 
Population — 1,340,000. Joint capitals — Tripoli and Bengazi. 

LUXEIMBURG, GRAND DUCHY OF— Luxemburg is a European 
Grand Duchy situated between Gepnany, Belgium' and France. It 
was given its present rank as principality by the Congress of Vienna 
in 1815. Area : 999 sq. m. Pop. — 304,000. Capital — Lncxemburg. 

JIONGOLLAN PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC— is also known as Outer 
Mongolia. In 1916 Mongolia threw off its allegiance to China and by 
a treaty was recognised as an autonomous republic. Negotiations 
■with Russia after 1917 revolution led to an alliance and by 'treaty, 
U.S.S.R. acknowledged the sovereignty of China over Outer Mongolia, 
but by the Russian-Chinese treaty of August 25, 1945 China recog- 
nised the complete independence of Mongolia. The government of 
the republic is strikingly similar to Soviet system. The parliament 
is elected by universal suffrage. Area : 1,750,000 sq. m. Pop. about 
1,000,000. Capital — Ulan Bator Khoto. 

MONACO — ^A tiny independent principality in south of France; 
is located on the Mediterranean with land frontiers joining Prance 
at every point. It is noted for an exceptionally mild climate and 
magnificent scenery. It is the smallest State in the world. Area : 
0.6 sq. m. Pop. — 21,202 Capital — Monaco. 

MALAYA, FEDERATION OF — ^The Federation of Malaya be- 
came effective on Feb. 1, 1948. It consists of four former Federated 
Malaya States of Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan and Pahang, the 
five former Unfederated States and two British settlements of Malcca 
and Penang -with Province Wellesly. Singapore became a separate 
Crown Colony and Labuan was transferred to North Borneo, April, 
1946, when the former Colony of Straits Settlements was dissolved and 
the interim Malayan Union formed. Each State in the Federation is 
governed by its native rule subject to the advice of the British 
Commissioner, except in reli^ous matters. The Central Government 
comprises an executive council headed by the High Commissoner and 
a federal legislative council. Rubber and tin are the chief products. 
The Malaya States are the world’s richest source of tin centering in 
the Kinta Valley in the State of Perak supplying about one-third of 
the total world’s supply. Its mixed population is approximately 
divided : 50% Malaya, 40% Chinese 107o Indians, Pakistani & other. 
Area ; 50,690 sq. m. Pop. — 5,506,000. Capital — Kuala Lnimpur. 

jMEXICO — A Federal democratic republic of 29 states. Presi- 
dent is elected for six years and is ineligible to succeed himself, 
governs with a cabinet of his appointed ministers. 'The Federal 
Congress has two houses — Chamber of Deputies and Senate. 

7 



98 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


Each of the 29 States has considerable autonomy with a 
popularly elected governor, legislature and local judiciary. 
Mexico has a great mineral wealth and produces petroleum, 
silver, gold, copper, lead, quicksilver, iron and coal. She is the 
world leader for the production of silver, sisal, hemp and chicle for 
chewing gum. Area : 760,373 sq. m. Population — 28,000,000. Capital 
— Mexico City. 

MOROCCO — one of the Barbary States, is situated in the north- 
west of African continent. The Empire theoretically is an 
absolute monarchy, but the country is divided into three 
zones — the French, the Spanish and the International Tangier Zow. 
The country is under French protectorate which encompasses the 
whole of Morocco from Algerian frontier to the Atlantic Ocean and 
from Sahara Desert in the south to the boundary of the Spanish zone 
in the north. The Spanish zone is the northern strip. Area : 172,104 
sq. m. Pop. — 10,442,000. Capital — Rabat. 

NEPAL — A land-locked country lying between India and Tibet. 
It occupies slopes of the Himalayas bound in the north by Tibet, 
south and west by India and east by Sikkim and Bengal. 
Nepal has two great distinctions of containing Mt. Everest, 29,028 
(ft.), the tallest mountain peak of the world and some of the toughest 
fighting men in the world — Gorkhas. After a revolution in 1950, a 
representative government has been established in 1950 with ICing 
as constitutional head. The traditional supreme authority of the 
Prime Jlinister no longer exists. Area : 54,000 sq. m. Pop. — 8,596,000. 
Capital — Katmandu. 

NETHERLANDS — Kingdom in North Western Europe. It is a 
constitational and hereditary monarchy. Executive power is vested 
exclusively in the sovereign while the legislative power vests with 
the sovereign and THvo-Chamber legislature. Area : 12,850 sq. m. 
Population — 10,666,941. Capital — Amsterdam. 

NICARAGUA — is the largest central American Republic lying 
between the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean. Area : 57,143 sq. m. 
Pop. — ^1,166,000. Capital — Managua. 

NEW ZEALAND — A dominion of the British Commonwealth in 
the south-west Pacific Ocean. The dominion consists of North Island 
and South Island, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands and some small 
Pacific Islands. Area ; 105,072 sq. m. Population — 1,961,000. Capital 
—Wellington. 

NORWAY — Kingdom of north Europe. Norway is a constitu- 
tional and hereditary monarchy with succession in direct male line. 
The King’s executive power is exercised by a Council of State or 
cabinet consisting of the prime minister and at least seven other 
councillors. The legislative power is vested in the Storting which 
comprises an upper house consisting of one-fourth of the 160 mem- 
bers of the Storting the remainder constituting the lower house. 
Norway is one of the greatest seafaring nations and its merchant 
marine is the third largest in the world. In the North Cape area is 
the phenomenon known as midnight sun. The sun does not set from 



WORLD GAZETTEER 


99 


the middle of May until the end of July, nor does it rise above the 
horizon approx, from Nov. 18 to Jan. 23. Varicoloured Northern 
Lights are visible in winter. Forests cover nearly one-fourth of the 
area. They are the principal sources of vrealth, and the paper and 
wood pulp industries flourish. Area : 125,064 sq. m. Pop. — 3,309,000. 
Capital — Oslo. 

PANAMA, REPUBLIC OF — ^It occupies the entire Isthmus of 
that name connecting Central and South America and separating the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It stretches 450 miles. Panama Canal 
is the country’s big economic asset. On Nov. 18, 1903 Panama grant- 
the canal zone to the U. S. by treaty. Area : 28,575 sq. m. Pop. — 
887,400. Capital — Panama. 

PAKISTAN — A. new Muslim State was formed by the partition 
of India on August 14, 1947. It is the world’s largest and most in- 
fluencial Muslim State. Under its new constitution, it is a 
“Islamic Republic” where the laws should be framed according to 
Quoranic principles. It is divided into two parts : Western part is 
made up of Baluchistan, Sind and N. W. F. Province and the western 
part of the Punjab, princely State of Bhawalpur and a few other 
small muslim states which has now been formed into one unit 
state, while Eastern part consists of the Eastern half of 
Bengal and the Sylhet district of Assam. Over half of the 
population is concentrated in East Bengal which contains only 16 p.c, 
of the total area. Area : 364,737 sq. m. Pop. (1951) — 75,842,165. 
Capital — Karachi, Flag — dark green rectangle with white vertical 
bar at mast ; white crescent and white heraldic five-pointed star in 
centre. 

PARAGUAY — South American Republic. Since the adoptation 
of the 1940 constitution, Paraguay is a semi-authoritarian republic. 
Area : 157,600 sq. m. Pop. — 1,530,000. Capital — Asuncion. 

PERU — Maritime republic situated on the Pacific coast of 
South America. The Government of Peru consists of a 
President and two Vice-Presidents, elected by direct suffrage for a 
period of 6 years. Legislative authority is vested in a Congress 
composed of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. Peru has vast 
mineral resources. It ranks fourth in world in silver production 
and mines about 25 p.c. of the world’s vanadium. Area : 514,059 sq. 
m. Population 9,200,000. Capital — Lima. 

PHILIPPINES — ^is the largest island Igroup in the Malaya 
Archipelago. It is an archipelago of approximately 7,083 islands 
lying about 500 miles off the south-east coast of Asia. 
The larcrest islands are Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, and Pala- 
wan. The independence of the Philippines was proclaimed on July 
4, 1946 in accordance to the Act passed in the American Congress in 
1934. The Philippines have a republican form of Government based 
on that of the United States. Executive power is exercised by the 
President popularly elected for a 4-year term and assisted by a 
Cabinet appointed by him. The popularly elected Congress has two 
houses — ^the Senate with 24 members and the House of Representa- 



100 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


lives vrifh not more than 120 members. Area : 115,600 sq. m. Pop. — 
21,440,000. Capital — Quezon City. 

POLAND — ^Independent Republic of central Europe known^ as 
Polish People’s Republic. Poland’s new constitution describes 
Poland as a people’s republic in which the highest authority is parlia- 
mentary body. In most respects it follows the pattern set by the 
U.S.S.R. constitution of 1936. The office of the President has been 
abolished and the Council of State is the highest organ of the 
government. Area : 120,355 sq. m. Population — 26,500,000. Capital — 
Warsaw. 

PORTUGAL — ^is a Republic of S.-W. Europe occupying the wes- 
tern part of the Iberian Peninsula, bounded on the north and east by 
Spain and on the south and west by the Atlantic Ocean. Under the 
constitution of 1933 revised in 1951, Portugal is a Unitary Corporative 
republic. The President is elected popularly for a term of seven 
years. It has a National Assembly of 120 members for a term of _4 
years. There is also a Corporative Chamber which handles economic 
and social matters and advises National Assembly. Area : 35,466 

sq. m. Pop.— 86,93,600. Capital — Lisbon. 

RUMANIA — ^Independent kingdom of the Balkans ; according 
to new Constitution of 1948, Rumania is a “People’s Unitary and In- 
dependent State’’. It is socialistic in nature. The highest authority 
of the government is Grand National Assembly. Virtually all the 
powers formerly vested in the King are exercised by a 19-member 
presidium of the National Assembly; certain area has been ceded to 
Russia. Area ; -92,000 sq. m. Pop. — ^16,100,000. Capital — Bucharest. 

SAN MARINO — ^Independent republic bounded .by Italian 
territory, lying some 12 miles S.-W. of Rimini. It claims 
to be the oldest state of Europe having founded in the 4th 
century and is one of the world’s smallest states. San Marino, the 
capital is situated on a spur of the Apennines. Government is by a 
council of 60 and the State is under Italian protection. Area : 38 
sq. m. Population — 13,500. 

SAARLAND — Situated on the North-Eastern frontier of France, ' 
Saarland is defined in its Constitution of 1947 as “an autonomous 
democratic and social country, economically linked to France”. It 
has an area of 800 sq. miles and a population of 976,476. Coal mining 
and steel production are its principal industries. By the treaty of 
Versailles, Saar was placed under the control of the League of Nations 
for 16 years and at the end of this period the territory reverted to 
Germany following plebiscite. It was occupied by U.S. Army in 
March, 1946 and from 1945 to 1947 was incorporated in the French 
zone of occupation. In 1947 its independence was recognised. The 
land is now governed by an elected legislative assembly of 60 mem- 
bers. Area : 800 sq. m. Population — ^976,476. Capital— ^aar6rucfcen. 

SOUTH AFRICA — ^The Union of South Africa is a Dominion 
within the British Commonwealth of nations. It extends from the 
southernmost point of the Africal continent to the course of 
Limpopo region. It consists of the following provinces — ^Trans- 



WORLD GAZETTEER 


101 


vaal, Cape of Good Hope, Orange Free State and Natal. The capital 
of the Union is Pretoria, though Union’s Legislature meets in Cape 
Town. It is the richest gold and diamond producing country in the 
world and one of the richest in uranium. Area : 472,733 sq. m. 

Pop. — 12,648,575. Capital — Pretoria (seat of administration) and 
Cape Toivn (seat of legislature). 

SPAIN — Nominal monarchy of S.-W. Europe. It is separated 
from Prance by the Pyrcnnees mountain. It was proclaimed a repub- 
lic on April 14, 1931. Spain has a dictatorship form of government 
under General Franco. Franco is the head of the State, national chief 
of the Falange party, prime minister and Caudillo (leader) of the 
empire. Practically, the country is ruled by the Cabinet (appointed 
by Franco), the National Council of the Falange Party and, to a lesser 
extent, the Cortes (Parliament). The principal function of the 
Cortes is the planning and formulation of laws without prejudice 
to Francos’ veto power. On April 1947, Franco himself 
declared Spain a kingdom a^in. He was to remain head of the 
State, and upon his death or incapacity, the government and a Coim- 
cil of the Realm constituted by the law are to nominate as King 
“that person of royal blood who is most qualified by right” subject 
to the approval of the Cortes. Area : 196,700 sq. m. Pop. — ^28,638,977. 
Capital — Madrid. 

SUDAN — It was formerly Anglo-Egyptian Condominium. It 
lies between the Sahara and the equatorial forests and extends from 
the Atlantic to Ethiopia. After the defeat of Sudan by the British 
forces in 1898, a Condominium was established in agreement with 
Egypt and reaffirmed in 1936 which provided for the appoint- 
ment of a Governor-General by Egypt. In 1951 Egypt abrogated 
the 1936 treaty and Egyptian King began to style himself as the 
“King of Egypt and Sudan” which was not recognised by Great 
Bi'itain and by the majority of Sudanese. A compromise agreement 
was signed on Feb. 1953 providing for the liquidation of the dual ad- 
ministration and the determination by the Sudanese on either Union 
•with Egypt or complete independence. Authority during three-year 
transition is vested in the British Governor-General and a five-man 
commission. Area : 967,500 sq. m. Pop. 8,764,000. Capital : — 

Khartum. 

S'W’EDEN — Kingdom of North Europe, Government is a consti- 
tutional hereditary monarchy. Executive and judicial authority is 
vested in the Eng alone but his resolutions must be taken in the 
presence of the Council of State (Cabinet) headed by the Prime 
Minister ; the Council is appointed by the Eng, but is responsible 
collectively to the Riksdag (Parliament). The Riksdag has _ an 
upper chamber elected indirectly by the pro-rincial and municipal 
councils for eight years. The lower chamber of 230 members^ is 
directly elected by popular vote for four years. Sweden is an im- 
portant source of high grade iron ore and also exports lumber, pulp 
and paper and is kno'wn for its special technical industries (ball 
bearings and electrical appliances). Area ; 173,347 sq. m. Pop. — 
7,191,316. Capital — Stockholm. 



102 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


SWITZERLAND — is the federal republic of Central Europe 
and is a federation of 22 sovereign cantons. Each canton has its 
own legislature, executive and judiciary Department with the right 
to veto over federal legislation through referendum. The national 
authority vests in a parliament of two Chambers — State Council to 
which each canton sends two members. The lower house — 
National Council has 196 members, one representative to each 
24,000 population. The executive power is vested in the Federal 
Council of seven members. President serves for one year. On the 
basis of international treaties and guarantees, Switzerland is perpe- 
tually neutral. Switzerland enters into no military alliance and is 
not a member of the U. N. or NATO. It is however a member of 
various international commissions of the U.N., W.H.O.; etc. German, 
French and Italian are official languages of Switzerland. Dairying 
and stock-raising are the principal industries. Area : 15,944 sq. m. 

Pop. — 4,925,000. Capital — Bame. 

SYRIA — The republic is in the Levent covering portion of the 
former Ottoman Empire. It had been under French mandate since 
1914-18 war, became an independent republic during 1939-45 war. 
The constitution is based on to some extent on that of the U.S. was 
passed in 1950. Area : 72,234 sq. m. Pop. — 5,433,784. Capital — 
Damascus. 

THAILAND — ^Kingdom of South-eastern Asia. It is a consti- 
tutional hereditary monarchy. The Constitution provides a uni- 
cameral Parliament, half nominated and half elected. The govern- 
ment is administered by the Prime Minister and his Cabinet who is 
responsible to the Parliament. Area : 200,148 sq. m. Pop. — 19,192,000. 
Capital — Bangkok. 

TRIESTE — Seaport of the north Adriatic on a like-named gulf. 
It was a territory under Italy from 1920. After the 2nd World War, 
it was a debateable territory between Italy and Y'ugoslavia. In 1947 
the Free Territory of Trieste was constituted as a compromise bet- 
ween Italian and Yugoslav claims, under the aegis of the United 
Nations Security Council ; as a temporary expedient the territory 
was divided into two parts, namely, the 'Italian Zone (A) in the 
north (including Trieste City) guarded by U.K. and U.S.A. forces 
and the larger but less populous Yugoslav Zone (B) in the south. 

TURKEY — ^Republic of Asia and Europe. The European terri- 
tory was reduced to the city of Constantinople and a narrow strip 
of country around it. It is 9,254 sq. miles including the city of 
Istanbul and Adrianopole and is separated form Asia by the Bhos- 
phorus and Dardanelles. The Turkey in Asia has 285,246 sq. miles. 
The Turkish State is defined as “republican, nationalist, populist, 
etatist, secular and revolutionary.” The president is chosen from 
the deputies of the National Assembly ; his term of office is identical 
with the life of each Assembly. 487 members of the Assembly arc 
elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years. Area : 296,503 
sq. m. Population — 20,902,628. Capital — Ankara. 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA— Federal Republic of North 


WORLD GAZETTEER 


103 


America extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada 
to Mexico with outlying areas in Alaska, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Guam 
and other Pacific islands. United States consists of 48 States and 
the federal district of Columbia. U.S.A. has a federal government. 
The Federal Government is based on the separation of powers — the 
President, House of Congress and the Supreme Court being designed 
to balance and restrain each other — hence the famous concept of 
‘checks and balances’. Each State is self-governing in local matters, 
but confides to the Central -Government at Washington the control 
of foreign affairs and the army and navy. Police, education, public 
health, etc., remain within the scope of the individual states. The 
capital is Washington which belongs to no state, being administered 
directly by the Federal Government. Executive power is vested in 
the President elected by popular vote every four years. He chooses 
the members of the Cabinet, who are not (as in England) members 
of the legislature. Legislative power is vested in Congp:ess, com- 
posed of a two houses ; the Senate with two members from each 
State elected to serve six years and the House of Representatives 
composed of a number of members varying according to the census 
elected for two years. There is adult suffrage. The third main 
component of the constitution is the Supreme Court at Washington. 
Area ; 3,026,789 sq. m. Pop. — 163,900,000. Capital — WashingtoTi. 

U.S.S.R. — ^It is a Federal State of East Europe, North and West 
Central Asia. The U.S.S.R. emerged as a political entity under the 
leadership of Lenin after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and tho 
downfall of the empire of Russia. It was proclaimed formally, 
1922, after a confused interim period of civil war, war with Poland 
(1920), the first State basing its constitution on Marxist com- 
munism. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is composed of Rus- 
sian, Ukrainian, Bylorussian, Azerbaijan, Georgian, Armenian, 
Kazak, Turkmenian, Kirghiz, Tadjek, Uzbek, Karelo-Finnish, Eslo- 
nian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republics. 
It is the largest country in the World, stretches across two conti- 
nents from the North Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Finland. Vast 
territory of U.S.S.R., one sixth of the earth’s land_ surface, contains 
every phase of climate except the distinctly tropical and a varied 
topography. The constitution of December 5, 1936 provides that the 
highest organ in the U.S.S.R. is the Supreme Soviet consisting of 
two equal houses ; that members thereof shall be chosen on the 
basis of universal, equal and direct^ suffrage by secret ballot for a 
term of 4 years ; that regular sessions of each body shall be held 
twice each year ; that there shall be a president of each house ; 
that there shall be one Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which shall 
consist of a president, 16 Vice-Presidents (one Vice-President for 
each constituent republic of the Union), a secretary and 15 members ; 
that the Presidium shall act as an executive and directive body bet- 
ween the sessions of the Supreme Soviet. 

The U.S.S.R. is probably the richest country in the world in 
mineral resources containing deposits of almost evei-y known mineral. 
It ranks among the top-producing nations in coal, chromite, iron ore, 
petroleum, gold, copper, manganese, and other products. The 



104 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


richest mineral region is that of the Ural mountains. Area : 8,707,870 
sq. m. Pop. — 213,000,000. Capital — Moscoiv. 

URUGUAY" — Smallest republic in South America. Area : 72,172 
sq. m. Pop. — 2,526,000. Capital — Montevideo. 

VATICAN CITY — The independent sovereign State, created hy 
the Treaty of 1929, of which the Pope is the head. It covers 109 
acres in the heart of Rome and includes Vatican Palace, the Pope’s 
official residence and the basilica and square of St. Peters. The 
immediate government of the State of Vatican City is in the hands 
of a Governor. He is assisted by a Counsellor General and by a num- 
ber of offices. There is no political parties and no parliament. 
Area : 109 acres. Pop. — 947. 

Y’’ENEZUELA — is the northernmost State of South America. 
Area : 352,150 sq. m. Pop. — 5,605,000. Capital — Caracas. 

Y^UGOSLAVIA — is a federal republic of S.-E. Europe in the 
Balkan peninsula and is a federation comprising the People’s Re- 
publics of Serbia, Croatia, Slovakia, Bosnia-Harzagina, Macedonia 
and Montenegro. Under the 1953 Constitution, Yugoslavia is a 
federal republic. Executive power is vested in the federal execu- 
tive council of 30 to 45 members elected by and from the federal 
assembly and presided over by the president of the republic who is 
elected by and is responsible to the federal assembly. The assembly 
consists of (1) a federal council and (2) a council of producers. Area; 
95,558 sq. m. Pop. — 16,927,275. Capital — Belgrade. 

UNITED KINGDOM — The United Kingdom consisting of Eng- 
land, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Isle of Man and the Chan- 
nel Islands lies off the north-west comer of Europe. The United 
Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a King and a 
Parliament consisting of two houses : the House of Lords and the 
House of Commons. Supreme legislative power is vested in parlia- 
ment which holds office for five years unless sooner dissolved. The 
executive power of the Crown is exercised by the Cabinet headed by 
the prime minister. The Prime Minister, normally the head of the 
party commanding a majority in the House of Commons, is appointed 
by the Sovereigm with whose consent he in turn appoints the rest of 
the Cabinet. All the ministers must be members of one or the other 
house of Parliament. Area : 94,279 sq. m. Pop. — 60,033,000. Capital 
— London. 

VIET-NAM — ^Until 1954 a republic included in the federation of 
Indo-China, French Union. It was established in 1946 to include Ton- 
kin, Annam and Cochin-China with Saigon as its capital. Area : 
127,000 sq. m. Pop. — 27.5 million. Capital — Hanoi. 

In World War II, during Japanese occupation (1941-1945), the 
Communist Viet Minh league was formed in 1941 and set up a 
republic. In 1946 agreement was reached between Viet-Minh and 
the French as to the federation of the three States as the Viet Nam 
republic and as to their future independence, but differences arose 
and suspicions mounted which led the Viet Minh Government 
eventually commencing a guerrilla warfare and in 1949 agreement 



WORLD GAZETTEER 


105 


■was signed promising Viet Nam complete independence -within 
the French Union. But these negotiations fell through and Viet 
Minh regarded themselves as the true government and rebel acti-vity 
continued on large scale which resulted in the -virtual defeat of the 
French. So in 1954, following a conference at Geneva an armistice 
was signed foreshado-wing inter alia the partition of the country 
along the 17th parallel of latitute. This resulted all but the coastal 
end of Red River delta under Viet Minh control. Pending the hold- 
ing of elections, the country lies divided into a northern Democratic 
Republic and a southern State of Viet Nam. 


SOME OVERALL RESULTS OF FIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN 

The following are some of the overall results of the first Five 
Year Plan. 

National income over the five years (1951-56) has increased by 
about 18%. 

Foodgrain production has gone up by 20%. 

Output of cotton and of major oilseeds has shown an improvement 
of 45 and 8% respectively. 

Over six million acres of land have been brought under irrigation 
through major works. 

Another 10 million acres have been irrigated through smaller 
irrigation works. 

Industrial production has increased steadily. The interim index 
(1946-100) of industrial production works out at 161 for 1955 as 
compared wth 105 for 1950 and 117 for 1951. 

The generation of electric power has gone up from 6575 million 
KWH in 1950-51 to 11,000 million KWH in 1955-56. 

The output of cement is estimated to have gone up from 2.7 
million tons in 1950-51 to 4.3 million tons in 1955-56. 

Several important industrial projects in the public sector have 
been completed and considerable new investment, especially in the 
field of producer goods and capital goods industries, has taken place 
in the private sector. 

Preliminary work in connection with the installation of three 
steel plants and the heavy electrical plant has been completed and 
the foundation laid for the larger tasks to be taken in hand during 
the second Plan period. 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 

RULERS OR HEADS OF GOVERNIMENTS OF THE WORLD 

Country Ruler Executive Head. 

Afghanistan . . Zahir Shah, King. . . Sardar Md. Daud, F.SI. 

Arabia-Saudi Abd-el-Aziz, King. 

Australia . . Sir William Slim, G. G.’ . . R. G. Menzies, F.M. 

Austria .. Dr. T. Koemer, P. .. Dr. Julius Raab, Chan- 

cellor. 

Argentina . • Edwards Leonerdo P. 

Belgium . . Baudouin I, King. . . Achilla Van Acher, P.si. 

Burma . . Dr. Ba U, P. - • U. Ba, Swe, p.m. 

Bhutan . . Jig-me Wang-chuk. 

Brazil . . Juscelino Kubitschek, P. . . 

Bulgaria . . V. Chervenkov, P. . . Anton Yugov, p.m. 

Canada . . Vincent Massey, G. G. .. Louis St. Laurent, p.m. 

Chile . . Carlos Ibanez del Campo P. 

China .. Mao Tse Tung, Chairman. Chow En Lai, P.M. 

Ceylon .. Sir O. Goonatileke, G. G. S. W. R. D. Bandara- 

naike, P.M. 

Czechoslovakia A. Zapotocky, P. .. Viliam Sirokj', p.m. 

Denmark . . Frederick IX, King. . . Hans Hansen, P.M. 

Egypt . . G. A Nasser, P. 

Finland . . J. K. Paasikivi, P. . . U. K. Kekkonen, P.M. 

France .. P. Rene Coty .. Guy Mollet, p.m. 

W. Germany Theodor Heuss, P. . . Dr. K. Adenauer, Chan- 

cellor. 

E. Germany . . W. Pieck, P. . . O. Grotewohl, p.m. 

Ethiopia . . Haile Selassie I 

Gt. Britain . . Elizabeth II, Q. . . Anthony Eden, P.M. 

Greece . . Paul I. King. . . C. Karamanlis, P.JI. 

Hungary . . Istvan Dobi, P. . . J. Kadar, P..M. 

Iran (Persia) Mohammed Raza Pahlevi Hussein Ala, P.M. 

India .. Rajendra Prasad, P. .. J. L. Nehru, P.M._ 

Indonesia . . Dr. A. Soekamo, P. . . Ali Sastroamidjojo, p.m. 

Iraq . . Faisal II, King. . . Nuri es-Said, p.m. 

Italy . . Giovanni Gronchi, P. . . Antonio Segni, P.M. 

Irish Republic Sean T. I’Kelly, P. . . J. A. Costello, P.M. 

Israel . . Issac Ben-Zevi, P. . . D. Ben Gurion, P.M. 

Japan . . Hirohito, Emperor. . . Ichiro Hatoyama P.M. 

Jordan . . King Hussain I . . Samir el-Rifai. p.m. 

Korea (South) Lee Bum Suk, P. . . Dr. S. Rhee, p.m. 

Korea (North) Kim Dn-bong, P. . . Kim II Sung, p.m. 

Luxemburg . . Charlotte, Grand Duchess. Joseph Bech, P.M. 

Liberia . . W. V. Tubman, P. 

Mexico . . Adolfo R. Cortines, P. . . 


POLITICAL INFORMATION 


107 


Country Ruler Executive Head. 

Nepal . . Mahendra Bir Bikram. Tanka Prasad f.m. 
Netherlands Juliana, Queen. .. William Drees, p.m. 

Norway .. Haakon 'WI, King. .. Einar Gerhardsen, P.M. 

Pakistan . . Iskandar Mirza, G. G. .. H. S. Shurawardy, P.M. 

Peru . . Manuel A. Odira, p.m. 

Philippine Is. R. Magsaysay, P. 

Portugal F. Craveiro Lopes, P. .. Dr. A. 0. Salazar, p.m. 

Poland .. A. Zawadski, P. .. J. Cyrankiewiez, p.m. 

Saudi Arabia King Saud 

South Africa Dr. E. G. Jansen, G. G. ., Mr. Strydom. 

Spain .. Genl. Franco, Regent. . .. 

Sweden . . Gustaf VI, King. .. T. F. Erlander, p.m. 

Switzerland . . Max Petitpierre, P. 

Syria . . Shukri al-Kuwalty, P._ . . Said Ghazzi, p.m. 

Thailand . . Phumibol Aduldet, King. L. P. Songgp-am, p.m. 
Turkey . . Celal Bayar, P. . . Adanan Menderes, p.m. 

U.S.S.R. . . Marshal Voroshilov, P, . . Marshal Bulganin, P.M. 

United States D. Eisenhower, P. 

Vatican City Pius XII, Pope 

Yugoslavia . . Josip Boriz Tito. 

Sudan . . Ismail Azahari, p.m. . 

PRESIDENTS OF THE U.S. 


Name Politics Name Politics 

1789-1797 G. Washington Fed. 1869-1877 Ulyssess Grant Rep. 

1797-1801 John Adams Fed. 1877-1881 R. B. Hayes Rep. 

1801-1809 Thomas JofFerson Rep. 1881-1881 James Garfield Rep. 

1809-1817 James Madison Rep. 1881-1885 Chester A. 

1817-1825 James Monroe Rep. Arthur Rep. 

1825-1829 J. Quincy Adam Rep. 1885-1889 G. Cleveland Dem. 
1829-1837 Andrew Jackson Dem. 1889-1893 B. Harrison Rep. 

1837-1841 Martin Van 1893-1897 G. Cleveland Dem. 

Euren Dem. 1897-1901 W. McKinley Rep. 

1841-1841 W. H. Harrison Whig. 1901-1909 T. Roosevelt. Rep. 
1841-1845 John Tayler Whig. 1909-1913 William H. Taft Rep. 
1845-1849 J. Knox Polk Dem. 1913-1921 W. WJlson Dem. 

1849- 1850 Zachary Taylor Whig. 1921-1923 W. G. Harding Rep. 

1850- 1853 M. Fillmore Whig. 1923-1929 Calvin Coolidge Rep. 

1853-1857 Franklin Pierce Dem. 1929-1933 H. C. Hoover Rep. 
1857-1861 J. Buchanan Dem. 1933-1945 F. D. Roosevelt Dem. 
1861-1865 A. Lincoln Rep. 1945-1953 H. S. Truman Dem. 


1865-1869 Andrew Johnson Rep. 1953 D. D. Eisenhower Rep. 
BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS 

Sir R. Walpole (Whig) 1721 Duke of Devonshire (Whig) 1756 
Earl of Wilmington (Whig) 1742 Duke of Newcastle (Whig) 1757 
Henry Pelham (V^ig) 1743 Earl of Bute (Tory) 1762 

Duke of Newcastle (Whig) 1754 George Grenville (Whig) 1763 



108 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Lord Rockingham (Whig) 1765 Earl of Derby (Con) 1866 

Duke of Grafton (Whig) 1766 B. Disraeli (Con) 1868 

Lord North (Whig) 1770 W. E. Gladstone (Lib) 1868 

Lord Rockingham (Whig) 1782 B. Disraeli (Con) 1874 

Earl of Shelburne (Whig) 1782 W. E. Gladstone (Lib) 1880 

Duke of Portland (Coal) 1782 M’quess of Salisbury (Con) 1885 
William Pitt (Tory) 1783 W. E. Gladstone (Lib) 1886 

Henry Addin^on (Tory) 1801 M’quess of Salisbury (Con) 1886 

William Pitt (Tory) 1804 W. E. Gladstone (Lib) 1892 

Lord Grenville ("V^ig) 1806 Earl of Rosebery (Lib) 1894 

Duke of Portland (Tory) 1807 hi’quess of Salisbury (Con) 1895 

Spencer Percival (Tory) 1809 Earl Balfour (Con) 1902 

Lord Liverpool (Tory) 1812 Sir H. Campbell-Banner- 

George Canning (Tory) 1827 man (Lib) 1905 

Lord Goderich (Tory) 1827 H. H. Asquith (Lib) 1908 

Duke of Wellin^on (Tory) 1828 H. H. Asquith (Coal) 1915 

Earl Grey (Whig) 1830 D. L. George (Coal) 1916 

Viscount Blelboume (Whig) 1834 A. Bonar Law (Con) 1922 

Sir Robert Peel (Con) 1834 Stanley Baldwin (Con) 1923 

Visct. Blelboume (Whig) 1835 J- R. McDonald (Nat.) 1924 

Sir Robert Peel (Con) 1841 Stanley Baldwin (Nat.) 1924 

Earl Russell (Lib) 1846 J. R. BIcDonald (Nat.) 1929 

Earl of Derby (Con) 1852 J. R. BIcDonald (Coal) 1931 

Lord Aberdeen (Coal) 1852 Stanley Baldwin (Coal) 1935 

Viscount Palmerston (Lib) 1855 N. Chamberlain (Coal) 1937 

Earl of Derby (Con) 1858 Winston Churchill (Coal) 1940 

Visct., Palmerston (Lib) 1859 C. R. Attlee (Lab) 1945 

Lord Russell (Lib) 1865 W. S. Churchill (Con.) 1951 

Anthony Eden (Con.) 1955 

SALARIES OF THE HEADS OF GOVERNBIENTS 

President of U.S.A. . . . . $ 100,000 per year* 

British Prime Minister . . £ 10,000 per year 

President of the Indian Union . . Rs, 10,000 per monthf 

Prime Blinister of Japan . . . . 110,000 yen per months 

RULERS OF FRANCE SINCE WORLD WAR II 
{Fourth Republic) 

Vichy Government Fourth Republic 

H. P. Petain . . 1940-44 Vincent Auriol . . 1947-54 

Rene Coty . . 1964- 

Provisional Government 
Charles de Gaulle . . 1944-46 

Felix Gouin . . 1946 

Georges Bidault . . 1946-47 

*P7tts taxable $50,000 for expenses and a non-taxable sum (not 
exceeding $40,000 a year) for travelling and official entertainment 
expenses. 

I With emoluments etc. 
t Exclusive of allowances. 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 


109 


RULERS OF GERMANY SINCE WORLD WAR I 

Fourth Reich Federal Republic of Germany 

F. Ebert (President) 1919-25 (Western) 

Paul Van Hindenburg' Theodor Heuss (President) 1949- 

(President) . . 1925-34 Democratic Republic of Germany 

Adolf Hitler (Fuhrer) 1934-46 (Eastern) 

Wilhelm Pieck (President) 1949- 

RULERS OF U.S.S.R. 

Nikolai Lenin . . 1917-24 Georgi M. Malenkov . . 1953-64 

Joseph Stalin . . 1924-63 Nikolai Bulganin . . 1954- 

POLITICAL ASSASSINATIONS 


1865 Abraham Lincoln, President 
U.S.A., April 14. 

1872 Earl of Mayo, Governor- 
General of India. 

1876 Abdul Aziz, Sultan of 
Turkey, June 4. 

1881 Alexander of Russia and 
President Garfield, U.S.A, 

1894 Marie F, Sadi-Camot, Pre- 
sident of France, June 24. 

1896 Nasr-ed-Din, Shah of 
Persia. 

1894 President Carnot of France, 

1898 Empress Elizabeth of Aus- 
tria, Sept. 10. 

1900 Humbert of Italy. 

1901 President McKinley, U.S.A., 
September 6. 

1903 King Alexander and 
his •w^e Draga of Serbia. 

1905 Grand Duke Sergius of 
Russia. 

1908 King Carlos aud Crown 
Prince of Portugal. 

1909 Prince Ito of Japan. 

1911 Stolypin, Premier of 
Russia, 14th Sept, 

1912 Jose Canalojas, Premier of 
Spain. 

1913 King George I of Greece. 

1914 Archduke Francis Ferdi- 
nand of Austria & his wife 

1918 Czar Nicholas II and fami- 
ly, July 31 ; President Paes 
of Portugal. 

1919 Amir Habibullah of Afgha- 
nistan. 


1921 Dato, Premier of Spain ; 
Ta Kashi Hara, Japanese 
Premier. 

1922 J. Narutowicz, 1st Presi- 
dent of Poland, Dec. 16 ; 
Michael Collins, Irish Free 
State Premier. 

1928 Ex-President Gen. Alvaro 
Obregon of Mexico. 

1930 Premier Hamaguchi of 
Japan. 

1932 President Doumer of 
France ; Ki Inukai, Japa- 
nese Premier, May 31. 

1933 Emir Faisal, King of Iraq, 
Sept. 9 ; Ion Duea, Ruma- 
nian Premier, Dec. 24 ; 
King Nadir Shah of Af- 
ghanistan. 

1934 Austrian Chancellor Dr. 
Dollfuss ; King Alexander 
I of Yugoslavia ; M. Bar- 
thow, French Foreign Mi- 

1935 Huey P. Long, U. S. Se- 
nator, September 10. 

1936 K. Takahasi, Finance Mi- 
nister, Admiral Saito, Ad- 
miral Suzuki, Japan. 

1937 General Baqir Sidqi, Dic- 
tator of Iraq, August 12. 

1938 E. Von Rath of German 
Embassy, Paris. 

1939 Rumanian Premier M. 
Calinescan. 

1940 Leon Trotsky, Exiled Rus- 
sian leader, 21st August. 



110 


HmDUSTAN TEAK-BOOK 


Political Assassinations — {Concld.). 


1942 Hydricli, German Protec- 
tor of Bohemia-Moravia ; 
Admiral Darlan of France. 

1945 Mehar Pasha, Premier of 
Egypt, February 24. 

1946 Aoianda Slahidol, King of 

Siam, July 9. _ 

1947 Gen. Atmg San, Tice-Pre- 
sident of Burma and five 
Cabinet Ministers. 

1948 Mahatma Gandhi, Jan. 30 
1948 Count F. Bemadotte, U.N. 

mediator, Sept. 17 ; Premier 
Nokrash 3 ' Pasha of Egypt. 


1949 Syrian President Hosni 
Ziam, Aug. 14 ; Abdul Hus- 
sain, Ex-Persian Prime 
Minister, Nov. 4. 

1951 General Ali Eazmara, 
Premier of Iran, Mar. 7 ; 
King Abdulla of Jordan, 
Jiily ; Liaquat Ali Khan, 
Premier of Pakistan, Octo- 
ber 16. 

1955 President Antonio Kemon 
of Panama. 


FAMOUS ABDICATIONS 


B.C. A-D. 

Sulla, Homan Dictator 79 Wilhelm II (Germany) 1918 

A.D. Karl (.Axistria) " 1918 

Deocletian (Roman Emp.) 305 Muhammad IT (Turkey) 1922 

Edward n (England) 1327 George 11 (Greece) 1924 

Richard 11 (England) 1399 Amanulla (Afghanistan) 1929 

Charles V (Germany) 1555 Alfonso (Spain) 1931 

ilary Queen of Scots 1567 Prajabar dhak (Thailand) 1935 

Christina (Sweden) 1654 Edward Vlil (England) 1936 

James 11 (England) 1688 Zog I (Albania) 1939 

Charles IV (Spain) 1808 Carol 11 (Rumania) 1940 

Nepoleon I (France) 1814 Reza Shah Pelavi (Iran) 1941 

Charlesx (France) 1830 Victor Emmanuel III 

Louis Philippe (France) 1848 (Italy) 1946 

Isabella I (Spain) 1870 Umberto (Italy) 1946 

Abdul Hamid H (Turkey) 1909 Simeon (Bulgaria) 1945 

Manoel (Portugal) 1910 Michael (Rumania) 1947 

Pn-Yi (China) 1912 Wilhelmina (Netherlands) 1948 

Nicholas 11 (Russia) 1917 Leopold HI (Belgium) 1951 

Constantine (Greece) Faruk T (Egypt) 1952 

1917 & 1922 Talal (Jordan) 1952 

Ferdinand I (Bulgaria) 1918 


FL-AGS OF COUNTRIES 

Afghanistan — ^Three vertical Belgium — ^Three vertical bands, 

bars, black, red and green ; black, yelow, red. 
design in centre (red) bar Brarif— Green with 21 white 
composed of a moso.ue endors- stars forming Southern Cross 
ed by a crescent formed of on blue circle superimposed on 

two ears of wheat joined at gold diamond in centre, 

the bottom. 


POLITICAL INFORMATION 


111 


Flags of Countries — (Concld.). 


Bunna — Red with dark blue can- 
ton bearing a large white five- 
pointed star surrounded by 5 
smaller stars of like pattern 
and colour. 

Ceylon — Dark red with yellow 
border and finials in comers, 
yellow lion symbol in centre, 
two vertical stripes of green 
and saffron at pole. 

Chili — ^White and red horizontal 
bars, with white star in blue 
canton. 

Denmark — Red with white cross. 

Egypt — ^White crescent and three 
five-pointed stars on green 
field. 

Etheopia — Three horizontal 
bands ; green, yellow, red with 
lion in yellow bar. 

Finland — White with blue cross. 

France — ^The ‘Tricolour’, three 
vertical bands, blue, white, red 
(blue next to flagstaff). 

Greece — Navy blue ground quar- 
tered by white cross. 

Hungary — ^Horizontal bands, red->. 
white-green, with coat of arms 
in cen&e. 

India — Three horizontal strips, 
saffron, white and dark green, 
with 24 spoke wheel of Asoka 
in centre of w'hite band. 

Indonesia — ^Two horizontal bands. 
Red and White. 

Iran — Three horizontal bars, 
fp-een-white-red with golden 
lion insignia in white portion. 

Iraq — Black-white-green horizon- 
tal bars ; vertical red trapi- 
zoid near hoist, containing two 
white stars. 

Ireland — Vertical bars, green- 
white-orange. 

Italy — Three vertical bands, 
dark green-white-red. 

Israel — White, with two horizon- 
tal blue stripes, the Shield of 
David in the centre. 


Japan — White charged with ris- 
ing sun (red). 

Mexico — Three vertical bars, 
green-white-red, with eagle 
and cactus emblem on white. 

Netherlands — ^Three horizontal 
bands, red-white-blue. 

Norway — Red with white bor- 
dered blue cross. 

Pakistan — ^Dark green rectangle 
with white vertical bar at 
mast ; white crescent and 
white heraldic five-pointed 
star in centre. 

Peru — Three vertical bars, red- 
white-red, with coat of arms 
on white. 

Philippines — Blue and red hori- 
zontal bars ; white canton with 
gold sun, three gold stars. 

Poland — Two horizontal bars, 
white and red. 

Portugal — Green and red verti- 
cal bars with armillary sphere 
and shield in centre. 

Spain — Three equal horizontal 

bands (red, yellow & red) with 
coat of arms in centre bands. 

Switzerland — White cross on red 
ground. 

Sweden — Ejrtended yellow cross 
on medium blue field. 

Thailand — Five horizontal bands, 
red, white, dark blue, white 
and red (the blue band twice 
the width of the others). 

Turkey — ^White crescent and 
white five pointed star on red 
field. 

V:S.S.R . — Red ^ound with gold 
hammer and sickle below five 
pointed gold star in upper 
comer nearest staff. 

United Kingdom — Union _ Jack 
(blue ground with superimpos- 
ed crosses of St. George, St. 
Andrew and St. Patrick in red 
and white). 



112 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


U.S.A . — ^Thirteen stripes and 48 
stars. 


OTHER 

NATO flags — is navy blue with 
white ensign. 

Red Crescent flag — with a white 
field is a flag of the Geneva 
Convention. It is used in 
place of Red Cross flag in all 
Muslim countries except Iran. 

Red Cross flag — is the most 
widely used flag of the Geneva 
Convention. It has Red Cross 
against white background. 


Yugoslavia — T h r e e horizontal 
bars, blue, white, red with red 
star in centre. 

FLAGS 

Red Lion Flag — is the ' flag of 
the Geneva Convention in Iran. 
Flag has a white field. 

United Nations — ^White U.N. em- 
blem (global map projected 
from the North Pole and em- 
braced in twin olive branches) 
centred on a rectangular blue 
banner. 


NATIONAL DAY 


Afghanistan — May 27 (Indepen- 
dence Day). 

Argantina—^vily, 9 (Proclama- 
tion of Independence (1816). 

Australia — Jan. 26 (Australia 
Day). 

Brazil — Sept. 7 (Proclamation 
of Independence, 1822). 

Burma — Jan. 4 (Independence 
Day). 

Belgium — July 21. 

Canada — July 1 (Confederation 
Day). 

Ceylon — Feb. 4 (Independence 
Day). 

China — Oct. 1 (Proclamation of 
Chinese Republic, 1949). 

Egypt — ^Nov. 14 (Anniversary of 
the Battle for Independence, 
1922). 

France — July 14 (Taking of the 
Bastille, 1789). 

Finland — Dec. 6 (Proclamation 
of Independence, 1917). 

India — ^15th August (Indepen- 
dence Day). 

Indonesia — August 17 (Indepen- 
dence Day). 

Ireland — March 17 (National 

Day). 

•Israel — April 27 (Independence 
Day). 


Italy — June (Founding of the 
Italian Republic). 

Japan — ^April 29 (Birthday of 
the Emperor). 

Mexico — Sept. 16 (Proclamation 
of Independence, 1820). 

Nepo(— Dussera Day. 

Netherlands — April 30 (Queen’s 
birthday). 

Norway — May 17 (Constitution 
Day). 

Pakistan — ^August 14 (Pakistan 
Day). 

Peru — July 28. 

Philippines — July 4 (National 
Day). 

Poland — July 22 (National Day). 

Switzerland — ^August 1 (found- 
ing of Confederation). 

Thailand — June 24 (National 
Day). 

Turkey — Oct. 29 (Declaration of 
the Republic). 

U.S.A . — July 4 (Independence 
Day). 

U.S.S.R . — Nov 7 (National Day 
of Soviet People, October So- 
cialist Revolution in Russia, 
1917). 

U. K. — Queen’s ofiBcial birth- 
day. 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 


113 


ECAFE 

ECE 

ECO 

FAO 

GATT 

ICEF 

ICAO 

ILO 

IMF 

IRO 

ITU 

NATO 

NRA 

MEDO 

OEEG 


POLITICAL ABBREVIATIONS 


Economic Commis- 
sion for Asia and 
Far East. 

. . Economic Council for 
Europe. 

. . European Coal Orga- 
nisation. 

. . Pood & Agricultural 
Organisation. 

.. General Agreement 
on Trade and Tariff. 

. . International Child- 
ren’s Emergency 
Fund. 

. . International Civil 
Aviation Organisa- 
tion. 

International Labour 
Organisation; 

.. International Mone- 
tory Fund. 

. . International Refu- 
gee Organisation. 

. . International Tele- 
communication Union. 

. . North Atlantic Trea- 
ty Organisation. 

. , National Recovery 
Administration. 

.. Middle-East Defence 
Organisation. 

.. Organisation for Eu- 
ropean Economic 
Co-operation (Mar- 
shall Aid). 


SHAPE 

SEATO 

SEADO 

UNESCO 

UNICEF 

UNRRA 

WHO . 
WMO . 
CARE . 

UNCAFE 

HNCIP . 


Supreme Head-quar- 
ters of Allied Pow- 
ers, Europe. 
South-East Asia 
Collective Treaty 
Organisation. 

South East Asia De- 
fence Organisation. 
United Nations Edu- 
cational, Scientific 
and Cultural Orga- 
nisation. 

United Nations In- 
ternational Child- 
ren’s Emergency 
Fund. 

United Nations Re- 
lief and Rehabilita- 
tion Administration. 
World Health Orga- 
^ nisation. 

World Meteorological 
Organisation. 
Co-operative for Am- 
erican Remittances 
Everywhere. 

United Nations Com- 
mission for Asia and 
Far East. 

United Nations Com- 
mission on India & 
Pakistan (Kashmir). 


NAMES AND COLOURS OF FLAGS 


Union Jack — ^British National 
Flag. 

Old Glory — Flag of U.S.A. 

Flag of Truce — ^WTiite Flag. 
Flag of Distress — Flown upside 
do^vn. 

Red Flag — Once a signal for 
battle, now name given to 


Communist and Soviet Russian 
flags. 

Bed Cross Flag — Same as Swiss 
flag but with colours reversed. 

Yelloto Flag — ^Flown on a ship 
with persons suffering from 
contagious or infectious 
disease. 


8 



114 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


NATIONAL 

Canada — ^The maple leaf forver. 
U.S.— Star-spangled banner. 
England — God Save the King or 
Queen. 

France — La Marseillaise. 

Greece — Hall, oh, hail liberty. 


ANTHEMS 

Soviet Union — ^Hymn of the So- 
viet Union. 

Sweden — Song of the North. 
Japan — Kimigayo. 

India — Janagana-mana A d h i - 
nayaka and Bande Mataram. 


POLITICAL PARTIES AND GROUPS 

Parties in U.S.A. — ^There are no fundamental differences between 
two major political parties of the United States — the Republican 
and the Democratic. Strictly speaking two parties can not be exactly 
classified under the left and right pattern and there are conservative 
and as well as progressive Republicans as there are conservative and 
progressive Democrats. Republican Party is traditionally the high- 
tariff party strong in the Northern and Central States. In foreign 
policy the party wants honourable and just peace as the supreme 
goal. In domestic policy, its objectives are a balanced budget, a 
reduced national debt, an economical administration and a cut in 
taxes. Democratic Party is. traditionally the low-tarff party, 
strongest in the Southern States. In foreign policy it declared that 
peace with • honour was the greatest goal. It reaffirms Wilsonian 
principle of the, right of national self-determination, supports expan- 
sion of world trade. 

Arab League — ^An association of Arab States formed in 22nd 
March, 1945. Its object is to maintain Arab solidarity. ^ The League 
consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi-Arabia, Syria, Lebanon, 
Yemen and Libya. Provision was made for admission of the Arab 
portion of Palestine upon achievement of independence. 

Arab Union — formed shortly after the League, is composed of 
public leaders of the Arab world and is intended to rally" the people 
to unity and to insure handling of essential Arab problems. 

Kuomintang — The Chinese Nationalist Party formed originally 
by the followers of Sun-Yet-Sen in 1905. The party aims at the 
establishment of a modem, democratic, national- state in China. It 
stands for national unity, territorial integrity and a strong central 
government. It insists on full sovereignty of China and the aboli- 
tion of any unequal treaties. The party has now being driven out 
from the mainland of China by the communists and is now confined 
to the Island of Formosa. 

Centre Parties — Parties which are more conservative than left- 
wing parties and more progressive than right-'wing parties. 

Cominform — An organisation of the chief European communist 
parties formed at Belgrade in October 1947 to co-ordinate the acti- 
vities of the communist patties on the basis of mutual agreement. 

Conservative Party (England) — One of the chief political parties 
of England. It is the successor of Tory Party of the 18th and 19th 
centuries. It is a party of the right, in favour of existing social and 
economic system and is opposed to socialism. Its policy is directed 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 


115 


at the maintenance of the Empire, at the development of home agri- 
culture and industry and at the safe-guarding of private property. 
The external policy of the party is traditionally nationa.ist and 
imperialist. Conservative party is opposed to further nationalisa- 
tion, and advocates where practicable, restoration of free enterprise. 

Revolutionary Communist Party — A minor group professing 
Trotskyism existing in almost all countries. They are left-wing 
communists more radical and revolutionary than Stalinist, official 
communists with whom they are in conflict. 

Falangists — The Spanish Fascist Party led by General Franco. 

I. L. P. — Independent Labour Party in England — a small semi- 
radical group in British Labour with a Marxist programme — stands 
between Labour Party and Communists. 

Communist Party — is the world organisation of Marxist Socia- 
lists which once operated through branch national parties very loose- 
ly affiliated to the Communist International or “Comintern’, now 
abolished by the order of Stalin. The ‘International’ has again been 
revived under the name of ‘Cominform’ which is said to be the com- 
mon information Bureau of Communist Parties of nine countries of 
Europe. 

Fianna Fail — De Valera’s radical Nationalist party in Ireland. 

Labour Party (England) — It is the British Socialist Party com- 
posed of Trade Unions, Socialists and Co-operative Societies which 
came into official existence in 1908. It aims bringing about, by legisla- 
tion, changes which will benefit the poorer classes. Nationalization of 
basic industries and public utilities are main programme of the party. 
The party’s policy^ is not based on Marxism — instead it is derived 
from the ethical idealism of the labour, co-operative and radical 
movements and the practical rationalism of Fabianism. 

French Parties' — (1) Mouement Republican Populaire (M.R.P.) 
is a bulkwork against communism and its programme has been 
moderately leftist in character and at the same time it contains strong 
catholic elements. The party stands for limited nationalisation, 
collective bargaining, full employment and development of exports. 
(2) Radical Socialist Party is a left centre party. The party 
favours constitutional reform and better distribution of taxes and 
reform of social security. (3) Independent Republicans solidly 
devoted to defence of free enterprise. (4) Socialist Party. 

Liberal Party — Progressive Party of England, stands for free 
trade, was known as Whig Party in the l_8th and 19th centuries, once 
a great political force, but now an insignificant party. 

Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League, Burma (A.F.P.F.L.) — 
is the national organisation of the Burmese people started by its pre- 
sident late General Aung San who organised Burmese insurrection 
against Japan in early 1945. 

Popular Front — Political Party in different countries composed 
of communists, socialists and other democratic parties against 
Fascism and Nazism. 

Egyptian Parties — The nationalist party of Egypt Wafd, esta- 
blished in 1919 by Zaghlul Pasha, the great Egyptian nationalist. 
1927 — the Saadist Party in 1938 and the Kotla (Ind. Wafdist bloc). 



116 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Two factions split off from the Wafd after the death of Zaghlul in 
in 1945. All Egyptian parties were nationalists in the sense that 
they wanted to rid the country of the British influence. Moslem 
Brotherhood — It has always claimed not to be a political party but 
rather a national movement seeking to reform Egyptian life on the 
basis of ‘Islamic principles'. It was suppressed some times. 

INDIAN POLITICAL PARTIES 

Indian National Congress — ^The object of the Indian National 
Congress as adopted in 1948 is now “the well-being and advancement 
of the people of India and the establishment in India by peaceful and 
legitimate means of a Co-operative Commonwealth based on equality 
of opportunity and of political, economic and social rights and aiming 
at world peace and fellowship.’’ The Congress advocates a democra- 
tic secular Government with a welfare State as a goal. It endeavours 
to maintain a strictly independent position in world affairs. 

Communist Party of India — Organised in its present form in 1934. 
The party moulds its policy with reference to the policy of Russia 
in international affairs, rather than according to the conditions ob- 
taining in India. They look to Russia for guidance and inspiration 
and follow orthodox international communist line. The party’s 
aim is “the organisation of the toiling masses in the struggle 
for the victorious anti-imperialist and agrarian revolution 
for complete national independence, for the establishment of a 
people’s democratic state led by the working class, for the realisa- 
tion of the dictatorship of the proletariat, and the building up of 
socialism according to the teachings of Marxism and Leninism.” 

Proja Socialist Party — ^Formed by the fusion of the Socialist 
Party and the Kisan Mazdoor Proja Partyl Party declares as its 
objective the establishment of a democratic socialist society in India. 

Forward Bloc — Came into existence in 1938 when Subhas 
Bose sought to rally leftists against the Congress orthodoxy. It 
favours a programme of direct action and repudiates all compromise. 
The party’s objective now is the establishment of Socialist State 
in India with complete severence of relations from the British 
Commonwealth. 

Forward Bloc (Marxist) — This is a group which has severed its 
connection with the parent body and has formed a new party on 
January 23, 1950. The Desh Sevak Party of Punjab, merged into it. 

Bharat Sevak Samaj — ^New national organisation brought into 
existence as a result of Government intiative. It is a scheme evolved 
to rally all patriots for the task of quickly building up economic 
strength of the country promoting the social well-being of the 
community and mitigating privations and hardship . of its less- 
favoured sections. It is not a political organisation. It welcomes 
into its fold men of all thoughts save those who believe in destroying 
the present order of things by, violent methods and those who want 
to perpetuate the present day social injustice by believing in commu- 
nal and sectarian idealism. 

National Liberal Federation — was formed in 1908 when ■ the 


POLITICAL INFORMATION 


117 


moderates broke away from the Congress and formed a separate 
party. It advocated gradual progress through peaceful and consti- 
tutional means as opposed to the revolutionary creed and policy of 
the Congress. Their policy is very ‘moderate’ that it has never 
found support of the Indian masses. It represents a doctrine which 
has no place in a dyanamic India. The Liberals are opposed to direct 
action of any sort. They are wedded to constitutional forms of agi- 
tation whatever they may mean. 

Scheduled Caste Federation — ^Party was established by Dr. 
Ambedkar. It has no political or economic platform. It had cen- 
tred all its agitation for demanding extraordinary privileges. After 
partition it has changed its outlook. 

Hindu Mahasabha — The aim of the Mahasabha is the protection 
and promotion of all that contribute to the advancement, strength 
and glory of Hindu Rashtra, Hindu culture and Hindu polity, and 
as a means to that end, to achieve Hindu Raj and re-establish the 
integrity of the State of Bharat by constitutional means. 

Peasants and Workers Party — ^The party’s programme includes 
“severance of all connection with British imperialism, abolition of 
landlordism without compensation, confiscation of foreign capital 
invested in banks and industries.’’ The programme also urges 
nationalisation of big industries, banks and insurance companies and 
the re-organisation of States on a linguistic basis. This is a Marxist- 
Leninnist Party following the guidance of Cominform. 

Democratic Vanguard — ^This party was formed in 1943 by those 
who seceded from the Radical Democratic Party. Its object is the 
“attainment of the democratic revolution’’ in India. 

Rastriya Swayam Sevak Sangh — It was started in, 1925. Its 
objects are the military training of the Hindus, development of social 
consciousness and building up of character, and promotion of physi- 
cal, intellectual and moral well-being of the Hindus and the 
establishment of Hindu Rashtra. The party has now stated its main 
objective as revival of Hindu culture. 

Socialist Republican Party — ^was started by late Sarat Chandra 
Bose in 1948 with the object of complete independence of India free 
from all foreign influences. The setting up of Socialist Republic on 
the linguistic basis and the establishment in the country of a Union 
of Socialist Republics are the main objects of the party. 

Sarvodaya Samaj — A fellowship of those who believe in the 
Gandhian ideals. It is not an organisation but a voluntary brother- 
hood of constructive workers who have faith in Gandhian ideals of 
truth and non-violence. Its central idea is the insistence on the 
purity of means in the same way as of ends. Khadi, Harijan up- 
lift, service to Adibasis, , leprosy relief work and promotion of com- 
munal harmony form the main activities of Samaj. 

Revolutionary Socialistic Party of India — Preaches Marxist doc- 
trine and wants to establish a socialist state in India through 
revolution. 

Revolutionary Communist Party of India — another _ Marxist 
party in India which calls itself Leninnist, which characterizes Con- 



118 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


gress as bourgeois organisation. It is anti-Soviet vrith Trotskyite 
leanings. 

Kishan Party — Is a peasant movement ■with socialistic outlook. 
Its programme is the amelioration of the Indian peasants. Though 
separate from the Congress, its programme is identical with 
Congress. 

Bharatiya Jan Sangh — A political party hounded in 1951 by Dr. 
Shyama Prosad Mukerjee. It believes in Akhand Bharat and also 
demands a more stiff attitude to works Kashmir question. 

All India hluslim Majlis — ^Progressive Nationalist Party of 
Muslims, was opposed to creation of Pakistan and supporters of 
Congress ideals. 

Jamiat-ul-ulema-Hind — An organisation of Moslem divines and 
religious teachers. It has always supported the political programme 
of the Congress. It was a supporter of Indian independence on reli- 
gious grounds. It has now dropped its political programme. 

Shia Political Conference — Represents Shia Moslems and is the 
most important minority among the supporters of the Congress. 

hlomin Ansar Conference — Its main policy has centred on oppo- 
sition to hluslim League and to Pakistan. The Conference is the full 
supporter of Congress politics. 

Akali Dal — A politico-religious party of a section of the Sikhs. 
It aims at the establishment of a Punjabi Suba as a homeland for 
the Sikhs within Indian Union and advocates the adoption of Guru- 
mukhi language as state language for the Punjab State. So far as 
politics is concerned, the party has recently merged with the Congress 
and wants to confine its activities to social, educational, economic and 
cultural field. 

Akhil Bharatiya Jan Sangh — A sectarian group pludged to Work 
for an annulment of partition and for social and economic regerera- 
tion of the country in conformity with national traditions and Hindu 
culture. 

Other Parties — ^During General Election of 1951 in India numer- 
ous parties came into being, both Indiavide or provincial. The fol- 
lowing are some of the parties which took part in the elections — 
Ram Rajya Parishad, Akali Party, Lai Communists, Zamindara 
League, Krishikar Lok Party, Gorkha League, Jharkand Party 
(Chota Nagpur), Justice Party (Madras), Common Wealth Party, 
Tamilavd Toilers Party, Ganatantra Parisad (Orissa), Janata 
Party (Bihar) etc. i 


POLITICAL TERMS 

Absolutism — ^The system of unlimited government, the governed 
havdng no representation, vote or other share in the administration. 
An absolute ruler governs in accordance with his own will without 
consulting the people and without being bound by any law. Abso- 
lutism is opposite to constitutional government and democracy and 
the antithesis to the separation of powers. 

_ Amnesty— rAn act of Government granting exemption from cri- 
minal prosecution and punishment. 


POLITICAL INFORMATION 


119 


Ambassador — ^Higb ranking minister representing his govern- 
ment in a foreigrn country. 

Appeasement — A policy of pacification or yielding to the 
demands of a potential enemy rather than opposing him by force. 

Anschluss — German word meaning a “joining.” Politically, it 
refers to the union of Austria with Germany effected on March 12, 
1938. 

Apartheid — An African word for “separateness.” It means 
complete segregation socially and politically, of white and non-white 
peoples, and among the non-whites of Bantus, Indians and coloured 
peoples of half-castes in South Africa where Union of South Africa’s 
Group Area Bill legislates for different residential and trading areas 
for all sections to "make South Africa safe for the white races.” 

Agent ‘Provocateur — A French term for political agent sent 
during political or social conflicts into the adversary’s ranks to pro- 
voke in the guise of an adherent incidents and compromising actions- 

Austerity — A severe or enforced economy characterized by a 
lack of luxuries (as post-war austerity of Great Britain). 

Authoritarianism — The political system in which the government 
is based on what is claimed to be the natural need for a strong and 
resolute authority to direct the state without reference to the fluc- 
tuating opinions of the people, as opposed to the democratic system 
based on their freely expressed opinions. The term is a milder name 
for absolutism. Totalitarian systems like Fascism, Nazism and 
Communism are .extreme forms of authoritarian government, al- 
though Soviet Union would reject the application of the term to 
itself. 

Anti-Semitism — Opposition to the Jewish race. The movement 
became conspicuous in Europe during the last quarter of the 19th 
century. The movement appears to be, based on economic rather 
than religious or political cause. It flared up strongly in Nazi Ger- 
many under Hitler. 

Armed Neutrality — The position assumed by a neutral when 
it sem'es notice on belligerents that it is prepared to protect its 
neutral rights by force. 

Autocracy — means the unlimited rule of an individual. 

Autarky — A term used for the idea of national self-sufficiency. 
The usual motive of autarky is the striving of domestic producers to 
monopolise the market, preparation for war and blockade and a 
general transference of nationalism to economists. Means for 
fostering autarky include protective tariffs, a ban of imports, sub- 
sidies and deliberate planing. 

Armistice — Agreement between combatants to cease fighting. 
It may be either temporary for the purpose of removing the wound- 
ed or burying the dead or it may be a preliminary to a general peace. 

Anarchism — A political doctrine standing for the abolition of 
every organised authority and of State machinery. The anarchists 
hold that every form of government tantamounts to tyranny. They 
want to do away with all forms of state and government and to sub- 
stitute for them free associations of individuals or groups without 
any coercive organisation, without written law, police courts, prisons 



120 


HINDUSTAN TEAE-BOOK 


or armed forces. . In snch a society men are expected to live toge- 
ther harmoniously on the basis of voluntarily respected mutual 
contracts. 

Bamboo Curtain — ^hlilitarj’, political and propaganda barrier 
isolating territory controlled by Chinese communists. 

Ballot — ^The paper on which are printed the nam^ of candidates 
for office in elections. The elector indicates ids choice by marking 
a cross in plurality electoral systems. 

Bicameral System — That form of government which consists of 
two separate houses or chambers in which the concurrence of both 
is necessary to the enactment of legislation. Adopted to act as a 
check upon hasty or ill-considered legislation. 

Bilateral — ^T^o-sided, a term used of agreements concluded be- 
tween only two parties, as distinct from multilateral agreements 
which are between several parties. 

Biological warfare — ^Warfare in which living organisms, speci- 
ally disease germs, are used against human, animal and -plant life; 
also warefare invoUang the use of synthetic chemicals against plants. 

Bhoodan movement — ^The rehabilitation of landless agricultural 
worker is the primary objective of Bhoodan- movement. The philo- 
sophy behind the Bhoodan movement is that ‘all the land belongs to 
God’* or the community ■ and therefore it must be shared -with those 
who are ready to work on it for the community. This movement 
.was started on April 18, 1951 by Acharya Venoba Bhave. 'While it 
began as a mere land-gift movement, it has gro-wn to inco^orate the 
Sampattidan, -Konpdan, Haldan, Grihadan, Bxtddhidan, Shr’amdan, etc. 

Balance of Power — ^This phrase means the preservation of an 
equality of strength between countries or groups of countries. The 
idea is that no one country shall become too powerful for the safety 
of the others. 

Blockade — A term used in international law for the prevention 
of goods entering or lea-ving an enemy country by land or sea. Neu- 
tral States are affected most by a blockade by sea, for if their ships 
try to approach the ports of blockaded country, they and their car- 
goes are liable to be confiscated by the blockading force. 

Bourgeois — French word for the middle class. They comprise 
capitalists, manufacturers, merchants, bankers, generally all inde- 
pendent producers, traders and -employers, also directors and 
managers and members of the professions with a corresponding in- 
come and social status, in contrast to the Proletariat, the working 
class -without any property who lives on selling its labour. 

Bloc — means an association of legislative members or of poli- 
tical workers of different parties, formed to support a certain mea- 
sure or ministry. A French word meaning ‘mass’ or ‘group.’ 

Bolshevism — accepts the doctrine that an irreconcilable antago- 
nism exists between the propertied class or bourgeois and the pro- 
perty-less workers. It invites as inevitable and necessary class war 
the object of which is . the destruction of all classes, except the prole^ 
tariat, in whose interest and by whom future society -will be orga- 
nised and governed on a communistic basis. 

Book burning— Systematic destruction, usually by a government, 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 


121 


of books believed to contain dangerous ideas, hence, the supression 
of ideas. 

Brain Trust — ^In U.S.A. the nickname for a group of economists 
and businessmen who were officially advisers to President F. D. 
Roosevelt during the first year of his presidency and are believed to 
have greatly influenced his ‘New Deal’ policy. The term has since 
been applied to other groups of experts believed to be influencing 
government. 

Brainwashing — The forcible replacement of one set of political 
ideas by another set, specially through indoctrination or mental 
torture. 

Buffer State — a small state established or preserved between 
two greater states to prevent direct clashes between them. 

Bureaucracy — government by an elaborate system of administra- 
tive departments and officials which generally tends to become un- 
wieldy and laborious in its operation. It produces red tape or over- 
systematization. Its most frequently charged defects are rigidity, 
conservatism and spirit of routine. 

By-cleclion — Election to a seat rendered vacant during the run- 
ning term of an elected body due to resignation, death or any other 
subsequent disqualification. 

Capitalism — the economic system founded on free enterprise and 
private ownership of the means of production and , distribution. 

■ Caucus — A meeting or conference of members, of a political 
party in an ensuing election or other political contest. 

Civil Disobedience — Refusal to co-operate ■, with government 
without however using violence. 

Coalition — is a combination of political parties having different 
or opposed interests, effected with the object of carrying through or 
resisting a particular policy. 

. Commonwealth of Nations — Collectively the loose association of 
States formerly subject to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland and now recognising the Queen of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland as “Head”. The term “Common- 
wealth” countries’ covers both the self-governing members of the 
Commonwealth and the Colonies. 

•• Concordat — An agreed pact ; specially between Pope and a gov- 
ernment equivalent to international convention. 

, ■ Contraband — goods or merchandise the importation or exporta- 
tion of v.’hich is forbidden ; in war time applied specially as between 
neutrals and belligerents. 

Communism — Represents revolutionary socialism, hostile to the 
slow progress or gradual reform and progressive compromise. Com- 
munism believes in the dictatorship of the proletariat for a transi- 
tional period, after which a free society would come into existence 
in which every body would contribute to the common weal 'according 
to his capacity and receive a reward according to his need — Commu- 
nism proclaims the equality of all peoples and races and believes in 
the final establishment of an international order. 

Colour bar — The denying by white men, Europeans or persons 
of European descent, of legal and social rights to coloured persons. 



122 


HINDUSTAN ' YEAR-BOOK 

Collective Responsibility — in countries vvitb parliamentary gov- 
ernment, the joint responsibility of the government to the Parlia- 
ment. The government is responsible for the political actions of 
each member of it and each member is responsible for the actions of 
the government. 

Collective Security — Security of all the members of an associa- 
tion of nations from aggression by any other nation or nations. _ 

Cold War — A struggle between two nations or groups of nations, 
waged by use of political and economic strategy, propaganda and 
other measures short of armed combat. 

Corporate State — A state organised politically on the basis of 
vocational corporations instead of territorial units. A corporate par- 
liament does not consist of representatives of territoral constitu- 
encies but of delegates of professional corporation who are sent to 
the parliament according to the quota system. 

Corridor — ^A strip of the territory of one State running through 
that of another, usually to give access to the sea. 

Coup D’etat — a sudden change of government by force effected 
by holders of government or military power. 

Constituent Assembly — is an assembly convened for the purpose 
of drawing up a constitution, but it only comes and this is the vital 
point — after there is a breahdown in the emsting machinery of 
Government and a change has been brought about in the Status quo. 

Condominium — A territory over which responsibility is shared by 
two administering powers. 

Conscientious Objector — ^Person who refuses to enlist in the mili- 
tary service on moral or religrious grounds. 

Colony — a company of people, purposely or otherwise trans- 
planted from their mother country and remaining subject to the 
jurisdiction of the parent State. 

Croo-n Colony — A British Empire colony in which the Crown 
retains some kind of control over legislation. 

Customs Union — A union of states or nations for the purpose of 
establishing orderly trade with one another and a common tariff on 
imports, exports and goods in transit as now established in Low 
Countries of Euroue. 

Democracy— “Government of the people, by the people, and for 
the people” — LiucnJn. It is based upon freely elected representative 
institutions and upon an executive responsible to the people. It is 
based upon the fundamental assumption of the equality of all indivi- 
duals and of their equal right to life, liberty (including the liberty 
of thought and expression) and the pursuit of happiness. 

Demarche — Diplomatic term from the French, used for repre- 
sentations whether moderate proposals or severe threats, made by 
one state to another through diplomatic envoys. 

Diarchy — A form of government in which the supreme power of 
the state is vested in two bodies or persons. 

Diehards — extremely orthodox and unbending members of a 
party ; it was specially applied to the members of the Conservative 
party. 

Dictatorship — Control of Government or ruling power by a mino- 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 


123 


rity or by an individual. In ancient Rome, the dictator was recog- 
nised as a ruler. In modem times, Dictatorship flared up in Europe 
after the World War I. Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany 
seized power unconstitutionally but with the support of the people. 

Dollar Diplomacy — A nickname for the foreign policy of U.S._A. 
for the purposes of expanding American financial and commercial 
interests abroad under the guise of promoting international friend- 
ship. 

Dominion Status — Dominions “are autonomous communities 
within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one 
to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, united 
by a common allegiance to the Crown.” 

Diplomacy — Art of negotiation specially between countries. 
Each country possesses a diplomatic service t • carrv on negotiations 
with foreign countries. Some diplomats such as ambassadors, mi- 
nisters, envoys, etc., go abroad and live in a foreign capital to keep 
in touch with the Government. Their business is to watch over in- 
terests of their country and to send regular reports upon all that 
concerns it. 

Electoral College — Any body of electors limited in number, meet- 
ing in one place to choose a public official. 

Extra-Territoriality — ^the legal fiction that foreign diplomats and 
diplomatic agencies are outside their country of residence inspite 
of physical presence. Embassies etc., form foreign islands, so 
to speak, within the territory of a state. They are not subject to its 
laws. 

Extradition — Surrender of a fugitive from justice by one country 
or state to the authorities of another. 

Espionage — A French word which expresses more than English 
word spying ; it implies an organised system. 

Federalism — A system of government wherein political powers 
of the state are constitutionally distributed between National 
Government and the local Governments or member units which are 
called ‘States,’ ‘Provinces,’ etc. The division of powers between 
Federal government and separate states is laid down in the cons- 
titution and varies between one another. 

Fifth Column — Secret supporters of an enemy engaged in 
sabotage or other subversive activity within defence lines. 

Filibuster — A politician who attempts to delay, or stop the 
passing of a bill by endless speech-making and other legitimate 
practices. 

Geneva Convention — An international treaty regulating the 
treatment of the wounded in war, adopted at a conference held in 
1864 and replaced by the existing agreement of 1906. 

Guerilla — ^Irregular warfare. Guerilla warfare consists in 
attacks upon a regular army by bands of irregular troops, usually the 
inhabitants of an invaded country. 

Genocide — The destruction of a human group, racial, ethnic, reli- 
gious or national by slaughter, starvation, sterilization, compulsory 
abortion, mass kidnapping or other violent means. The word 
was coined by a Polish lawyer R. Lemkin. In 1948 the U.N. ap- 



124 


HINDUSTAN TEAK-BOOK 


proved a new international law defining Genocide as a crime. The 
convention having been ratified by 20 U.N. members, became effect- 
ive Jan. 12, 1951. 

Gentleman’s Agreement — ^An informal international agreement 
based on a verbal exchange or corespondence, without a treaty or 
convention being signed. 

Gerrymander — A practice of laying out electoral districts to 
ensure the majority of votes for party in power. 

Hegemony — Eldership ; especially of one state or a group. 

Imperialism — Policy of empire-building and conquests transcend- 
ing national frontiers. It now means for every policy of conquest 
and colonial expansion. 

Internationals— Socialist movement in which socialists from 
many countries are united. There have been three such movements 
or Internationals, and each has held several Congresses. First 
Intemntioval — accepted a programme drawn up by Karl Marx and 
had lasted from 1866 to 1874. Second International, in which there 
was trade union element, was organised in 1889. It sought to com- 
pass the aims of Socialism by constitutional, not revolutionary action 
and it held several congress between 1882 and 1930. The Third 
International was organised in Moscow and was revolutionary in 
its aims. It declared in favour of establishing communism by force. 

Imperial Preference — In the British Empire, the trading system 
whereby the members of that Empire give to each other prSerentaal 
treatment in their tariff regulations and import quotas. 

Iron Curtain — A barrier created by such means as censorship 
and prohibition of free travel to isolate Russian controlled territory 
from outside contacts, hence, any similar barrier against 
communication. 

Isolationism — The path of keeping aloof from affairs of other 
countries. 

Joint Responsibility — ^The guiding principle of the Cabinet sys- 
tem of Government. Although every minister is in charge of a parti- 
cular portfolio, all ministers are jointly responsible to the legislature 
and a vote of no-confidence against one is a censure on alL 

Lebensram — German word for fiiving space’, a new word for 
German imperialism. It was used to stress that population is too 
dense and to claim such territories as agricultural regions towards 
Black Sea and co’.onies overseas. 

Leftist — one who belongs to a radical or. revolutionary party; 
also one who holds or advocates ultraliberal principles. 

Lend-Lease — ^The system of lending- and leasing supplies and 
installations to each other developed by the allies in the World War 
II. It was started by President Roosevelt. 

Marxism — ^The socialist doctrine following the theories of Karl 
JIarx (Germany). His ideas are that all wealth is produced bv La- 
bour and should go to labour, and that as this leaves nothing for the 
capitalist, who can therefore never accept the system, the worker 
must prepare for class war in which capitalism will be destroyed. 
An essence of his theories is that history is largely determined bv" 
oconotnic forces. ^ 


POLITICAL INFORMATION 


125 


Moratorium — A period during which no business engagements 
are completed or debts or liabilities enforced. A moratorium is 
declared by the government in times of a financiai crisis. 

Most-Favoured Nation Clause — a clause customary in treaties 
of commerce whereby signatories undertake to extend automatically 
to the other party any reduction in tariff or other economic favour 
which they may in future accord to any other country. Thus if a 
country at a later date grants a tariff reduction in respect of some 
articles to some other county, this will also apply to all the coun- 
tries with which it has previously made trade treaties. 

Naturalisation — The word is used for the admission of a person 
of foreign nationality into that of a country he desires to adopt. An 
oath of allegiance has to be taken. 

Non-aggression Pact — Treaty between two or more states pled- 
ging each not to attack the other and to settle their disputes by nego- 
tiation or arbitration. 

Non-intervention — Generally the principle of abstination from 
interference with the internal affairs of other nations. It rests on 
the recognition of sovereignty as the permanent factor in inter- 
national relations and is one of the most often involved principles 
in the policies of the world. 

Non-belligerency — This word is used for sympathetic attitude; 
short of fighting which a country adopts towards one side in war 
time. It therefore differs from the strict impartiality called for in 
neutrality. 

Nationalisation — Taking management by the state of trades 
and industries, etc., with or without compensation ; changes from 
private to state ownership. 

Neutrality — In international law, condition of a state abstaining 
from participating in a war between other states and maintaining 
an impartial attitude in its dealings with the belligerent states, wito 
the recognition of this impartiality by the warring states. 

Open Door Policy — System of keeping trade open to all coun- 
tries, disregarding monopolies or preferences on equal terms with- 
out privileges or discrimination. 

Opposition — Freedom to oppose the existing government is fun- 
damental to democracy and the British practice of calling the Oppo- 
sition “His Majesty’s Opposition” on the analogy of “His Majerty’s 
Government” is a recognition of the fact that the opposition is as 
loyal and essential to the state as the government. 

Ordinance — That which is ordained by authority. Ordinance is 
an act promulgated by the chief of the state without passing through 
the legislature of a country. 

Panch Shila — five principles of co-existence jointly enunciated 
by Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Chow En Lie. 
The countries that have so far specially commended the ‘Panch Shila' 
are-;-China, Indonesia, Burma, India, Nepal, Laos, Cambodia, 
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam and Yugoslavia. The five prin- 
ciples of Panch Shila are (1) mutual respect for one another’s 
territorial integrity and soverignty, (2) non-aggression, (3) non- 
interference in one another’s internal affairs, for any reasons of 



126 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


an economic, political or ideological character, (4) equality and 
mutual benefit and (5) peaceful co-existence. These principles also 
formed the basis of joint declaration made by India and U.S.S.R. on 
June 22, 1953 and also by Poland on June 27, 1955. 

Parole — ^An oath taken by a prisoner of war that, if released, he 
will not try to escape, nor during a war against his captorsi 

Partisan — ^A member of a guerilla band working behind enemy 
lines and engaged in such activities as sabotage, demolition, and 
^versionary attacks. 

Point of Order — A question raised by a member of a legislative 
body as propriety of a motion 6r proceeding under the rules. The 
presiding oflScer is required to rule on it immediately as his ruling 
is subject to appeal to the floor. 

Power Politics — (1) the policy of maintaining and expanding 
national power for power’s sake, (2) the sum total of international 
relations in a world consisting of sovereign states whose existence 
depends on power, (3) by a more narrow definition, the use of threats 
and force for the achievement of political objects in international 
relations without consideration of right and justice. 

Protectorate — A territory not formally annexed, but in respect 
of which, by treaty grant, usage, ' sufferance and other lawful 
means, the other state has power and jurisdiction. 

Purge — Expulsion, possibly killing of unreliable, unruly, diso- 
bedient or merely inconvenient members of a party. 

Putsch — German word meaning “attempt to take by force”, 
specially power, control of state. 

Prize Court — This is a court of law set up in time of war to 
decide whether a ship and its cargo captured by the navy is a lawful 
prize or not. If it is decided that a captured ship is enemy property 
or a cargo is contraband, they are sold and the proceeds are distri- 
buted to all members of the navy at the end of the war. 

Privy Purse — In England allowance from civil list for personal 
use of the Sovereign. 

Prohibition — Government action which prohibits by law the 
manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors except for medical or 
sacramental use. 

Plural Voting — System allowing a person to cast more than one 
vote in the same election. The voter is eligible to vote in more 
than one constituency by virtue of its special position i.c., a city and 
a university vote by the same person. 

Pacifism — Opposition to war or military force in any form. 
Pacifists believe that all international disputes should be settled by 
arbitration. The various movements towards world peace are not 
necessarily wholly pacifistic, as they often advocate defensive war 
and oppose only aggressive war. 

_ Provincial Autonomy — ^The_ system (specially in Indian Consti- 
tution) under which States enjoy complete autonomy as far as the 
States subjects are concerned and have concurrent jurisdiction with 
the Centre on subject of common interest. 

Proportional Representation — is the method used in an election 
by which the votes are so counted that each party has representation 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 


127 


in the elective body in proportion to its strength, so as to ensure the 
representation of minorities. 

Plebiscite — An expression of the will of the whole people, sought 
in ratification or disapproval of a particular measure, already decid- 
ed but regarding which their elected representatives hesitate to act. 
It comes from the Latin plebs, the common people. 

Protectorate — A territory, not formally annexed, but over which, 
by grant, treaty, sufferance or usage and other lawful means another 
State has power or jurisdiction i.e. Zanzibar. 

Protocol — The rough-draft of a diplomatic document on which 
diplomatic transactions tentatively commenced. 

Privileges, Parliamentary — ^“the sum of peculiar rights enjoyed 
by each House collective.y as a constituent part of the High Court 
of Parliament, and by members of each House individually, without 
which they could not discharge their functions and which exceed those 
possessed by other bodies or individuals .” — Erskine May. 

Pourparler — An informal preliminary conference of representa- 
tives of different groups, functions or countries looking to a formal 
agreement settling disputed questions between the parties. 

Police State — A totalitarian state having repressive government 
control of radio, press, culture, and economic and political life. 

Pogrom — A Russian word for 'devastation’, a term for mass 
raids on Jewish quarters in Tsarist Russia; killing, looting and arson 
were practiced. They were later introduced into Germany by Nazis. 

Public Relations — The activities of a corporation, government, 
or other organisation in building and maintaining good relations 
with the general public or with special groups. 

Public Utilities — Electric light, gas, telephone, street car and 
other services of use to a'.l members of the community. 

Proletariat — The wage-earning class of a community collectively 
i.e., propertyless class dependent on .^ale of labour. In Marxism, the 
Proletariat is opposed to the bourgeoisie, the employing class and 
will eventually overthrow it. 

Politbureau — Short for political bureau, the leading body of 
communist parties. The communist party of Soviet Union has a 
Politbureau which is regarded by many as real government of Russia 
Every communist party in whatever country has a Politbureau. 

Quislings — Local traitors, names after the Norwegian traitor. 
Major Quisling, who betrayed his country to the Germans ; specially 
those who quietly prepared the way for Germany in her neighbour- 
ing countries. 

Radical — ^Persons of political views quite different from those 
held by the majority of persons who, in politics, are in favour of 
sweeping reforms or other changes in government or laws. 

Racketeer — One who levies blackmail on industry by threats of 
interference. 

‘Reds’ — Slang term for revolutionaries, specially communists, 
derived from Red Flag, the traditional symbol of revolt. 

Republic — State in which the sovereign power resides in the elec- 
torate, which is the body of the people having a voice in electing 



128 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


representatives to rule them. There is no hereditary sovereign to 
rule. 

Residuary Powers — In Federal Constitution where the powers 
are divided between the federal centre and the federating States or 
units under a system of three lists — ^federal, state or provincial and 
concurrent. Powers' relating to new spheres of administration ' not 
covered by either of the three lists are known as residuary powers. 

Reprisal — A retaliatory punishment inflicted by one country 
upon another for an alleged illegal act. 

Right and Left — In the legislative bodies, it is the fixed habit of 
the conservative groups and parties to seat themselves on the right 
hand side of the Speaker or President and of the liberal or radical 
element to seat themselves on the left. The term ‘centre’ is used 
for middle parties or groups. 

Regent — One -who rules on behalf of a sovereigpi, .when a sove- 
reign is a minor, or is insane, or in any other way incapable of rul- 
ing, it is usual to appoint a regent to act for him. 

Referendum — Bringing a proposed law before the people as a 
whole for decision. • • 

Reciprocity — Exchange of commercial privilege. It is usually 
experienced when two nations make tariff concessions to each other. 

Sabotage — At first this word was confined in its meaning to mali- 
cious waste or destruction of an employer’s property by workmen, 
as a means of enforcing demands in labour disputes. Now it is be- 
ing applied more broadly, to define any malicious crippling or des- 
truction of property especially as practiced by foreign secret agents 
or sympathisers for the purpose of damaging military equipment. 

Sanctions — Coercive measures taken to ensure fulfilment of in- 
ternational treaty obligations. Sanctions were provided in the cove- 
nant of the League of Nations against countries resorting to war in 
defiance of the Covenant. U.N. Charter also provides for sanctions 
though it does not use the word ‘sanctions’. • 

Satellite — A state or country politically and economically 
dominated by a more powerful neighbouring one. 

Secret Session — ^Por the discussion of important questions, Par- 
liament sometimes sits in secret when aU withdraws from the hotiso 
except the members. 

Sphere of Influence — A region normally undeveloped, politically 
under the determinative power of a foreign nation. 

Splinter Group — ^In politics, a group broken away from a larger, 
original organisation. 

Soviet — Council ; a local governing body in the U.S.S.R. com- 
posed of peasants, soldiers and workers which send deputies to the 
higher congress. 

Straw vote — Unofficial polling of public opinion. 

Suzerainty — A state that exercises political control over another 
state in relation to which he is sovereign. 

Syndicalism — A socialist movement aiming at trade union socia- 
lism instead of State Socialism. 

Scorched Earth — A wartime policy of destroying all resources 
when defending forces had to withdraw before the invader. 



POLITICAL information 


129 


Self-determination-f-The principle that every distinct people or 
nation ought to have the right to determine the question of its in- 
dependence, its form of government and its political^ destiny. 

Tammany Hall — A name ^ven to the Democratic Party’s orga- 
nisation in New York city, which sprang from Tanjmany Society of 
1805. One of the famous political machines of American history — 
,very influential in New York city and State politics, also in the 
"Democratic party on a national scale. 

Third Force — term originating in the post'World War II ; 
France, where it was applied to the Socialists and M.R.P. interme- 
diate between the communists and the right-wing supporters of De 
<Jaulle. It has been applied elsewhere to policies intermediate bet> 
ween Communism and Fascism and other right-wing forces. It is 
applied also to a group of States — W. Europe which would he suffi- 
ciently strong and influential to reconcile the U.StA. and U.S.S.R. 
by co-operating with both. 

Totalitarian — a believer in the complete centralisation of govern- 
ment control under the political group and suppression of other 
parties. 

Total War — denotes the present form of war in which the dis- 
tinction between combatants and non-combatants are fast dis- 
appearing. 

Theocracy — A state governed by God or priests. 

Trotskyism — ^The yiews of Trotsky on. sooialisru, revolution and 
the development of Soviet Union and the movement propagating 
these ideas. After the overthrow of Trotsky in 1925-27, a number 
■of communists supporting his opposition to Stalin formed revolu- 
tionary communist parties which in 1936 established Fourth Inter- 
national which held conferences in Paris in 1936 and 1948. They 
are left-wing communists, more radical and revolutionary than Stali- 
nist, the official communist with -whom they are in conflict. These 
Trotskites have appeared in various countries as ‘Revolutionary 
•Communist Party,’ ‘Revolutionary Socialist Party’ etc. 

Trust Territory — A territory administered by a State appointed 
"by and responsible to, the United Nations after the 2nd World War. 

Trusteeship — Administration by a member of the United Nations 
■of an area not yet ready for self-government. > ■ 

Unilateral action — Action taken by one party to an agreement 
■without consulting the other parties in international affairs. 

Ultimatum — Final statement of demands, rejection of which is 
assumed to lead at once to breaking-off friendly relations and to war. 

Underground — organised, secret opposition to the government 
•or force in power. 

V. E. Day — Victory in Europe, May 8th, 1945, the day of the 
■official end of the European phase of the World War II. 

V. J. Day — ^Victory in Japan, August 14, 1945, the day making 
the end of the war in Japan. 

Warmonger — people who desire war and support war-like policy. 

Whigs — Old name for English liberals, no longer in use. It was 
the description of liberal party in English Parliament after 1680. 

Veto — The term is most used to-day with reference to the 

9 



130 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


United. Nations but its 'history dates from Roman times. -^Feto’is 
Latin for “I forbid it”; it' was the weird used by the Roman magis- 
trate when invoking the law- against some action. In many modern 
States the Bang or -President has the power-of; vetoing measures 
passed W the legislature. In the United- Nations, ’’only -the five per- 
manent members out of the eleven members of the Security Council 
have •the’’ power of veto, which prevents a decision being taken even 
if every, other member is in favour -of it.' 

Welfare State — A state that, by" its concern with public health, 
insurance against sickness and unemployment and similar measures, 
assumes a large share of ’•esponsibility for the welfare of its citizens. 

Wishful Thinking — signifies 'optimism not always founded on 
reality. ■ ' ' 

Whip — A member of a- political party assi^ed to the task of 
rounding up members of that party'-to ensure their votes and to' hold 
them in line with the party policy. ‘ / 

Writ — A document directed to some public officer or private 
person commanding him to do a certain act therein specified.- 

. , .PLANS, POLICIES, TREATIES, ALLIANCES, COUNCILS, 
CHARTERS, CONFERENCES, ETC. 

ANZUS TREATY — ^was signed on - Sept. 1, 1951. This was 
■for -the security -for Pacific- as an area and maintenance of a chain of 
•defence against any aggression. The treaty declared “no potential 
aggressor . could be under the illusion that any of them stand alone 
-in the Pacific”. The treaty was joined by Australia, New Zealand and 
•.United States. j ' • i-; • ’ , ' • ; 

-• , Atlantic Charter — A joint declaration, was made by Roosevelt- 
Churchiil on Augmst 14, 1941, stating (1) no aggrandisement; terri- 
torial or other. (2) No territorial changes without expressed -wish 
of the people concerned. (3) Right of all people io' choose the form 
of their o-wn government. (4) Restoration of sovereign rights and 
self-government to those who have been forcibly deprived of them. 
(5) ■ A'ccesSi-.on equal terms to trade and to raw materials of the 
world. (6)_ Fullest collaboration between all nations' in economic 
field. (7) Final peace of the whole world after destruction of' Nazi 
tyranny. . . . ■ • . ■ 

Arab -League — The Arab States -formed a Union by a pact signed 
in Cairo . March . 22, 1945 for the- puipose . of maintaining Arab soli- 
darity.- The • League . consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, 
Syria, Lebanon. Yemen and Libya. Provision -was made for admis- 
sion of the Arab portion 'of Palestine upon aebie-vement of independ- 
ence. The League’s Council approved- customs, and payments agree- 
ments,- Sept.- 7, 1953.- : ••.•... - 

Arab Security Pact — This is knovm .as Arab League’ Collective 
Security and -Economic , Co-operation Pact concluded on . July 17, 
.1950.; The- pact has ffipen -ratified, by: Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Jordan 
andjUebanon. . This '^eaty links the '.signatory States into military, 
-political , and economic alliance pledging resistance to armed- attack 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 


131 


and reaffirming their obligations under Arab League and U.N. 
charters. 

Bagdad Pact (MEDO ) — A pact signed by Turkey, Pakistan, 
Iraq, United Kingdom and Iran ; It has two aspects — military and 
economic. Each country has pledged to come to the aid of the other. 

Benelux — ^This is the combination of three countries — Belgium, 
Luxemburg and the Netherlands which have established a complete 
Custom Union among themselves. No longer are there any tariff 
barriers between these three countries. All three are now together 
called Benelux. The Benelux has been an influential example of 
closer economic co-operation for recovery of Europe. 

Bandung Conference — This conference also known as Asian- 
African Conference met April 18-27, 1955 at Bandung, near Jakarta, 
Indonesia. The conference announced its aims as elimination of 
colonialism, independence and self-determination for all peoples, and 
membership for all nations in the U.N. The conference was initiat- 
ed by five members of .the' Colombo Group : India, Ceylon,' Pa- 
kistan, Indonesia, Burma. ’ 

The conference condemned “colonialism in all its manifesta- 
tions”, supported the rights of Arab refugees in Palestine and' terri- 
torial revisions, asked France to grant self-determination and inde- 
pedene'e to Tunisia} Algeria and Morocco and supported the claims 
of Indonesia to West New Guinea. The conference supported prin- 
ciples of the U.N. human rights, disarmament, prohibition of nuclear 
weapons, economic co-operation and urged aid for Asian-African 
countries from International Bank and U.N. 

Brussels Pact — The pact was signed in March 1948 by Britain, 
Prance and the Benelux countries. It is a military defence pact 
and also equally an economic co-operation pact. It pledges all five 
countries to cease from bilateral injury to one another and to enlarge 
their commercial exhanges. , ' ‘ 

It was designed “to foi-tify and preserve the principles of 'demo- 
cracy, personal freedom and, political liberty, the rule of' law and 
constitutional traditions." ■* ’ 

Colombo Plan — This plan began from July 1, 1961. It was a 
six-year plan of economic aid to South and South-East Asia agreed 
on at the British-sponsored Conference at Colombo in January 1960 
by Great Britain, Australia, Canada, Ceylon, India, New Zealand, 
Pakistan. Later Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak pro- 
mised co-operation. Burma and Indonesia sent observers to meet- 
ings of Consultive Committee in London. The Project will raise 
£1,868 million, help by governments, raised by bank loans, contribu- 
tions etc., to support mills, power plants,- railways, irrigation, other 
capital ’ goods, thus combating poverty and communism. United 
States is not a participant, but will consult on Point Four funds in 
Asia. The International Bank of Reconstruction and Development 
will co-operate. Britain will contribute £100,000,000, Canada and 
Australia each voted £26,000,000 for the first year. 

Cominform — The Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) 
was set up at a secret meeting in Poland of communist delegates 
from nine European nations on Oct. 6, 1947. It was the successor 


132 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


body to the Comintern (Communist International) -n-hich -was dissolv- 
ed in 1943. The original Cominform linked the Communist Party 
of Russia with those of the East European States and that of France 
and Italy, the two West European countries with the biggest Com- 
munist Party membership. 

Commonwealth of Nations — is a free association of mne 
sovereign independent states, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, 
New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Ceylon and the Federa- 
tion of Rhodesia and Nayasaland. The members are bound together 
by the community of ideals and interest. All the members owe 
common allegiance to the Queen of England and is the symbol of their 
free association in the Commonwealth. India being a Republic with 
a President as head of the state does not owe alligeance to the Queen, 
but accepts her as the symbol of the free association of member 
nations of the Commonwealth and as such head of the Commonwealth. 

Council of Europe — ^An institution of consultive character found- 
ed on May 5, 1949 in London. It consists of a Committee of Ministers 
(composed of Foreign Ministers of member countries) and a consul- 
tive assembly (delegations from several parliaments), the former 
providing means of - co-operation between governments, the latter 
a means through which the aspiration of the European peoples may 
he formulated and expressed- Every member government has 
to "accept the principles of the rale of law and of the enjoyment by 
all persons within its jurisdiction of human rights and fundamental 
freedoms. 

The member countries are — ^Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, 
Ireland, Italy, Luxemburgh, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Turkey, 
United Kingdom, Iceland and German Federal Republic (Associate 
Member). 

Declaration of Human Rights — was passed by the General 
Assembly of UJ^. on Dec. 10, 1948. The declaration was designed 
as a statement of what men and women are entitled to expect in a 
civilized world. The Declaration of Human Eights proclaimed the 
inherent rights of the individual as against the power of any totali- 
tarian state. “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest. .... .to 
arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home — No one 
shall be forbidden to leave any country, including his own.„Hvery 
one has the right to freedom of opinion and expression- The will of 
the people shall be the basis of the authority of Governments ; this 
shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections. Every one 

has the right to work to protection against unemployment.... 

to join trade imions. Every one has the right to a standard of living 
adequate for health and well-being of his famiIy„Every one has 
the right to education.” 

Dumbarton Oaks_ Conference — A meeting of the representatives 
of U.SA., Great Britain, Russia and China held at estate known 
as Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, recommending on Oct. 9, 
1944 the creation of the United Nations, an intemation^ security 
organisation. 

Eastern Jlilitary Alliance — It is the military organisation of 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 


13S 


Communist States in Europe to offset North Atlantic Treaty Orga- 
nisation (NATO), the Western Military Alliance. 

European Defence Community (EDC) — The 'treaty founding 
European Defence Community was signed in Paris on May 27, 1952 
by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxem- 
burg. Four supplementary agreements were signed : a protocol to 
the NATO treaty extending guarantees of the NATO to EDC, a 
reciprocal pact in which the EDC pledged the same guarantees to the 
NATO, a treaty between the 6 EDC members and Britain committing 
the 7 nations mutually to resist aggression against any one of the 
group and a declaration by Britain, France and the U.S. that they 
would regard any threat against EDC as a threat to their own 
security and that they would maintain forces in Western Europe to 
defend the North Atlantic area. 

European Coal and Steel Community (E.C.S.C.) — It is a six 
country alliance that seeks to strengthen Europe’s economy. The 
members of the alliance are France, Belgium, West Germany, Italy, 
Luxemburg and Netherlands. 

Genocide Convention — ^was adopted by U.N. on Dec. 9, 1948. The 
word genocide was coined by Prof. R. Lamkin of Poland to mean the 
deliberate extermination of any human group on racial, religious or 
linguistic grounds. The convention binds its signatories to prevent 
and punish the crime of genocide. 

Four Freedoms — President Roosevelt in his address to the Con- 
gress of Jan 6, 1941 defined four essential human freedoms — (1) 
Freedom of speech and expression, (2) Freedom of every person to 
worship God in his own way, (3) Freedom from want, (4) Freedom 
from fear. The programme was, substantially incorporated 'in the 
Atlantic Charter (Aug. 1947). 

Fourteen Points — ^Woodrow Wilson’s basis offered, Jan. , 8, 1918, 
in a message to American Congress for an equitable and enduring 
peace in settlement of World War I. 

International Red Cross — Two international organisations are 
known respectively as International Committee of the Red Cross and 
the League of Red Cross Societies, both with headquarters in Geneva, 
Switzerland. The first of these is a wholly international agency 
unconnected with any national society which attempts to main- 
tain the basic Red Cross, principle of the ' Geneva convention ; the 
second agency is a federation of autonomous national Red Cross 
Societies designed to further co-operation among them. 

Japanese Peace Treaty — was signed at San Francisco on Sept._8, 
1951 by 49 nations. The State of War between Japan' and the .Mlies 
was terminated. Japan’s full sovereignty was recognised as is its 
right to apply the U.N. membership. Japan recognised the inde- 
pendence of Korea, renounced all rights to Formosa, Pescadores, 
Kuriles, Sakhalin, the Pacific islands formerly under mandate to 
Japan, the Antarctic area, Spartly Island and the Paracels ; Japan 
agrees to U.N. 'Trusteeship over Kyukyu and Daito Islands, the 
Bonius, Rosario Island, the Volcano Islands, Parece Vela and 
Marcus Island. 

League of Nations — An organisation of many nations formed in 



134 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


January,- 1920 for the’.promotion of international peace and . co-opera- 
tion ; dissolved in April, 1946. ■ ■ . ; .. 

Marshall' Plan — also , known as ■ Organisation for European Eco- 
nomic '.Co-operation ; on June 5, 1947, the U.S. Secretary of State, 
Marshall: made a speech in the Harvard University in which he out- 
lined the. seriousness of the shortage of dollars for the economic 
situation of Europe and suggested American assistance in the eco- 
nomic recovery on - the understanding that the European countries 
reached some agreement about their requirements and the part they 
themselves would take in giving proper effect to the action of U.S. 
A conference of sixteen nations of Europe willing to work the Mar- 
shall Plan began in Paris on July 12, 1947 and formulated an eco- 
nomic programme which aimed at restoring European economy 
by the end of 1950 by (a) a strong production programme by 
each participant, (6) creation and maintenance of internal financial 
stability, (c) maximum mutual help between the participating 
countries and (d) a solution of the problem of the European trading 
deficit •with the American countries. The report calculated the 
deficit for the 16 countries and their dependent territories ,at $22,440 
million over 4 year period. 

-. 1 , Munich AgreementrrSigned by Germany, Great Britain, France 
and Italy , on September 29, 1938 at Munich. It provided for the 
cession' to Germany of the Sudetan-German districts of Czechoslo- 
vakia;, the new , frontiers were guaranteed by all the signatories. 
The agreement was violated in March, 1939 by Hitler seizing what 
was ; left of the country. 

• Mutual Security Programme — ^The plan of all economic aids by 
U.S. A., .is contained in the Mutual Security _ Act of 1951 which sanc- 
tions millions of dollars for military, economic and technical assis- 
tance to free nations. A large part of mutual security funds are 
allocated for defence. The remaining funds are used to develop 
manufacturing facilities, to provide technical training and to ensure 
economic stability. ' • • . , 

•. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) — is an , associa- 
tion of nations of North- Africa and. Western Europe. It is estab- 
lished .by , a , treaty (North Atlantic Pact) signed in 1949 by United 
States, • Canada, Iceland, Great Britain, : France, Belgium, Luxcm- 
burgh,.- Netherlands, Norway, Denmark, Italy and Portugal. They 
joined NATO to prepare for a possible armed attack of the Soviet 
Union and other Communist countries. NATO countries agreed to 
unite their, militai’y strengths for collective defence and for preser- 
vation of peace and. security in the North Atlantic area. Member- 
ship 1 'vvas- opened to other States. Greece and Turkey .were admitted 
in T952. The Council of NATO :1s its planning and organising body.- 
A. European .army to' consist of fifty or more divisions were estab- 
lished. Supreme Headquarters of Allied 'Powers in Europe (SHAPE) 
was established in- France. 

• Organisation, of American States (OAS) — ^This organisation was 
chartered' in .1948 for co-operation and mutual repsect among Ame- 
rican States. 

r.i ^Philadelphia Charter-^wps' adopted - by -'the International Labour 



POLITICAL INFORMATION 


135 , 


Organisation at the Philadelphia Conference on May 10, 1944. It 
declares : that labour is not a commodity ; that freedom of expression 
and of association are essential to sustained progress ; that poverty 
anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere ; and that 
war against want requires to be carried out with unrelenting vigour 
within each nation. 

_ Point Four — In Jan. 20, 1949 President Truman outlined four 
major courses of action for American foreign policy. The fourth 
point from which the programme took its name, called upon the 
peoples of the United States “to help the free peoples of the world 
through their own' efforts to produce more food, more clothing, 
more materials for housing and more mechanical power to lighten 
their burdens. ... It must be a wide world effort for achievement 
of peace, plenty and freedom.” Point Four is meant to make the 
scientific and technical knowledge of America available to free 
nations for their agricultural and industrial development. On Sept. 
1950 funds became available for a Technical Co-operation Programme. 

Pan-American Union — An international body created by the 21' 
American republics for the fostering of mutual understanding , and 
co-operation, with essential duty of making effective the resolutions 
adopted by the successive Pan-American Conferences. A general 
conference of the member Republics is held, quinquennially known 
as Pan-American Conference. The Union is financed by its 21 
members on the basis of population. 

S. E. A. T. O. — South-East Asia Treaty Organisation was signed 
in Manila on Sept. 8, 1954 by Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, 
Philippines, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States to 
stren^hen defence in S. E. Asia and to develop economic measures 
for social well-being. India did not join in the treaty, because 
Mr. Nehru stated India’s participation in the Conference would be 
inconsistent with her basic policy of peace of non-alignment with 
the rival power blocs and with the role she had been called upon 
to play as chairman of the supervisory commissions set up in 
Indo-China. 

Tariff Agreements (GATT) — ^Reciprocal tariff concessions, nego- 
tiated at Torquay, England, were open to nations signing Torquay 
Protocol of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 
to which 35 nations had subscribed at Geneva. They cover four- 
fifths of the world trade. At although the GATT was expected to 
play only a “stop-gap role”, it has to its credit already three rounds 
of tariff negotiations — Geneva (1947), Annecy (1949) and Torquay 
(1950-51). These have resulted in the reduction or binding of tariff 
rates on some 68,000 items affecting well over half the total world 
trade. In addition to the achievement in the field of tariffs, the 
General Agreement provides for a code of fair trading rules and the 
elimination of discriminatory treatment in international commerce. 

Tripartite Security Treaty — ^This is between U.S.A., Australia 
and New Zealand, signed on Sept. 8, 1951 (1) to settle by peaceful 
means any international disputes, (2) parties will consult together 
wherever the territorial integrety, political independence or security 
of any party is threatened in the Pacific. 



136 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


■ UNICEF : — ^is a popular abbreviation for United "Nation Inter- 
national Chjliren’s Emergency Fund. Established in 1946 and ad- 
ministered directly by U. N. Secretariat, UNICEF is the world’s 
largest voluntary international effort to improve the health and 
weSare of children and mothers. 

■Versailles, Treaty of — ^the peace treaty ending the war of 1914-lS 
concluded between the Allies and Associated Powers and Germany 
on. June 29, 1919. It imposed terms on Germany in regard to the 
occupation of Rhineland territory for a period of years, the surren- 
der of Alsace-Lorraine to France and parts of East Prussia to Poland, 
the handing over to the Allies of Germany’s colonial possessions. 
An important feature of this treaty was the establishment of 
League of Nations. 

Warsaw Pact — was si^ed by the . several communist countries — 
U.S.S.R., Bulgaria, Albania, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Rumania and 
Hungary on 14th blay, 1955 at Warsaw for a defensive alliance. It 
provided for a unified command for all powers with headquarters 
at Moscow. 

.Western European Union '(W.E.U.) — Seven nations formally or- 
ganised the Western European Union in 1955. Great Britain, Bkah’ce. 
Belgium, Italy, Luxemburgh, Netherlands and Western Germany 
ratified a treaty to establish the new defensive coalition. 



WORLD POPULATION 


Africa 208,000,000 Oceania 13,900,000 

America, North 229,900,000 U.S.S.R. 213,000,000 

America, South 118,100,000 

Asia (Ex. U.S.S.R.) 1,307,000,000 World 2,493,000,000 

Europe (Ex.U.S.S.R.) 403,100,000 (An U.N. Analysis for 1953). 

POPULATION DENSITY OF THE WORLD 


pop. per 


sq. m. 

World . . 43-1 

Asia . . 126-9 

Africa ' - . . 17-9 

North America . . 24-5 

South America . . 16-7 


pop. per 
sq. m. 

Europe (Ex. European) 
U.S.S.R.) . . 209-& 

Australia . . 2-9 

Oceania . . 14-7 

U.S.S.R. . . 23-4 


WORLD’S FIVE LARGEST CITIES 

New York . . 12.3 million Shanghai . . 6.2 million 

London . . 8.3 million Paris . . 4.8 millicfn. 

Tokio . . 6.3 million 

(U. N. Demographic Year-book, 1955). 


ESTIMATES OF TOTAL POPULATION 
(In thousands) 


Argentina (1955) . . 19,108 

Australia (1955) . . 9,202 

Austria (1954) . . 6,969 

Belgium (1954) .. 8,819 

Bolivia (1964) .. 3,162 

Brazil (1955) . . , 68,456 

Bulgaria (1954) .. 7,350 

Burma (1956) .. 19,434 

Canada (1966) .. 16,601 

Ceylon (1955) . . 8,588 

Chili (1955) .. 6,774 

China (1953) .. 582,603 

Colombia (1955) .. 12,657 

Costa Rica (1955) . I 951 

Cuba (1953) .. 6,807 

Cyprus (1964) ' . . 614 

Czechoslovakia (1955) 13,089 

Denmark (1965) - .. 4,439 

Dominician Rep. (1955) 2,404 


Egypt (1955) 

. . 23,240 

El Salvador (1955) 

2,193 

Equador (1954) 

3,567 

Finland (1955) 

4,240 

France (1955) 

. . 43,300 

Germany (1955) 

. . 49,995 

Greece (1954) 

7,901 

Guatemala (1955) 

3,263 

Hungary 1955) 

9,808 

Iceland (1955) 

158 

India (1954) 

. . , 377,000 

Indonesia (1954) 

.../ 81,100 

Iran (1955) 

. . 21,146 

Iraq (1954) 

4,948 

Ireland (1955) 

2,909 

Israel (1955) 

1,748 

Italy (1955) 

. . 48,001 

Japan (1965) 

. . 88,900 

Korea (1955) 

. . 21,628 



138 


HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


Estimates of Total Population — (Concld.). 


Lebanon (1955) ' ' ' 1,425 

. Luxemburg (1954) ' . . >. 306 

Malaya (1955) . . 6,059 

Mexico (1954) .. 28,849 

Netherlands (1955) . . 10,747 

New Zealand (1955) 2,136 

Necaragna (1955) .. 1.245 

Non\-ay (1955) .. 3,425 

Pakistan (1954) .. 80,167 

Panama (1955) . ^ 910 

Paraguay (1955)' , . 1,565 

Peru (1955) .. 9,396 

Philippine (1955) . . 21,849 

Poland (1955) . . 27,278 

Portugal (1955) . . 8,765 


(17. N. 


Monthly 


Porto Pico (1954) - . 2,229 

Roumania (1954) . . 17,300 

Spain (1955) ' . . 28,976 

Sweden (1955) .. 7,262 

Switzerland (1955) . • 4,978 

Syria (1954) .. 3,670 

Thailand (1955) .. 20,300 

Turkey (1955) 24,100 

U. of S. Africa (1955) 13,669 

U.S.S.R. (1954) 216,000 

U. K.(1955) ■ .• 50,968 

U. S. (1955) . . ^ 165,248 

Uruguay (1953) . . 2,525 

Yugoslavia 1955) . . 17,550 


Bulletin of Statistics, June, 1SS6). 


WORLD POPULATION ACCORDING TO . RELIGION, 1954 


Christian 

Jewish 

Muslim 

Zoroastrian 

Shinto 

Taoist 

Confusion 


799,908,066 

11,627,450 

321,931,336 

140,000 

30,000,000 

50,053,200 

300,290,500 


Buddhist 

Hindu 

Primitive 

Others 

Total 


. . 150,310,000 

. . 309,949,000 

. . 121,150,000 

. . 348,336,448 


.. 2,443,696,000 


{Encyclopaedia Britamiica’s 195S Book of the Year). 


LARGEST CITIES 


London (1951) . . 8,346,137 Sao Paulo (1950) . . 

.New York (1950) . . 7,891,957 Los Angeles (1953) , - 

,Tokio (1954) .. 7,665,369 Cairo (1947) 

-Shanghai. (1952) ... 5,407,000 Philadelphia (1950) 

Moscow (1939) ;. 4,137,018 Detroit (1950) 

Mexico City (1953) .. 3,795,567 Tientsin (1952) 
Chicago (1950) .. 3,620,962 Wenna (1951) 

Buenos Aires (1952) 3,403,625 Hamburg (1953) 

Leningrad ,(1939) .. 3,191,304 Peking (1949) 

• Bombay (1951) .. 2,840,01t Sydney (1952) 

Paris (1947) ...,2,725,374 Bucharest (1954) .. 

Calcutta (1951) 2,648,697' Mukden (1952) 

Calcutta (Greater) 2,911,209 Madrid (1950) 

Rip De Janeiro (1950) 2,413,152 Canton (1952) 

Osaka (1953) .. 2,249,306 Madras (1951) 


2,227,512 

2,104,663 

2,100,506 

2,071,605 

1,849,568 

1.795.000 
1,766,102 
1,722,800 

1 . 688.000 
1,621,040 
1,600,000 

1.551.000 
1,527,894 

1.496.000 
1,429,985 



WORLD POPULATION 


139 


BIRTH RATES 

(Number of Births per 1000 Population) 




1951 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

Australia 


23.0 

23.3 

22.9 

22.5 

22.6 

Austria 


14.8 

14.8 

14.8 

14.9 

15.5 

Bel^tnn 


16.4 

16.7 

lfr.6 

16.7 

16.S 

Canada 


27.2 

27.9 

28.2 

28.7 

28.3 

Ceylon 


40.5 

37.5 

39.4 

36.2 

37.9 

Chile 


33.9 

32.7 

34.6 

34.3 


China 


49.9 

46.6 

45.3 

44.5 

45.3 

France 


19.6 

19.3 

18.8 

18.9 

18.4 

W. Germany 


15.8 ■ 

15.7 

15.5 

15.7 

15.7 

India 


24.9 

24.8 

26.7 

28.4 

30.5 

Iran 


17.4 

19.2 

19.5 

18.3 

40.9 

Israel 


32.7 

31.6 

30.2 

27.3 

27.2 

Italy 


18.4 

17.9 

17.7 

17.8 

17.7 

Japan 


25.4 

23.5 

21.5 

20.1 

-19.4 

Malay 


43.6 

44.4 

43.7 

43.8 


Mexico 


44.6 

43.8 

45.0 

46.4 


Netherlands 


22.3 

22.4 

21.8 

21.6 

21.4 

New Zealand 


24.4 

24.8 

24.1 

24.7 

24.0 

Norway 


18.4 

18.8 

18.7 

18.6 

18.7 

Portugal 


24.5 

24.7 

23.4 

22.7 

23.6 

Spain 


20.1 

20.8 

20.6 

20.0 

20.6 

Sweden 


15.6 

15.5 

15.4 

14.6, 

14.8 

Switzerland 


17.2 

17.4 

17.0 

17.0 

17.1 

United Kingdom 


15.8 

15.7 

15.9 

15.6 

. 15.4 

United States 

, , 

24.5 

24.7 

24.6 

24.9 - 

24.6 


DEATH RATES 

(Number of deaths, exclusive of still births, per 1,000 persons) . 



1951 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

Anstralia 

.. 9.7 

9.4 

9.1 

9.1 

89. 

Austria 

. . 12.7 

12.0 

12.0 

12.1 

12.1 

Belgium 

. . 12.6 

11.9 

12.1 

11.9 

12.7 

Canada 

.. 9.0 

8.7 

8.6 

8.2 

8.1 

Ceylon 

. . 12.9 

12.0 

10.9 

10.4 

11.0 

Chile 

. . 15.0 

13.0 

12.4 

13.1 


China 

. . 11.6 

9.9 

9.5 

8.1 

8.6 

France 

. . 13.4 

12.3 

13.0 

12.0 

12.0 

W. Germany 

. . 10.5 

10.5 

11.0 

10.4 

10.8 

India 

. . 14.4 

13.6 

15.0 

13.2 

12.7 

Iran 

.. 7.5 

6.1 

6.9 

7.1 

9.7 

Israel 

.. 6.4 

6.8 

6.3 

6.4 

5.8 

Italy 

. . 10.3 

10.1 

10.0 

9.1 

9.2 

Japan 

. . 10.0 

8.9 

8.9 

8.2 

7.8 

Malay 

. . 15.3 

13.6 

12.4 

12.2 

. , 

Mexico 

. . 17.3 

15.0 

15.9 

13.1 

, , 

Netherlands 

.. 7.5 

7.3 

7.7 

7.5 

7.6 



140 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


Death Rates — -(Coricld.). 


New Zealand 

.. 9.6 

9.3 

8.8 


9.0 

9.0 

Norway 

.. 8.4 

8.5 

■ 8.5 


8.4 

8.8 

Spain 

. . 11.6 

9.7 

9.7 


9.1 

9.8 

Sweden 

.. 9.9 

9.6 

9.7 


9.6 

9.4 

Switzerland 

. . 10.5 

9.9 

10.2 


10.0 

10.1 

United Kingdom 

. . 12.6 

11.4 

ii;4 


11.4 

11.7 

United States 

.. 9.7 

9.6 

9.6 


9.2 

9.3 


(17. N. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics 

June, 

IPSe).- 


MARRIAGE RATES 





(Marraige per 1000 of popuIafio7i) 





1951 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

Australia 


9.2 

8.6 

8.0 

7.9 

7,8 

Austria 


9.1 

8.3 

7.8 

7.8 

8.1 

Belgium 


.8.1 

7.7 

7.7 

7.7 

7.8 

Canada 


9.2 

8.9 

8.9 

8.5 

8.1 

Ceylon 


6.9 

6.7 

6.3 

6.0 

6.1 

China 


9.5 

8.6 

8.6 

8.9 

8.6 

Finland 


8.0 

7.9 

7.7 

7.8 

7.7 

France 


7.6 

7.4 

7.2 

7.3 

7.2 

West Germany 


10.3 

9.4 

8.9 

8.6 

8.7 

Iran 


7.4 

7.3 

7.2 

7.2 

7.2 

Israel 


11.7 

11.3 

9.6 

8.7 

8.6 

Japan 


8.0 

7.9 

7.9 

7.9 

8.0 

Netherlands 


8.8 

8.4 

8.2 

8.3 

8.3 

Spain 


7.5 

7.7 

7.6 

8.0 

8.1 

Sweden 


7.7 

7.5 

7.4 

7.3 

7.1 

Switzerland 


7.9 

7.8 

7.7 

7.8 

8.0 

United Kingdom 


8.2 

7.9 

7.8 

7.7 

8.0 

United States 


10.4 

9.9 

9.8 

9.2 

9.8 


(Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, 

U. iV 

June, 

1950), 


CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 


Sovereign Democratic Republic — Indian Constitution resolves to 
«stablish a sovereign democratic republic. The country is absolutely 
republic independent in its internal and external affairs. India being 
a democratic republic the real fountain head of all powers are the 
people. This sovereignty is vested in the people of the country. 

The aim of the Constitution is to secure for all its citizens — 

Justice, social, economic and political ; 

Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship ; 

Equality of status and of opportunity ; and to promote among 
them all. 

Fraternity, assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity 
•of the Nation. 

Territory and Extent — ^There are in India fourteen States, each 
-with a Governor as its head such as Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, 
Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Orissa, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, 
Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Mysore, Jammu & Kashmir. 

There are six territories such as, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Mani- 
pur, Tripura, Andaman & Nicobor Islands and Laccadive, Amindive 
and Minicoy Islands. 

Fundamental Rights — ^The Constitution of India makes a decla- 
ration of some fundamental rights which it guarantees, against vio- 
lation by the State. 

The Constitution contains rights which are declared fundamen- 
tal and justiciable. These fundamental rights have been classified 
under the following heads : 

1. Right to equality. 6. Cultural and educational rights. 

2. Right of freedom. 6. Right to property. 

3. Right against exploitation. 7. Right to constitutional reme- 

4. Eight to freedom of religion. dies. 

Ripkt to Equality — ^Discrimination against any citizen on 
grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth is prohibited, 
in public employment. Constitution assures equality to opportunity 
for all. It has established social equality by abolition of title, local 
and foreign. 

Right to Constitutional Remedies — The Constitution guarantees 
the right to every citizen to move the Supreme Court for enforce- 
ment of all fundamental rights. And for that purpose the Supreme 
Court is given general powers to safeguard these rights as well as 
the power to propose particular remedies, such as habeas coTrpus, 
mandamus etc. 

Rights to Freedom — guarantees (a) Freedom of speech and ex- 
pression, (b) to assemble peacefully and without arms, (c) to form’ 
associations or unions, (d) to move freely throughout India, (e) to 
reside and settle in any part of India, (/) to acquire, hold and dispose 
of properties, (a) to practice any profession, trade or business. 

Religious Freedom — Subject only to public order, morality. 



142 


HINDUSTAN YBAK-BOOK 


health and some other,- essential provisions, all persons are equally 
entitled to freedom of conscience and the right ' to profess, practice 
and propagate religion freely. 

Cultvxal and Educational Rights~The Constitution provides for 
the protection of the interests of linguistic, cultural and religious 
minorities and their right to establish and administer their own edu- 
cational institutions. 

Rights against exploitation — ^Traffic in human beings is declared 
punishable offence. So too is began (forced labour) except witiiont 
payment or any form of forced labour except compulsory service for 
the State for public purpose. 

Rights to- Property— yio person shall be unlawfully deprived of 
his .property, movable or immovable. ‘ , 

Directive Principles — ^The Indian Constitution also includes a set 
•of directives enjoining the, state to undertake within its means, a 
number of welfare measures. These are intended to assure; citizens 
an adequate means of livelihood, raise the standard of - living, im- 
prove public ' health, provide free and compulsory education for 
children, and assure that, the operation of the economic system does 
not result, in the concentration of wealth and means of production 
■to the. detriment of the common good. 

UNION "EXECUTIVE— President — ^The Executive at the centre 
consists of the President and a Council of Ministers. The President is 
the executive head of the Indian Republic; All the executive powers 
of the Unionrincluding the Supreme command of the Defence Forces 
is formally vested in the President and all executive actions are 
taken In his name. He is elected by an electoral college' consisting 
of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative 
Assemblies of the States, by the system of proportional representa- 
tion by si^le. transferable vote. 

The' qualification of. the office of the President — (1) he should be 
a citizen ofThdia; (2) must have completed the age of 35 years; and 
(3) qualified for election as a member of the House of the People. 
He will not be eligible for election if he holds a job in Government, 
givin"!: him financial rewards. 

‘ - Term: of office — ^The President holds office for five years and is 
eligible for re-election. 

Salary and Allownace-^Tibe President draws a salary of 
Rs. 10,000 and usual allowance. 

Impeachment — ^The president may be removed from office by im- 
peachment for any violation of the constitution. 

Vice-President — ^is" the ' ex-officio Chairman of the Council of 
States (Rajya Sabha).; -Any. citizen of India aged thirty-five years 
and above and qualified for the membership of the Council of States 
can be elected to this office by both the Houses of Parliament at a joint 
sitting'' on the basis of proportionaT representation by single trans- 
femble vote, - His term of, office is five years. When the President 
is ill; 'if -he resigns or dies or is removed or is for any reason absent, 
his -place will -be -taken by the Vice-President, till a new President 
IS elected. ■ - . , .t , . 

- -Council of Ministers— The Constitution provides for a Council 



CDNSTITUTION OF INDIA 


143 


of Ministers. The actual executive authority is discharged by the 
Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers appointed by him, all 
of whom are collectively responsible to the House of the People, the 
lower chamber of the Parliament. The Council of Ministers holds 
office during the pleashre of the President. 

LEGISLATURE — Parliament — The Legislature of the India 
Union tonsists of the President and two Houses — (1) Loh Sabim 
(House of the People), (2) Rajya Sabha (Council of States). 

The Lok Sabha — consists of not more than 520 members. These 
members are directly elected by the voters in the several states. Every 
adult' or grown-up citizen of India is given the right to vote. The 
normal life of the House is five years. The minimum age for mem- 
bership is 25 years for the Lower House. The House of the People 
elects a- Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from amongst its members. 

Rajya Sabha — consists of not more than 250 members of 
.whom 12 are nominated by the President. The nominated members 
should be men of learning and wide experience such as artists, wri- 
•ters, scientists and social workers. The Council of States is not 
subject to dissolution, a third of its members retiring after every 
two years. The elections to the Council are indirect. The Vice- 
President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States, 

Powers and Privilages of the Parliament — The Constitution con- 
fers! certain powers and privileges on members, of. the Houses of Par- 
liament. No member of parliament “shall be liable to any proceed- 
ings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him 
in parliament or any committee thereof, , and no person shall be so 
liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of either 
house of parliament of any report, paper, votes or proceedings. The 
powers, privileges and immunities of member of each house of 
parliament shall ‘be such as may from time to time be defined by 
parliament by laws and until so defined, shall be those of the House 
of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and of its 
members and committees.” 

The Difference between House of the People and the Council of 
States is as follows — The difference is not merely in their size. The 
powers given to them are not the same. The function of both is to 
legislate but the greater part of this responsibility will be borne by 
the Lower House. A bill has to be passed by both the Houses before 
it becomes law. In case of a disa^eement between the two Houses, 
a joinfsession of the two Houses is s‘ummoned to resolve the dead- 
lock. The opinion of the Lower House will ultimately prevail owing 
to its numerical majority. But it is to be noted here that the pro- 
cedure regarding dead-lock relates only to Bills other than money 
hills, for, as regards money bills the provision of the constitution is 
that sole power shall belong to the Lower Hobse. Money Bills can- 
not be introduced in the Council of States. They must, as a rule, 
■originate in the House of the People. 

JUDICIARY— Supreme Court of India. — The Supreme Court 
of India consists ,of Chief Justice and not more than ten other 
judges appointed by the President. Judges hold office until they 
‘attain the age of 65 years. 



144 


HINDUSTAN -YEAMOOK 

The Supreme Court decides dispute between the Government of 
India and any State or States or between two or more- States involv- 
ing any question of law or fact. Civil and Criminal appeals of a 
certain kind from High Courts will also be heard by it. The Supreme 
Court is also competent to order the enforcement of Fundamental 
Eights. It has also Advisory Jurisdiction by which the President 
can refer to it any question of public importance. The law, declared 
by it is binding on aU courts of the country. , 

STATE GOVERNMENTS — States Reorganisation Act of 1955 
and Behar and West Bengal Transfer of Territories Act, 1955 abolish 
■the distinction of States as A B and C as envisaged in the Indian 
•Constitutions. There are now two classes adminisfirative divisions — 
(1) 14 States and six Territories. The 14 States are Andhra Pradesh, 
Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, 
Madras, Mysore, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West 
Bengal. The six Territories, all of which are centrally-administered 
are as follows — Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Delhi, Himachal Pra- 
■desh, Laccadive, Amindive and Minicoy Islands, Manipore and Tripura. 
The full-fledged States enjoy the same democratic, administration as 
the former Part A States. 

States — ^There is a Governor for each State in whom all 
■executive powers are vested. He is appointed by the Pre- 
sident and holds ofHce during his pleasure. Any citizen of India 
who has completed 35 years of age is eligible for the appointment as 
Governor. Governor holds office for a term of five years unless he 
•resigns earlier. Besides official . residence the Governor draws a 
: salary of Rs. 5,500 per month and other allowance and privileges. 

.The Governor will be assisted by a Council of Ministers with 
-Chief Minister at the head of the Council to aid and advise the 
-Governor. The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor and the 
-other Ministers are also appointed by him on the advice of the Chief 
Minister. Ministers hold office during the pleasure of the Governors. 
'The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Le^lative 
Assembly of the State. 

_ Every State has a legislature. Some States have two chambers, 
-while others have only one chamber. Where there are two chambers, 
-one is known as the Legislative Council and other as the Legislative 
Assembly and where there is only one House, it is known as Legis- 
-lative Assembly. Those with two Houses .are Bombay, Bihar, 
Madras, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. In all the States 
“the Lower House is called Legislative Assembly and the Upper 
House is known as Legislative Council. 

Legislative Assembly of each State is elected by direct 
election on the basis of adult franchise. The total of the Assembly 
members shall in no case be more than 500 or less than 60. Its nor- 
mal life is five years. Some seats may be reserved for Scheduled 
'Tribes and Scheduled Castes. The Governor may also nominate the 
-representative of Anglo-Indian community. 

The total number of members of the Legislative Council of a 
.•State IS not to exceed one-third of the total members in the Legis- 



CONSTITUTION OP INDIA 


145 


lativc Assembly, but in no case shall be less than 40. This is a per- 
manent body ; one-third of its members retires every second year. 
Half of its members is elected from local bodies, from among the 
graduates of three years standing and teachers who have worked at 
least three years. A third of the members is elected by the Legis- 
lative Assembly from among non-members and the rest is nominated 
by the Governor from among men of eminence in literature, art, 
science or social service. 

Territories — Union Territories have no popular administration 
and even Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Tripura which had a Legisla- 
ture and ministry of their own, have none under the new set-up (Re- 
organisation of States Act, 1956). The Territories are governed 
now through an administrator each with whom some non-official ele- 
ments are likely to he associated. Parliament is the sole legislating 
authority for these Territories, while additionally the President has 
power of making regulations in respect of Andamans and Laccadives. 
Advisory Councils have been set up in Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and 
Manipore with elected members of the Parliament from these areas to 
advise the Union Home Jlinister in the matter of legislation to be^ 
placed before the Parliament, on the budget to be framed in respect 
of them. 

States .Judicial^ — ^The Constitution envisages a high court for 
each State, The High Court consists of a Chief Justice and such other 
judges as the President may_ from time to time deem it necessary to 
appoint. The judges of a high court are appointed by the President 
of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the 
Governor of the State and in case of an appointment of a Judge other 
than Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned. 
They hold office until they attain the age of 60 years and are remov- 
able from office in the same manner as a judge of the Supreme Court. 

Relation between Union and the States — ^Parliament can legislate 
for the v/hole or any part of the territory of India and the Legisla- 
ture of a State for whole or any part of the State. No law, how- 
ever, made by the Parliament can be considered invalid on the 
ground of extra-temtorial jurisdiction. For the purposes of distri- 
buting legislative powers between the Centre and the States, three 
comprehensive lists have been drawn up. These lists are (1) Union 
List, (2) Concurrent List, (3) State List. 

The Parliament has “executive power” to make laws in regard 
to the matters mentioned in the first list i.e.. Union List. The Conc~ 
current Last means that matters shared between Union and the 
States, such as criminal lav/, civil procedure, preventive detention, 
marriage and divorce, transfer of property other than agricultural 
lands, contracts, bankruptcy, etc. 

There are 66 items in the “State List.” Some of them are police, 
administration of justice, prisons, local government, public health 
and sanitation, forests, fisheries, etc. The legislature of a State has 
"exclusive powers” to make laws in matters mentioned in this list. 

Jurisdiction over all other matters not mentioned in the Con- 
current and State Lists will belong to the Parliament. This means, 
that the Union will acquire residuary powers. 

10 



146 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


As regards Administrative Relations, the executive powers ol 
every State shall be so exercised as to ensure compliance with the 
laws made by the Parliament and any existing laws which apply m 
that State, and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the 
giving of such direction to the State as may appear to be necessary 
for that purpose. 

Union executive is empowered to give direction to a State 
regarding construction and maintenance of the means of communi- 
cation declared to be national or military importance. Parlia- 
ment can declare certain highways or waterways to be national high- 
ways or waterways. Union executive can also const^ct and main- 
tain means of communication required in connection with naval, mili- 
tary and air force works. The President may with the consent of 
the Government of the State entrust to that Government functions 
in relation to any matter to which the executive power of the Union 
exists. 

There is provision for the formation of an Inter-State Council 
to investigate and discuss subjects in which States have common 
interest and inquire into and advise upon disputes which may have 
arisen between the States. 

There are also Emergency provisions in case of grave crisis 
created by war or internal disturbances in which President can 
give direction to the constituent States as to how their authority to 
be exercised. President can suspend from operation several articles 
of the Constitution. During such period. Union Parliament has 
power to legislate with respect of any of the matters enumerated in 
the State List. 

Election Commission — ^The superintendence, direction and con- 
trol of elections to Parliament and Legislature of every State and 
of President and Vice-President including appointment of a elec- 
tion tribunals shall vest in an as Election Commission to be ap- 
pointed by the President. The Chief Election Commissioner enjoys 
conditions of tenure and service similar to those of a judge of the 
Supreme Court. 

There shall be only one general electoral role for every territo- 
rial constituency and no person will be- ineligible for inclusion in 
such role on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or any of them. 

There is no property qualifications of the voters. Every person 
who is a citizen of India and who is not less than twenty one years 
of age and who is not otherwise disqualified is entitled to vote at 
the elections of the House of the People and the Legislative 
Assemblies of States. 

Special provisions for certain classes — Seats shall be reserved 
in the House of the People for (o) Scheduled Castes, (6) Scheduled 
Tribes. 

If Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented in the 
House of People, President may nominate not more than two mem- 
bers of that community. 

Seats shall be reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled 
Tribes m the Legislative Assemblies of the States. Anglo-Indians 


CONSTITUTION OP INDIA 


147 


are to be nominated by the Governor or Rajpramukh of a State, if not 
adequately represented. 

The reservation of seats and special representation shall cease 
after ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. 

Financial and the other provisions — ^There is a provision in the 
Constitution for setting up of a Finance Commission to make recom- 
mendations to the President as to the distribution between the 
Centre and the Units of the net proceeds of certain taxes (like the 
income-tax, excise duties, some export duties, etc.,) and the alloca- 
tion between the States of such proceeds. 

The Central and State Governments are required to set up res- 
pectively the Consolidated Fund of India and the Consolidated Fund 
of the States respectively. All revenues received by the Government 
of India and the Government of a State are to be credited into their 
respective consolidated funds. No money is to be appropriated from 
the Consolidated Fund of India or of a State except in accordance 
with an Appropriation Act passed by Parliament or the Legislature 
of the State concerned. Provision has also been made for the estab- 
lishment of a Contingency Fiend of India and a Contingency Fund 
for each State to meet unforeseen expenditure pending proper autho- 
risation hy the appropriate legislature. 

Authority to Audit — ^As for auditing the funds, the Constitution 
provides for the appointment of a Comptroller and Auditor General 
of India by the President to keep watch on the finances and accounts 
of the Union. It is his responsibility to see that the expenses voted 
by the Parliament or the legislature of a State and laid down in the 
Appropriation Fund are not exceeded or varied. 

Trade and Commerce — The Constitution provides the broad 
principles of freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse throughout 
the territory of India. Union Parliament and the State Legislatures 
are, however, authorised to prescribe limitations when there is scar- 
city of any particular commodity or any other consideration of 
national or public interest. But no Legislature, whether Parliament 
or a State Legislature has power to make a law giving any prefe- 
rence to one state over another or discriminating between different 
States in respect of items relating to trade and commerce in the lists 
of the 7th Schedule. Only certain Part B States are exempted 
from this provision for a period of ten years. 

Official Language — Hindi in Devnagri script shall be the official 
language of the Union and the form of numerals for official use shall 
be the international form of Indian numerals. The English langaiage 
shall continue for all official purposes of the Union for a period of 
15 years, but the President may authorise, during the said period, 
the use of Hindi in addition to English language. If at the end of 
15 years, it is found that Hindi will not be able to replace English 
wholly. Parliament may provide for the use of English for such pur- 
poses as may be specified by law. 

The Constitution recognised the use of Assamese, Bengali, 
Gujerati, Hindi, Karnataka, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, 
Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telegu and Urdu, any one or more of which 
may be used as the regional languages of the Union. 



148 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Amendment of the Constitution — ^Article 368 provides for the 
amendment of the Constitution. The Constitution shall stand 
amended when the President gives assent to any bill for the purpose 
after it is passed in each House of Parliament by a majority of not 
less than two thirds of the members of the House present and voting. 
The only provisions, for the amendment of which ratification by the 
legislatures of not less than one-half of the States has also been pres- 
cribed, relate to the Supreme Court and High Courts, the distribu- 
tion of legislative powers between the Centre and the States, the re- 
presentation of the States in Parliament and the procedure for amend- 
ment of the Constitution. 


AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN 
CONSTITUTION 

Since the inauguration of the Constitution on January 26, 1950, 
the following Amending enactments and Constitution Orders have 
been passed — 

1. Constitution (Amendment to First and ' Fourth Schedules) 
Order, 1950 (C. O. dated 25th Jan. 1950). 

2. Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951 — ^The first amend- 
ment to the Indian Constitution was made by the provincial Parlia- 
ment in 1951, known as The Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 
The statement of Objects and Reasons to the first Amendment Bill 
1951. By this. Article 19 and Article 31 were considerably amended, 
states : “In the working of the Constitution during these 15 
months certain difficulties have been brought to light by judicial deci- 
sion and pronouncements. The right to freedom of speech has 
been held by some Courts as so comprehensive as not to render a 
person culpable even if he advocates murder and other crimes of 
violence. In other countries with written Constitution, freedom of 
speech and of the Press is not regarded as debarring the State from 
punishing or preventing the abuse of freedom.” 

The Proviso to Art. 19 was amended so as to impose reasonable 
restrictions on the freedoms enumerated under that Article. The 
Clause (2) states that the State can impose reasonable restric- 
tions on the exercise of the freedom of speech and expression in 
the interests of the security of the State, friendly relations with 
contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence, 
foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to 
contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence. 

To Article 15, sub-clause (4) was inserted stating that the State 
can make special provision for the advancement of any socially and 
educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled 
Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. 

Two new Articles, 31-A and 31-B were inserted. Article 31-.A 
provides that no law providing for the acquisition by the State 
of any estate or of any rights therein or for the extinguishment or 
modification of any such rights shall be deemed to be void on the 



CONSTITUTION OP INDIA 


149 


ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any 
of the rights conferred by any provisions of this Part (III). 

To preserve the Zamindary Abolition Acts by various States in 
India, Article 31-B provides that none of the Acts and Regula- 
tions specified in the Ninth Schedule nor any of the provisions 
thereof shall be deemed to be void, or even to have become void, on 
the ground that such Act, Regulation or provision is inconsistent with, 
or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by, any pro- 
visions of Part III, and notwithstanding any judgment, decree or 
order of any court or tribunal to the contrary, each of the said Acts 
and Regulations shall continue in force. 

3. Assam (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1951 (XLVII of 
1951). 

4. Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952 : — ^By the Second 
Amendment, Article 81 (b) was amended. 

Art. 81 relates to the composition of the House of the 
People. Sub-Clause (b) states that there shall be not less than one 
member for every 750,000 of the population and not more than 
one member for every 500,000 of the population. But on account 
of increase in the number of population in the census of 1951, some 
adjustment in the ratio of representation was necessary. Ac- 
cordingly, the words — ^“not less than one member for every 750,000 
of the population and” — ^^vere omitted. The result is that the upper 
limit of representation is abolished and there shall be not more than 
one member for every 600,000 of the population. 

5. Andhra State Act, 1953 — (30 of 1953). This Act created a 
New State out of Madras State. 

6. Lushai Hills District (Change of Name) Act 1954 (18 of 
1954). 

- 7. Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur (New State) Act, 1951 (32 of 
1954). This Act amalgamated these two Part “C” States. 

8. Chandemagore (merger) Act, 1954 (36 of 1954). By this 
Act French Chandemaeore was merged with West Bengal. 

9. Constitution (Third Amendment Act) 1954 — By the third 
amendment, powers to control certain essential goods were transferred 
to the Concurrent List. The amendment makes an amplification 
of entry 33 of List III in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitu- 
tion. Besides placing foodstuffs, including edible oil-seeds ond oils ; 
cattle fodder, including oil cakes and other concentrates ; raw cotton 
and cotton seed and raw jute, the amendment Act includes in this 
entry also imported goods of the same kind as the products of cen- 
tralised industries to enable the Centre to exercise full control over 
the development of such industris. 

Parliament’s power under Article 369 of the Constitution to legis- 
late in respect of certain essential commodities lapsed on January 9, 
1955. The amendment sought to_ place on a permanent footing 
Centre’s power to control the specified essential commodities. 

10. The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) 
Order, 1954 — (C.O. 48, dated 14th May, 1954). • 

11. Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955. — ^The statement 
of objects and reasons to the amendment Bill states that the proposed 



150 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


legislation is intended to meet objections raised by courts on questions 
relating to the acquistion of private property. Recent decisions of 
the Supreme Court have given a very wide meaning to Clauses 1 and 
2 of Article 31. Despite the difference in the wording of the two 
clauses, they are regarded as dealing with the same subject. The 
deprivation of property referred to in Clause 1 is to be construed in 
the widest sense as concluding any curtailment of a right to property. 

Even where it is caused by a purely ragulatory provision of law 
and is not accompanied by an acquisition or taking possession of 
that or any other property right by the State, the law, in 
order to be valid according to these decisions, has_ to provide 
for compensation under clause 2 of the Article 31. It is considered 
necessary, therefore, to re-state more precisely the_ State’s power 
of compulsory acquisition and requisitioning of private property 
and distinguish it from cases where the operation of regulatory or 
prohibitory laws of the State results in deprivation of property. 
This has been effected by amending Articles 31 and 31-A by 
Fourth Amendment. 

The amended Article 31 provides for compensation for com- 
pulsory acquisition of property by the State. The Article 31-A 
empowers the State to take over under State management, for a 
temporary period, a commercial or industrial undertaking or other 
property in the public interest or in order to secure the better 
management of the undertaking or property. Laws providing for 
such temporary transference to State management is now permissible 
under the Constitution without payment of compensation as this does 
not amount to State acquisition of property. 

Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955: — The fifth amend- 
ment came into force on 24th December, 1955. By this amendment 
the Proviso to Article 3 of the Constitution has been changed as 
follows : “Provided that no bill for the purpose shall be introduced 
in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the 
President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects 
the area, boundaries or name of any of the States specified in Part A 
or Part B of the First Schedule, the Bill has been referred by the 
President to the Legislature of that State for expressing its mews 
thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or 
within such further period as the President may allow and the period 
so specified or allowed has expired.” 

Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956 — ^The sixth amend- 
ment came into force on and from 11th September, 1956. The sixth 
amendment amends the Seventh Schedule by providing a new entry 
92 A (after entry 92) in the Union List). The entry 92 A read as 
follows : “Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than news- 
papers, where such sale or purchase takes place in the course of inter- 
state trade or commerce.” 

It also amends entry 54 of the State List as follows : “54. 

Taxes on the sale or purchase of good other than newspapers, sub- 
aect to the provisions of entry 92A of List I.” 

Tt also amends Article 286 of the Constitution. The Explanation 



CONSTITUTION OP INDIA 


151 


in clause (1) has been omitted. For clause (2) and (3) the follow- 
ing clauses have been substituted : 

“(2) Parliament may by law formulate principles for determin- 
ing when a sale or purchase of goods takes place in any of the 
ways mentioned in clause (1). 

(3) any law of a State, in so far as it imposes, or authorises 
the imposition of a tax on the sale or purchase of goods declared by 
Parliament by law to be of special importance in inter-State trade 
or commerce, be subject to such restrictions and conditions in regard 
to the system of levy, rates and other incidents of the tax as Parlia- 
ment may by law specify.” 

By virtue of this amendment, the Central Government shall levy 
and collect taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than news- 
papers, where such sale or purchase takes place in the course of inter- 
state trade or commerce. Parliament may by law formulate prin- 
ciples for determining when a sale or purchase of goods takes place 
in the course of inter-State trade or commerce. The proceeds of such 
taxes shall be distributed among the States in whose territory the 
tax will be levied and collected. 

Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956 — This Act came into 
force from 1st November 1956. The States of India, as they exist 
today have been formed largely as a result of historical accidents and 
circumstances, and there has, therefore been a demand for the 
reorganisation of the component units of the Indian Union oh a more 
rational basis, after taking into account not only the growing impor- 
tance of the regional languages, but also financial, economic and 
administrative considerations. The States Reorganisation Commission 
was accordingly constituted in December 1953, to investigate the 
conditions of this problem, the historical background, the existing 
situation, and all other relevant factors. On the recommendations 
of the Commission, the Government brought a Bill, in 1956. 

The main features of the reorganisation are the abolition of the 
existing constitutional distinction between Part A, Part B and Part 
C States, the establishment of two categories for the component 
units of the Union, to be called States and Union Territories,, and 
the abolition of the institution of the Rajpramukh consequent on the 
disappearance of the Part B States. This Amendment provides the 
constitution of 14 States, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, 
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar 
Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Jammu and 
Kashmir. There will be six Union territories, namely, Delhi, 
Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Laccadive, Amindive and 
Minicoy Islands. 

The Amendment also makes provision for the setting up 
of five Zonal Councils which will be advisory bodies, compe- 
tent to discuss matters of common interest, particularly in the field 
of economic and social planning. The Northern Zone shall comprise 
Punjab, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir and the Union terri- 
tories of Delhi and Himachal Pradesh. The Central Zone shall 
comprise the States of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. 
The Eastern Zone shall comprise the States of Bihar, West Bengal. 



152 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


Orissa and Assam, and tte Union Territories of Manipur and 
Tripura. The Western Zone shall comprise the States of Bombay; 
and the Southern Zone shall comprise the States of Andhra Pradesh, 
hladras and Kerala. 

The Seventh Amendment makes necessary changes in the Con- 
stitution to give effect to the States Reorganisation Act. The 
formation of Zonal Councils, however, is not incorporated into the 
Constitution. The notable change made by the Seventh Amendment 
is the increase in the number of members of the House of the 
People from 500 to 520. Of this number, 500 will be elected from 
the States and 20 from the Union territories. The ratio of members 
to the number of population is abolished in the case of representation 
to the House of the People. 

As regards the composition of the State Legislative Assemblies, a 
new Article 170 has been substituted which provides that the Legis- 
lative Assembly of each State shall consist of not more than 
five hundred, and not less than sixty members chosen by direct elec- 
tion from territorial constituencies in the State. The ratio of popu- 
lation to members to be elected is also abolished. 

The total number of members of a State Legislative Council 
shall hot exceed one-third of the total number of members of the 
Legislative Assembly of that State. 

High Coxirt Judges are permitted to practise, after retirement, 
before the Supreme Court and the other High Courts (except the 
one in which he held the judicial post). 

Same person may be appointed as Governor for two or more 
States. 

Union Territories is to be administered by the President through 
an administrator vith such designation as he may specify. 

It shall be the endeavour of every State and of local authority 
to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at 
the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic 
minority groups. There shall be special officer for linguistic minori- 
ties to be appointed by the President. 

The number of seats in the House of the People to be allotted 
to each of the State and the number of seats to be assigned to the 
Legislative Assembly of each Part A State shall be as shown in the 
following Table : 


States. 

Number of Scats in 

Number of Scats in 


the House of the 

the Legislative 


People. 

Assembhr. 

Andhra Pradesh 

.. 43 

301 

Assam 

.. 12 

108 

Bihar 

.. 55 

330 

Bombay 

.. G6 

396 

Kerala' 

.. 18 

12G 

JIadhya Pradesh 

.. 3G 

288 

Madras 

.. 41 

205 

Mysore 

.. 26 

208 

Orissa 

.. 20 

140 



CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 


153 


Punjab 

.. 22 

154 

Rajasthan 

.. 22 

176 

Uttar Pradesh 

.. 86 

430 

West Bengal 

.. 34 

238 

Jammu and Kashmir 

.. 6 


Delhi 

.. 5 


Himachal Pradesh 

.. 4 


Manipur 

.. 2 


Tripura 

.. 2 



Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1956 : — In May 1966, the 
eighth amendment to the Constitution was passed giving to the Centre 
powers to regulate tax on goods of special importance in inter-State 
trade. Article 286 of the Constitution has also been amended remov- 
ing restriction on the States to impose sales tax on essential 
commodities. 


Local Bodies in India 

In India there are 12 Municipal Corporations, 1,453 Municipal 
Committees and Boards, 383 Small Town Committees, 82 Notified 
Area Committees, 309 Local Boards, and 1,23,670 Gram Panchayats. 
More than half the total number of villages in the country have been 
covered by Panchayats. 

Foreign Investment in India 

Total foreign business investment in India at the end of De- 
cember 1953, in terms of book value, was Rs. 4,210 million, of whicH 
more than 80 percent was direct investment. The bulk of the 
investment (nearly Es. 3,500 million) came from the U.K. Pri- 
vate capital from U.S.A. predominently in the direct investment 
category, totalled Rs. 310 million. The net inflow of foreign 
private capital between 1948 and 1953 was of the order of Rs. 1,300 
million, of which roughly 40 per cent represented reinvested pro- 
fits of branches and undistributed profits of subsidiaries of foreign 
companies. 




INDIAN CITIZENSHIP 

At present citizenship law is determined by the Indian Citizen- 
ship Act 51 of 1955. The Act provides five methods for the acqnisi- 
tion of Indian citizenship. These are : by birth, by descent, by regis- 
tration, by naturalisation and by incoi'poration of territory. The Act 
also provides for the termination of citizenship. 

By Birth : Every person bom in India on or after the 26th 
January, 1950, shall be a citizen of India by birth. Children bom in 
India to foreign diplomats and enemy aliens, however, shall not ac- 
quire Indian citizenship by bith. 

By De.scent : A person bom outside India on or after the 26th 
January, 1950, shall be a citizen of India by descent if his father is 
a citizen of India at the time of his birth. But if the father of such 
a person was a citizen of India by descent only, that person shall not 
be a citizen of India by descent, unless his father is registered 
at an Indian consulate within one year of its occurrence, or, his 
.father is at the time of his birth, in service under a Government of 
India. 

By Registration : Citizenship can be acuired by registration on 
application to the Government of India by any person who is not al- 
ready such citizen by virture of the Constitution or by virtue of any 
other provisions of this Act. He must belong to any of the following 
categories : — (a) persons of Indian origin who are ordinarily resident 
in India and have been so resident for six months immediately 
before making an application for registration ; (b) persons of Indian 
origin who are ordinarily resident in any country or place out- 
side undevjded India ; (c) women who are, or have been, married to 
citizens of India ; (d) minor children of persons who are citizens 
of India ; and (c) persons of full age and capacity who are citizens 
of a Commonwealth country. 

Commonwealth countries include United Kingdom, Canada, 
Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, Pakistan, Ceylon and 
the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The Republic of Ireland 
is also placed on the same footing. For the purpose of registration, 
a person shall be deemed to be Indian origin if he, or either of his 
parents, or any of his grand-parents, was bom in undivided India, 
A person of full age must take an oath of allegiance before he is; 
registered as a citizen of India. 

_ By Naturalisation — A person of full age and capacity not being 
citizen of a Commonwealth country, may be naturalised as an Indian 
citizen provided he makes an application in the prescribed manner to 
that effect. The qualifications for naturalisation of a person who is 
not a citizen of a country in the Commonwealth are : — 

(a) that he is not a subject or citizen of any country where 
citizens of India are prevented by law or practice of that country 
from becoming subjects or citizens of that country by naturalisation; 

, _ (b) that if he is a citizen of any country, he has renounced the 
citizenship of that country in accordance with the law therein in 



INDIAN CITIZENSHIP 


155 


force in that behalf and has notified such renunciation to the Central 
Government ; 

(c) that he has either resided in India or been in the service of 
a Government in India or partly the one and partly the other, 
throughout the period of twelve months immediately preceding the 
date of the application ; 

(d) the during the seven years immediately preceding the said 
period of twelve months, he has either resided in India or been in the 
service of a Government in India or partly the one and partly the 
other, for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than four 
years; 

(e) that he is of good character ; 

(f) that he has an adequate knowledge of a language specified 
in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution; and 

(g) that in the event of a certificate of naturalisation being 
granted to him, he intends to reside in India or to enter into or con- 
tinue in, service under a Government in India or under an inter- 
national organisation of which India is a member or under a society, 
company or body of persons established in India. 

Provided that, if in the opinion of the Central Government, the 
applicant is a person who has rendered distinguished service to the 
cause of science, philosophy, art, literature, world peace or human 
progress generally, it may waive all or any of the conditions speci- 
fied above. 

By Incorporation of Territory — ^If any territory becomes a part 
of India, the Central Government may specify the person who 
shall be citizens of India by reason of their connection with that 
territory ; and those persons shall be citizens of India as fi’om the 
date to be specified in the order. 

TERMINATION OF CITIZENSHIP— Indian citizenship can be 
terminated by renunciation or termination or deprivation. Any 
citizen of India of full age and capacity can terminate his Indian 
citizenship by making a declaration to that effect, except during a 
time of war. Any citizen of India who has been naturalised in a 
foreign country shall cease to be an Indian citizen. The Government 
of India can also deprive a naturalised citizen of his citizenship on 
ground of disloyalty to the State of India or continued absence from 
the country for a period of seven years. 



OUR NATIONAL EMBLEMS & 
AWARDS 

NATIONAL FLAG 

The first flag in India was hoisted on Ang’ast 7, 1906. ip 
the Parsee Bagan Square, Calcutta. The flag was composed of hori- 
zontal stripes of red, yellow and green. 

The second flag was hoisted by Madame Cama and her band of 
eidled revolutionaries in Paris in 1907. It was siniilar to the first 
flag with slight modifications. 

The third flag was hoisted during Home Rule Movement in 1917 
by Dr. Annie Besant and Tilak. This flag had five red and four 
green horizontal stripes and in the left hand top comer (the pole 
end) was the Union Jack occupying one-fourth of the space and 
seven stars in the centre. There was also a crescent and a star in 
one comer. 

The Tricolour was first hom at A.I.C.C. meeting at Bezwada in 
1921 when a flag was shown b 3 ^ an Andhra youth and improved by 
Mahatma Gandhi with the addition of a white stripe and charka. 
Though not oflicially accepted by the Congress, it was hoisted on all 
Congress occasions. In 1931, when A.I.C.C. met at Karachi, a reso- 
lution was passed stressing the need for a national flag. In the 
same year a resolution was passed adopting a tricolour flag as our 
National Emblem. It had three colours : saffron for courage and 
sacrifice, white for truth and peace, green for faith and chivalry. It 
also carried a charka in blue on white band. The size was three 
lengths by two breadths. On July 22, 1947 with the attainment of 
independence, the Constituent Assembly adopted it as free India's 
national flag. The colours and their significance remain the same. 
The Dharma Chakra of Emperor Asoka was adopted instead of 
Charka. 

The National Flag of India consists of a horizontal tricolour in 
the saffron {Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green 
at the bottom, all stripes being equal in breadth. The ratio of the 
width of the Flag to its length is two to three. The emblem of the 
flag |s an exact reproduction of the wheel on the capital of the Asoka 
pillar at Saranath, superimposed on the central band and is as broad 
as the white strip. The colour of the emblem is dark blue and the 
wheel has 24 spikes. 

Use of National Flag — 

(1) It should not be dipped to any person or anything The 
regimental colour, the State Flag, the organisational or institutional 
flag will render this honour when necessary. 

.KT or emblem should be placed above the 

National Flag or to its right. 


OUR NATIONAL EMBLEMS & AWARDS 


157 


(3) All flags are placed to the left of the National Flag if they 
hang in a line, and if they are raised, then the National Flag is raised 
highest. 

(4) When other flags are flown along with the National Flag 
on the same halyard, the latter should be at the peak. 

(5) The Flag should not be carried flat or horh.ontally, but 
always aloft and free. 

(6) When carried in a procession, it must be borne high on the 
right shoulder of the standard-bearer and carried in front of the 
procession. 

(7) When the Flag is displayed from a stalf, projecting hori- 
zontally or at an angle from a window sill or a balcony or the front 
of a building, the saffron end should be at the top. 

(8) Normally the National Flag should be flown on important 
Government buildings at the Centre and in the States. Frontier 
areas may, however, fly the National Flag at some special points. 

(9) The use of the Flag will, however, be unrestricted on certain 
special occasions such as the Independence Day, Mahatma Gandhi’s 
birthday and during the National week. 

NATIONAL EMBLEM 

The National Emblem is replica of the capital of the Asokan 
pillar at Saranath and is formed of three lions mounted on an abecus 
with Dharma Chakra carved in relief in the centre, a bull on the 
right and a horse on the left, and the outlines of the Dharma Chakra 
on the extreme right and left. The words Satyameva Jay ate mean- 
ing ‘truth alone triumphs’ are inscribed in Devanagri script below 
the emblem. The lion capital was adopted as National Emblem on 
January 26, 1950. 

The fact, that the original lion capital, designed between 242 — 
232 B.C. was erected by Emperor Asoka to hallow the spot where the 
Buddha first initiated his disciples in the eight fold path of salvation, 
invests the Emblem with historical and spiritual significance. Carved 
out of a single block of sandstone, the original capital was sur- 
mounted by a wheel (Chakra). 

NA.TIONAL SONGS 

The Constituent Assembly of India on the 24th January, 1950 
adopted Rabindranath Tagore’s song Jana-gana-mana as the national 
anthem of India. It was concurrently decided that Bankim Chandra 
Chatterjee’s Bande Mataram shall have equal status. 

AWARDS & DISTINCTIONS & TITLES 

Bharat Ratna — The award is made for exceptional work for the 
advancement of art, literature and science and in recognition of 
public service of the highest order. The decoration takes the form 
of a pcepal leaf. It is of toned bronze. On the obverse side is 
embossed a replica of the Sun below which the words Bharat Ratna 
are embossed in Hindi. On the reverse are the State Emblem and the 



158 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


motto, also in Hindi. The Emblem, the Sun and the rim are of 
platinum. 

Padma Viblmsan — The award is made for exceptional and dis- 
tinguished service in any field, including service rendered by Govern- 
ment servants. 

Padma Bhiisan — The Award is made for distinguished service 
of a high order in any field, including service rendered by Govern- 
ment servants. 

Padma Shri — The Award is made for distinguished service in 
any field, including service rendered by Government servants. 

President’s Police <£ Fire Service Medal, Police Medal. 

Krishi Pandits — The title ‘Krishi Pandit’ is given annually by 
the Indian Council of Agricultural Research to farmers who have 
made notable contribution to the cause of Indian agriculture. 

Gopal Ratiia — This title has been instituted in 1956 by the Gov- 
ernment of India and will be awarded to the owners of the highest 
milk-yielding cows and buffaloes of certain breeds in all India milk- 
yield competition. Owners of each breed of cattle besides title of 
Gopal Ratna will get cash prizes of Rs. 2,000 each. 


DANCES OP INDIA 

There are four main schools of dancing in India — Bliarata 
Natyam, Kathakali, Kathak and Manipuri. Bharata Natyam per- 
haps represents the purest and the oldest form of Indian tradition. 
This is always executed by one single dancer usually. The music 
consists of a singer or singers and a group of drummers. The sung 
music functions like a commentary on the dance. 

Kathakali of Malabar is the most dramatic form of Indian 
dancing. It literally means ‘story play* and employs many dancers, 
usually drawing its themes from the epics. 

Kathak school, which is peculiar to North India, shows Muslim 
influences. Its elegance and sophistry are derived from the Mughal 
Court, but its complicated rhythms are of indigenous origin. The 
Kathak dance is rich in two aspects of dancing — nritt, pure dance 
abhiiiaya, which employs facial expression and symbolic gestures to 
interpret the theme and also covers bhavas (emotions) and 
rasas (sentiments). 

Manipuri school is essentially lyrical and on the whole lighten 
Dances of Manipur are things of disciplined joy and power. They 
have rhythmical sublety, slow suspense, speed, lyricism, drama. 
Most popular of all Manipuri dances is Rasa-Lila. It depicts scenes 
from the life of Sri Krishna in a series of songs and dances. 



RANK & PRECEDENCE OF 
PERSONS 


1. President. 

2. Vice-Pre.sident. 

3. Prime Minister. 

4. Governors, Rajpramukhs, 
and Sadar-i-Riyasat, Jammu & 
Kashmir, within their respective 
charges. 

5. Ex-Presidents and ex-Gov- 
emors General. 

6. Lieutenant Governors with- 
in their respective charges. 

7. Chief Justice. Speaker of 
the Lok Sabha. 

8. Cabinet Ministers of the 
Union. 

9. Holders of Bharat Ratna 
Decorations. 

10. Ambassadors Extraordi- 
nary & Plenipotentiary accredited 
to India. 

High Commissioners of Comm- 
onwealth Governments in India. 

11. Rulers of Indian States 
with a salute of 17 guns and 
above within their States. 

12. Governors, Rajpramukhs 
and Sadar-i-Riyasat, Jammu & 
Kashmir, outside their respective 
charges. 

13. Lieutenant Governors out- 
side their respective charges. 

14. Rulers of Indian States 
with a salute 17 guns and above 
outside their States. 

15. Chief Ministers of the 
Union (other than the Cabinet 
Ministers). 

Members of the Planning 
Commission. 

17. Rulers of Indian States 
with a salute of 15 guns or 13 
guns. 


18. Envoys Extraordinary 
and Ministers Plenipotentiary 
accredited to India. 

19. Chief Commissioners of 
Part ‘C’ States having Council 
of Ministers within their respec- 
tive charges. 

20. Chief Ministers of Part 
‘C’ States within their respective 
States. 

21. Judges of the Supreme 
Court. 

22. Class I Ambassadors of 
India and visiting Class I Amba- 
ssadors of India. 

Foreign Ambassadors visting 
India. 

Visiting High Commissioners 
of India and High Commissioners 
of other Commonwealth countries 
visiting India. 

23. Charges d’ Affaires and 
acting High Commissioners a 
pied and ad interim. 

24. Chiefs of Staff and Com- 
manders-in-Chief holding the 
rank of full General or equiva- 
lent rank. 

25. Chief Justices of High 
Courts. 

Chairmen of Legislative Coun- 
cils in Part ‘A' and Part ‘B’ 
States. 

Speakers of Legislative As- 
semblies in Part ‘A’ and Part 
‘B’ States. 

26. Ministers of Part ‘A’ and 
Part ‘B’ States. 

Deputy Ministers of the Union, 

Attorney-General. 

Comptroller and Auditor 
General. 



160 


HINDUSTAN YAER-BOOK 


Deputy Chairman of the Eajya 
Sahha. 

Deputy Speaker of the Lok 
Sahha. 

27. Chief of Staff and Com- 
manders-in-Chief holding the 
rank of Lieutenant-General or 
equivalent rank. 

28. Rulers of Indian States 
■with a salute of 11 guns or 9 
guns. 

29. Chairman, Union Public 
Service Commission. 

Chief Election Commissioner. 

30. Puisne Judges of High 
Courts. 

31. Deputy Ministers of Part 
‘A’ States. 

Deputy Chairman and Deputy 
Speakers of State Legislatures. 

32. Members of Parliament. 

33. Officers of the rank of full 
General or equivalent rank. 

Secretary to the President. 

Secretaries to the Government 
of India and Principal Private 
Secretary to the Prime Minister. 

Class n and Class III Ambas- 
sadors of India. 

Commissioner for Scheduled 
Castes and Scheduled Tribes. 

Officiating Chiefs of Staff and 
Commanders-in-Chief holding the 
rank of Major-General or equi- 
valent rank. 

Chief Commissioners of Part 
‘C States ha-ving Council of Mi- 
nisters outside their respective 
charges. 

Visiting Ministers Pleninoten- 
tiary of India and Foreigrn Minis- 
ters Plenipotentiary -visiting 
India. 

Chairman of the Railway 
Board. 


Financial Commissioner for 
Railways. 

Solicitor-General. 

Political Officer in Sikkim. 

34. Chief Ministers of Part 
‘C’ States outside their respec- 
tive States. 

35. Speakers of Part ‘C’ 
States. 

36. Ministers of Part ‘C’ 
States. 

37. Members of the Railway 
Board. 

Slinisters of Foreign and Com- 
monwealth missions other than 
Ministers Plenipotentiary. 

Officers of the rank of Lieute- 
nant-General or equivalent rank. 

38. Chief Commissioners of 
the Andaman and Nicobar Is- 
lands, Kutch, Tripura and Mani- 
pur, -within their respective 
charges. 

Additional Secretaries to the 
Government of India. 

Chairman, Tariff Commission. 

Chairman, Central Water and 
Power Commission. 

Vice-Chairman of the Indian 
Council of -4.gricultural Research. 

Financial .4.d-viser, Ministry of 
Finance (Defence). 

Chairman Central Board of 
Revenue. 

*P.S.Os. of the Armed Forces 
of the rank of Major-General or 
equivalent rank. 

39. Chairman of the Public 
Service Commission of a State. 

Chief Secretaries to Govern- 
ments of Part ‘A’ States. 

Financial Commissioners. 

Members of the Union Public 
Service Commission. 


* Should a P.S.O. hold the rank of Lieutenant-General, his senio- 
ri^ in the Table of Precedence -will continue to remain the same as 
laid down for Officers of the rank of Lieutenant-General or equivalent 
rank in Article 37 of the Table. 



RANK & PRECEDENCE OP PERSONS 


161 


Rear Admiral Commanding, 
Indian Naval Squadron. 

Members of a Board of 

Revenue. 

40. Director-General, Health 
Services. 

Director-General, Posts and 

Telegraphs. 

Director, Intelligence Bureau. 
General Managers of Railways. 
Establishment OflScer to the 
•Government of India. 

Joint Secretaries to the Gov- 
■smment of India (including Jt. 
Secretary to the Cabinet). 

Class IV Ambassadors of India 
and visiting Class IV Ambassa- 
■dors of India. 

Ofiicers of the rank of Major- 
•General or equivalent rank. 
Surveyor General. 

Members of the Tariff Com- 
mission. 

Inspectors General of Police in 
Part ‘A’ States. 

Commissioners of Divisions. 
Director-General of Civil Avia- 
tion. ' 

Director-General of Supplies 
and Disposals. 

Director-General of Ordnance 
Factories. 

Indian Navy Commodores-in- 
■Charge, Naval Ports or Areas. 

Commanders of Indian Air 
Force commands of the rank of 
Air Commodore. 

*P.S.Os. of Naval and Air 
Headquarters of the ranks of 
•Commodore and Air Commodore. 

Chief Commissioners of the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 
Kutch, Tripura and Manipur, 
outside their respective charges. 

Director-General, All India 
Radio. 

Military Secretary to the Pre- 
sident (so long as he also holds 
the post of Director-General, 
•Government Hospitality Organi- 
sation). 

11 


Counsellors of Foreign and 
Common-wealth missions in India. 

Note 1 . — The order in this 
Table of Precedence is meant for 
State and Ceremonial occasions 
and may not be strictly followed 
on more informal occasions. 

Note 2. — This Table -will not 
affect the precedence enjoyed by 
Rulers etc., within Indian States 
and Part ‘B’ States by ■virtue of 
local usage and custom ; nor -will 
it affect the local precedence 
inter se of Rulers as in force im- 
mediately before 15th August, 
1947. 

Note 3. — Officers in the Table 
of Precedence •will take rank in 
order of the number of entries, 
those included in one number 
shall take precedence inter se ac- 
cording to the date of entry into 
that number. 

Note 4. — VTien Members of 
Parliament are invited en bloc 
to major State function, the 
enclosure reserved for them 
should be next to the Governors, 
Chief Justice, Speaker of the 
Lok Sabha, Ambassadors etc. 

Note 5. — ^The Director of the 
Intelligenec Bureau will take pre- 
cedence over Inspectors-General 
of Police irrespective of the date 
of his en-try into Article 40. 

Note 6. — Major-Generals, irres- 
pective of their date of entry into 
Article 40, rank above Indian 
Navy Commodores-in-Charge and 
Indian Air Force Commodores. 

Note 7. — Chief Secretaries to 
Governments of Part ‘A’ States 
■will take precedence over Mem- 
bers of a Board of Revenue irres- 
pective of the date of their entry 
into Article 39. 

Note 8. — ^For the purposes of 
the Table of Precedence New 
Delhi and the Red Fort should be 
deemed to be outside the State 
of Delhi. 



162 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Note 9. — The Chairman of 
State Legislative Councils shall 
rank above the Speakers of Le- 
gislative Assemblies in cases 
■where they were elected on the 
same date. 

Note 10. — ^Rulers ■with a higher 
gun salute shall take precedence 
over Rulers ■with a lower gun 
salute. Rulers ■with the same 
salute shall take precedence 
inter se according to date of 
succession. 


Note 11. — ^The Cabinet Secr^ 
tary ■wull, unless otherwise indi- 
cated by the issue of special ins- 
tructions, take precedence over 
Secretaries to the Government of 
India irrespective of his date of 
appointment to the post. 

Note 12. — Members of State 
Legislatures who o^wing to their 
presence in Delhi happen to be 
invited to State functions, should 
be assigned rank just after Mem- 
bers of Parliament. 


The Prime Minister to whom the question of the position to be 
assigned to non-officials was referred, has stated : “It should he 
remembered always that non-officials, although not included in the 
warrant of precedence, can always be given a high place and some- 
times a very high place in accordance ■with their general standing. 
It is absurd, for instance, to put a great scientist or a famous artiste 
or a writer at the bottom of the scale simply because he is not included 
in the warrant. There_ could be not hard and fast rule about this 
matter and some discretion has to be exercised on particular occasions. 
This should be made clear to State Governments as well as of course 
at the Centre, Special officers such as the Chairmen of important 
Commissions and the like can be treated as non-officials of note. They 
need not be included in the warrant and yet they should be given 
appropriately high places whenever necessity arises”. 


DO YOU KNOW 

_ During^ 1955 the total value of foreign books, magazines and 
periodicals imported to India was Rs. 105.9 lakhs. The corresponding 
value of exports for the same year is Rs. 62.22 lakhs. 

♦ 4; « 

At present the consumption of footwear in India is one pair per 
annum for every two persons in the urban areas and one pair for' 
five persons in rural areas. 

* *: t; 

During 1955 the number of foreign turists who visited India 
was 43,645. 

* * * * 

There are nearly 9,000 murders taking place every year in India. 


TRANSPORT AND 
COMMUNICATIONS 

1. RAILWAYS 

RAILWAYS IN INDIA — India has an extensive railway network 
reaching all major cities. With over 34,000 route mileage the system 
is exceeded in mileage only in the United States and Canada. Trans- 
portation requirements are however much lower than in a more indus- 
trialised country of the same size, because the majority of the popula- 
tion lies in largely self-sufiicient villages. Most of the railways are 
owned and operated by the Central Government. Those which are 
still privately owned are narrow-gauge feeder lines, are subject to 
Government regulation, and are usually dependent upon Government 
assistance. The Government lines have in recent years been 
reorganised into seven major systems. 

Indian railway system is the largest in Asia and it is the single 
biggest nationalised undertaking in the country. In inter-regional 
traffic, 80 per cent of the goods and 70 per cent of the passenger 
traffic are carried by rail. The Capital-at-charge is about Rs. 911 
ccores. The railways employ about 10 lakhs of people. 

BEGINNING OF RAILWAYS IN INDIA— In his famous 
minutes of April 1853, strongly advocating the construction of a net- 
work of trunk railway lines, Lord Dalhousie, the Governor General 
of India wrote, “Great tracts are teeming with produce they cannot 
dispose of, others are scantily hearing what they would carry in 
abundance, only if it could be conveyed whither it is needed.” 

The first idea of rail-roads in India was conceived in the Madras 
Presidency as early as 1831-32 when a proposal to lay flat parallel 
rails on a side of an improved road between CaUverypattam and 
Caroor, a distance of 150 miles was mooted, with a view to enable 
animal-driven vehicles to be drawn thereon. The more regular rail- 
way projects, however, date from 1844 when the Board of Directors 
of the East India Company sanctioned the construction of one line 
from Calcutta to the north-west and another from Bombay to the 
east and the north. The first line to be opened was a small section 
of 22 miles by the G.I.P. P.ailway between Bombay and Kalyan in 
April 1853. The E. I. Railway line between Calcutta and Pandooa 
was the second to follow in August 1854 and Madras had the line 
upto Arkonam opened in July 1856. 

Terms for Opening Railways — ^In the early stage (between 1844 
and 1868) the construction of railways in India was entrusted to 
British Companies under State ^arantee of a minimum return of 
4} p.c. to 6 p.c. on the capital invested. Government provided the 
land free of cost but retained the right to purchase the lines after 2.5 



164 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


or 50 years on certain terms. By 1869, 4,255 miles ■were constructed 
under such terms with a capital outlay of about Rs. 89 crores. 

This policy, however, entailed heavy loss to the State, amount- 
ing by 1869 to about 1.7 crores and after an unsuccessful attempt 
to enlist the co-operation of companies without any guarantee of 
return. Government adopted the policy of direct ownership, construc- 
tion and management by the State. Between 1869 and 1879 about 
2,175 miles of lines were so constructed. 

The policy of direct State construction, however, _ did not bear 
fruit as expected, specially because the exigencies of time necessita- 
ted the diversion of capital resources of the State to other directions 
and political and strategic considerations had led to the spending of 
large sums on unproductive lines. Between 1874 and 1878 the 
country was visited by acute and widespread famines, and the 
Famine Commission appointed in 1878 strongly urged the early 
extension of the railway net-work. Company construction was 
thereafter revived and even for State-owned lines management by 
companies was favoured. 

In dealing with the guaranteed companies, the Government 
exercised as far as found desirable their rights to terminate the 
contracts as and when opportunities arose in subsequent years, the 
method of making use of this right and the manner of continuing 
management of the railways after State acquisition having differed 
in different cases. The E.I., S.I., G.I.P., B.B. and C.I., M.S.M., and B.N. 
Railways were acquired by the State but allowed to be managed by 
the original companies after securing more favourable financial con- 
ditions for the State, the E.B., O.R. and Sind Punjab and Delhi lines 
were purchased and transferred to State management. The Bengal 
Central line was purchased and amalgamated with the E.B. Railway 
and the Madras and Indian Midland lines were after acquisition 
allowed to be managed by companies rmnning adjoining lines. 

New Era Begins — With the beginning of the 20th century a new 
era began. Traffic had gro^v^ enormously and the railways had 
ceased to be a burden on public exchequer. In 1901, Mr. Robertson, 
a Special Commissioner appointed to enquire into the working of the 
railways, examined the pros and cons of State vs. Company construc- 
tion and management and although no marked superiority in favour 
of companies was observed, he advocated the discontinuance of dual 
system running side by side and advised the leasing out of all lines 
to companies, with or without guarantee.' Public opinion in India 
had, however, ceased to remain inarticulate and strong feelings 
were entertained against management by English Companies, which 
often acted against the best interests of the people and stood in 
the way of Indianisation and advancement of Indian trade and in- 
dustry. The old policy, shaped between 1880 and 1884 was allowed 
to be continued till 1920-21. 


In 1921 a Railway Enquiry Committee under the Chairmanship 
of Sir William Acworth examined critically the question of State vs. 
Company management and advocated State-management. 

In 1923 the Indian Legislative Assembly adopted a resolution 
advocatmg State management only and it was decided to eliminate 


TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


165 


the system of management by Board of Directors in London as and 
when opportunities to terminate the contracts with companies were 
available. Accordingly the East Indian Railway was taken over 
under direct State management in January 1925 and the G. 1. P. 
Railway in July next year and since then all company-managed 
lines have been taken over. After independence in 1947, the railway 
system has been nationalised. It is now entirely managed by the 
State and the system of management has also been thoroughly 
remodelled. 

RAILWAY COMMITTEES — ^Por the improvement of railway 
management and also to settle the State vs. Company management 
question, Acworth Committee was appointed in 1921 which made vari- 
ous recommendations for the improvement of Indian Railways. Its 
main recommendations were : (1) Railways to be managed by the 
State instead of Company management. (2) Railway Budget should 
be separated from the general budget and that the general revenues 
should receive annual contributions from railways. (3) Establish- 
ment of Rates Tribunal to adjudicate upon disputes between railways 
and the public. 

The Acworth Committee laid the foundations of State manage- 
ment and State Control of Indian Railways. Its recommendations 
constituted the broad basis on which the railway system in India 
developed in subsequent years. 

The Pope Committee was appointed in 19.32 which inter alia 
made many recommendations in regard to the intensive use of 
locomotives, coaching stock and machinery. Disposal of unecono- 
mical wagons, combining resources between railways, ticketless 
travel and methods of increasing earnings. 

The Wedgwood Committee in 1936 made the following recom- 
mendations : (1) reduction in locomotives and carriage under re- 

pairs, (2) amalgamation of workshop for construction of rolling 
stock, (31 acceleration of trains, (4) withdrawal of unremunerative 
services. (5) greater caution in capital expenditure, (6) a campaign 
to root out dishonesty and incivility from amongst railway staff, 
(71 development of the commercial departments of railways, (81 
building of a General Reserve Fund to serve as an equalisation fund 
for payment of interest charges and amortisation of capital. 

Indian Railway Enquiry Committee — ^The Committee appointed 
by the Government of India published its report in 1948. The main 
findings and recommendations are (a) the staff strength in the rail- 
ways is on the high side while there has been general deterioration 
in the efficiency of workers, (6) in place of present central organi- 
sation under which the Railway Board is part of the Secretariat of 
the Government of India, the Committee recommended the vesting 
of control and managenient of Indian Government Railways in a 
Statutory Authority, (c) it is desirable to have in the Finance Branch' 
of the Railway Board a separate unit primarily conceimed with ex- 
ploring means to improve earnings, (d) no capital outlay should be 
incurred other than on strictly financial considerations, except when 
a capital expenditure is justified on other important considerations, 
(c) an Amortisation Fund should be created (as recommended by 



166 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


the Wedgwood Committee) in respect of intangible assets of fte 
railways amounting to about Rs. 68 crores, the annual contribution 
to the fund being one per cent of gross earnings, (/) the existing 
method of making ad hoc contribution to the General Revenues has 
to continue until the future position of the railways can be assured 
with greater definitions. 

Railwajf Stores Enquiry Committee — was set-up under the 
Chairmanship of A. D. Shroff to examine the Stores arrangements 
on the railways with a view to bringing about improvement and 
rationalisation in procurement, issue and holding of stores in 1951. 
The Committee recommended that Ministry of Railways should te 
responsible for the procurement of specialized Railway Stores. This 
recommendation has been accepted. The procurement of specialised 
railway stores will be transferred to the Railway Board. 

ADMINISTRATION OF RAILWAYS— The responsibility for 
overall control and administration of the railways vests in the 
Railway Board which was set-up in 1905. The Board consists, after 
reorganisation in April 1951, of a Chairman who is an ex-officio 
Secretary to the Union Railway Ministry, the Financial Commissioner 
and three members. 

For the close and constant consultation between the public and 
railway authorities, the following committees have been established — 
(1) Regional Users’ Consultive Committees, (2) Zonal Railwal Users’ 
Consultive Committees at the headquarters of each railway Zone and 
<3) National Railway Users’ Consultive Council at the Centre. 

Divisional System — The essence of the divisional system is 
■to provide a unified control of operation and other allied railway ac- 
■tivnties over a longer area than that of an average district and to 
Test the responsibility for co-ordinating the working of different 
departments in the area in an administrative officer called the 
Divisional Superintendent, located in the Division. Divisional 
system of administration has been introduced in the Central, Southern 
and Western Railways. The Central Railway is divided with seven 
divisions with headquarters at Secunderabad, Bombay, Bhusaval, 
Nagpur, Sholapur, Jabalpur and Jhansi. Southern Railway is divided 
into eight divisions : — ^Vijayawada, Hubli, Guntakal, Olovakkot, 
Madras, Madurai, Mysore and Tiruchirapalli. Western Railway is 
devided into eight divitions with headquarters at Bombay, Baroda, 
Kotah, Jaipur, Ajmer, Rajkot, Bhavnagar and Ratlam. 

Each Division is under a Divisional Superintendent who ■will 
function in his sphere more or less as the General Manager does for 
■the entire Zonal railway. He ■will, however, be under the control of 
the General Manager. Specialised departments, like stores and work- 
shops are excluded from the divisional scheme. These will continue 
to be controlled by headquarters direct or hitherto. 

RAILWAY FINANCE — ^In 1925, the railway finances were 
separated from the general finances and it was decided that the raU- 
•ways should contribute to the general revenues according to a fixed 
formula. It was decided in December 1949 that during the quinquen- 
cium beginning ■with 1950-51, the railways should pay a guaranteed 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


167 


-dividend of four per cent on the capital-at-charge at the end of each 
penultimate year. The revised Financial Convention after 1955 on- 
-wards also prescribes the same rate of payment except that on new 
lines a moratorium would be granted during construction and for the 
^ve years to follow. 

CLASSES OF ACCOMMODATION— From 1st April, 1955, there 
are now four classes of accommodation, namely — Air-conditioned, 
■first, second and third. There is no class named as inter class. 

FREIGHT AND FARE — The fare & freight rates were rationa- 
lised in 1948. The rates of passenger fare is on the telescopic basis 
'from April 1, 1955 (i.e. rates diminishing with increase in distance 
•travelled). Scale of passenger fares from 1st April, 1955 arc 
given below. 

The rationalised freight structure provides for fifteen 
“class rates” for goods and an equal number of wagon-load 
scales of rates. The rates reduce with the increase in dis- 
tance, The telescopic taper of goods rates was further accentuated in 
April 1956, thereby making long distance haulage of goods cheaper 
.still. The telescopic taper of goods rates was further accentuated 
in April 1955, thereby making long-distance haulage of goods cheaper 
still. Goods trafiic now moves along the shortest route and at the 


-cheapest-rate. 

Class 

Vistance in miles 

Bates per wji 

Air-conditioned 

1—300 

84 pies 


301 and above 

32 „ 

First class . . 

1—150 

18 „ 


151—300 

16. „ 


301 and above 

16 .. 

•■Second Class (Mail or 

' Express) 

1—150 (Mail /Exp.) 

11 » 

1 — 150 (Ordinary) 

n „ 

Snd class {ordinary) 

161 300 

lOi „ 


(Mail/Exp.) 

(Ordinary) 

301 and above. 

9 „ 


(Mail Exp.) 

9^ „ 


(Ordinary) 

„ 

Third class 

1—160 (Mail/Exp.) 

65 „ 


(Ordinary) 

55 „ 


150—300 

6 „ 


(Mail/Exp.) 



(Ordinary) 

161—300 

5 „ 


(Mail/Exp.) 

6 „ 


(Ordinary) 

301 and above 

6 „ 


(Mail/Exp.) 

5 „ 


(Ordinary) 

„ 


Free allowance of Luggage per Ticket — ^Air-conditioned — 60 seers p 
Ust class — 40 seers; 2hd class — 30 seers and Srd class — ^25 seers. 


168 ^ 


HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


RAILWAY LOCOMOTIA’H AND OTHER PRODUCTIONS— In- 
ternal production is now able to meet the railway’s normal annual 
requirements of rails, wagons and coaches. The Government- 
owned Chittaranjan Locomotive Works and the Government-assisted 
Tata Locomotive and Engineering Co. Ltd., which have gone into 
production are helping to attain self-sufficiency in locomotives also. 
The Chittaranjan Works which started production in 1950, have 
turned out 424 engines upto Sept. 1956 and over 98 per cent of the 
components are now being produced in the country. The Tata Engi- 
neering and Locomotive Company which produce metre gauge loco- 
motives, had turned out 170 engines upto August 1956. The produc- 
tion target of the company is now being increased from 35 to 
75 locomotives a year. The Integral Coach-building Factory at 
Perambur (Madras), which has gone into production in October 1955, 
is expected to turn out in single-shift working 300 to 350 light-weight 
integral type all-steel coaches annually. The Government-owned 
Hindustan Aircraft Ltd., at Bangalore are producing all-steel third 
class passenger coaches. 

TRAINING CENTRES AND RESEARCH— Training facilities 
for officers in the Engineering and Traffic Departments 
are provided in several railway training and technical 
institutes. The more important ones are located at 
Jamalpur, Gauhati, Chandausi, Bina and Saharanpur. Training 
of higher staff for Indian Railways began on 31st January, 
1952 when the Training College for Indian Railway Officers was 
opened at Baroda. A Railway Testing and Research Centre with 
headquarters at Lucknow and two sub-centres at Chittaranjan and 
Lonavla were set-up during 1952-53. The Centre tackles those pro- 
blems which are peculiar and specific to the railways. 

ELECTRIFICATION OF RAILWAYS— The total electrified 
route milage on the Indian Railways is 240.24 miles as follows ; 
Central Railway (Bombay-Kurla-ICalyan, Poona-Ieatpuri, and Kurla- 
Mankhurd) 184.85 miles ; Southern Railway (Madras-Tambaraih)^ 
18.14 miles ; Western Railway (Bombay-Borivili-Virar) 37.25 miles. 

A start has been made during 1954-55 in respect of three schemes 
of electrification. These are Eastern Railway : Howrah-Burdwan 
main line and Tarakeswar branch line (all services) a length of 88 
route miles at an estimated cost of Rs. 11.84 crores. Electrification 
of Sealdah Division and Howrah-Burdwan Chord, a length of 276.42 
route miles at an estimated cost of Rs. 28.77 crores. Southern Rail- 
way : third line between Madras (Egmore and Tambaram), a 
length of 8.3' miles at an estimated cost of Rs. 3.50 crores and 
Western Railway : up and down through line between Andheri and 
Borivili. The work on the line between Bandra and Andheri— 4.5 
miles— was completed and opened to traffic on April 16, 1963. The 
electrification of the through line of the remaining section between 
Andheri-Borivili — 7.5 miles — ^was held up on account of delay in the 
receipt of materials from abroad). 

RAILWAY WORKSHOPS IN INDIA — ^Each Railway has its 
own worlmhops to meet its repair requirements. Given below 


TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


168 ’ 


are details of the major -workshops on the different Railways and 
the -work on which they are mainly engaged : 

Northern Railway : — Carriage and Wagon Shops, Jagadhri — ^for 
repairs to broad gauge carriage and wagons ; Loco Shops, Charbagh 
(Lucknow) — ^for repairs to broad gauge locomotives ; Carriage- 
and Wagon Shops, Alambagh (Lucknow) — ^for repairs to broad gauge- 
carriages and wagons ; Loco Carriage and Wagon Shops at Jodhpur 
and Bikaner — ^for repairs to metre gauge locomotives, carriages and 
wagons. 

Eastern Railway : — ^Loco Shops, Jamalpur — ^for repairs to- 
broad gauge locomotives. These -workshops have a re-rolling mill 
section and a permanent way foundry is an additional feature. 
Carriage and Wagon Shops, Lillooah — ^for repairs to broad gauge 
carriages and wagons ; Loco Shops, Kanchrapara — for repairs to 
broad gauge carriages and wagons. 

South Eastern Railway : — Loco, Carriage and Wagon Shops, 
Kharagpur — for repairs to broad gauge locomotives, carriages and' 
wagons. 

Southern Railway : — Loco Shops, Perambur — ^for repairs to broad’ 
gauge locomotives ; Carriage and Wagon Shops, Perambur — ^for 
repairs to broad gauge carriages and wagons ; Loco, Carriage and 
Wagon Shops, Golden Rock — for repairs to broad and metre gauge- 
locomotives, carriages and wagons and manufacture of spare parts 
for running sheds and carriage and wagon depots ; Loco, Carriage 
and Wagon Shops, Hubli and Mysore — for repairs to metre gauge 
locomotives, carriages and wagons. 

Central Railway : — Locomotive Shops, Parel — ^for repairs to- 
broad gauge locomotives ; Carriage and 'Wagon Shops, Matun^ — 
for repairs to broad gauge carriages and wagons ; Loco, Carriage 
and Wagon Shops, Lallaguda — for repairs to broad and metre gauge 
locomotives, carriages and wagons ; and Carriage and Wagon Shops, 
Jhansi — ^for repairs to broad gauge carriages and wagons. 

Western Railway : — Loco Shops. Dohad — for repairs to broad 
gauge locomotives ; Carriage and Wagon Shops, Mahalakshmi — ^for 
repairs to broad gauge carriages and wagons ; Loco Shops, Ajmer — 
for repairs to metre gauge carriages and wagons. 

North Eastern Railway ; — hoco, Carriage and Wagon Shops at. 
Gorakhpur, Izatnagar and Dibrugarh for repairs to metre gauge loco- 
motives, carriages and wagons. 

RAILWAY ZONES 

The seven sones of the Indian Railways are now as follows — 

Route 

zone and dates Former Rys, included Head mileage a& 

of forming quarters on March 

31, 1955 

Southern M. & S.M., SJ. & Mysore 

Ap-ril 14, 1951 Railways. Madras 6,115.52 

Central GJ.P., Nizam’s State, Dhol- 

Nov. 6, 1951 pur and Scindia Railways Bombay 5,635.2& 
Western B.B. & CJ., Saurashtra, 



170 HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Nov. 6, 1951 

Cutch, Rajasthan and Jai- 
pur Railways and a short 
section — ^Marwar-Phu lad 



'Northern 

April 14, 1952 

of the Jodhpur Railways. 

Eastern Punjab, Jodhpur, 
Bikaner, the three upper 
divisions of E. I. Ry. and 
a portion of the B.B.C.I. 

Bombay 

5,613.96 

Eastern 

Ely. 

E. 1 . Ry. (minus the three 

Delhi 

6,253.26 

Aug. 1, 1956 

Upper Divisions). 

Calcutta 

2,321 

South-Eastern 
Aug. 1, 1955 
North-Eastern 

B. N. Ry. 

0. T. & Patehgarh Dist. of 

Calcutta 

3,399 

April 14, 1952 

old B.B.C.I. Ry. 

Gorakhpur 4,814.25 


Narrow gauge railways owned and operated by private compa- 
nies were not included in the reorganisation scheme but under the 
Railway Companies (Emergency Provisions) Act,_ 1951, the Central 
Government has assumed power to ensure their being operated 
efficiently and in public interest. 

South-Eastern Railway — ^has the route mileage of 3,399. 
The Railway connects the capital cities of three States, viz., 
West Bengal, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh and serves at area 
•of 185,600 sq. miles in these states as also in Bihar, Andhra and 
Vindhya Pradesh. Connecting the ports of Calcutta and Visakha- 
patnam with their vast hinterlands, it serves the rich paddy fields 
of West Bengal, the extensive timberlands of Orissa and Madhya 
Pradesh, as also the coal and steel industries of Bihar and West 
Bengal. The area covered by the railway is rich in deposits of essen- 
tial raw materials such as iron ore, copper, coal, manganese, lime, 
bauxite and dolomite. Many of the major development projects in 
eastern India lie on this railway, such as (1) Hirakud project at 
Sambalpur, (2) two steel plants at Rourkela and Bhilai, (3) Hindus- 
than Shipyards at Visakhapatnam, (4) oil refinery at Visakhapatnam, 
(6) two steel works at Tatanagar and Bumpur. 

North-Eastern Railway — serves the northern part of West Bengal 
and Assam, northern part of Uttar Pradesh, Northern Bihar. This 
line has been formed with the former Oudh and Tirhut Railway and 
Assam Railway. This line operates in a well-developed agricultural 
region and carries large quantities of sugarcane, tobacco, tea and rice. 

Eastern Railway — has a route mileage of 2,321. The railway 
serves an area of over 80,000 sq. miles and cover the States of 
West Bengal, Bihar and parts of Uttar Pradesh which have a 
heavy population density. This Railway is composed of the 
five Divisions of the old East Indian Railway east of Moghai- 
■sarai, namely Dinapore, Dhanbad (transportation division), 
Asansole, Howrah and Sealdah. This last named Division 
■was attached to E. I. Ry. after the partition of Bengal Assam Rail- 
•way in 1947. Working on the divisional system, the Eastern Railway 
■will have its headquarters at Calcutta. The Eastern Ifeilway con- 
nects the port of Calcutta with its rich vast hinterland. It provides 


TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


171 


transportation facilities, among others, to the rice and jute producing 
areas of West Bengal and Bihar, the coal and steel industries in these 
two States, and the mica and iron ore mine of Bihar. 

It serves important industries like metallurgical ’and steel manm 
facture at Bumpur and Kulti ; chemical fertilizers at Sindri ; and 
locomotives at Chittaranjan. TTie transport demands of the various 
industries like jute, chemicals, engineering, cement, leather and 
textiles, situated in and around Calcutta and at other industrial 
points are also met by the Eastern Railway. 

Western Railway — Serves Bombay, Rajasthan and Madhya 
Pradesh. The line consists of former B. B. C. I. Rail- 
way, Saurastra Railway, Rajasthan Railway and Jaipur 
Railway. This line serves the great industrial areas of Bombay, 
Ahmedabad and Baroda and handles tremendous quantities of cotton. 

Central Railway — Serves Bombay, Madhya Pradesh and north- 
western part of Madras. The line consists of the former G.I.P. 
Railway, Scindhia Railway, Dholpur Railway and Nizam’s State- 
Railway. 

Southern Railway — On April 14, 1951, the three railway systems, 
viz., Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, South Indian Railway 
and Mysore Railway were integrated into a single railway zone — the 
Madras, Mysore, Kerala and parts of southern Bombay and Andhra. 
Southern Railway. It serves the densely-populated fertile areas of 
This railway links the northern and southern portion of India. 

Northern Railway — This Railway came into being in 1952 through 
the synthesis of the three division of East Indian Railway, a portion 
of the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway and the whole of the 
Eastern Punjab, Jodhpur and Bikaner Railways. This line serves 
Punjab, Delhi, northern and eastern Rajasthan and Uttar-Pradesh 
opto Banaras, 


SOME RAILWAY ORGANISATIONS 

Central Standards Office — A separate self-contained organisation 
called Central Standard Office, for the conduct of all works connected 
with the production of standard design and specifications for all 
materials, plant and rolling stock in use on Indian railways was 
formed in 1930. Three separate branches of this office deal respec- 
tively with mechanical engineering standards, civil engineering 
standards and specifications, while a separate research branch, con- 
stituted at a later date undertakes civil and mechanical engineering 
research. 

Indian Railway Conference Association — ^This Association was 
first organised in 1871 mainly for the interchange of rolling stock 
between broad gauge railways. The present non-official organisa- 
tion was inaugurated in 1902 when a formal resolution was passed, 
establishing the permanent Conference, independent of Government 
with the name of the “Indian Railway Conference.” The Associa- 
tion’s main function has been to frame rules for the carriage and in- 
terchange of the passenger and goods stock, as well as to regulate 
the rates and fares and conditions under which the traffic shall be 



172 HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 

carried. The Conference is a sort of clearing house for all railways. 

Standards Advisory Committee of experts lias heen set up 
to introduce standardization in railway working and to remove 
wide divergencies regarding the stores nomenclature, servicing and 
repairs to rolling stock, methods of training staff etc. 

Consultative Committees — In order to afford closer consultation 
between the public and the railway administrations at different 
levels on matters relating to the service provided by the railway, con- 
sultative committees have been established, in place of the advisory 
committees — 

(1) Regional-Users' Consultative Committees at the regional or 
divisional levels ; 

(2) Zonal Railway Users’ Consultative Committee at the head- 
quarters of each railway zone, and 

(3) National Railway Users’ Consultative Committee at the 
Centre. 

The Railway Users’ Consultative Committees in the regions or 
divisions will represent the local users in the territories served by 
the railways including agrricultural Interests. The National Railway 
Users’ Consultative Committee at the Centre will deal with matters of 
all-India importance relating to the services and facilities provided 
by the railways, while the zonal committees would deal with similar 
matters in regard to the respective zones. 

Railway Rates Tribunal — This Tribunal has been established in 
1949 in place of Railway Rates Advisory Committee. This Tribunal 
acts as a judicial tribunal for the settlement of diputes in connec- 
tion with rates. The Tribunal is authorised to entertain complaints 
that railway administrations are exercising discrimination, quoting 
unreasonable rates, attaching unreasonable conditions to the rates or 
are unreasonably refusing to quote a fair station-to-station rate. The 
•Wbunal will deal only with freight rates and have mandatory juris- 
diction. It consists of a President and two members. To assist the 
Tribunal, two panels of assessors are constituted, one representing 
trade, industry and agriculture and the other, the other railways. 

Central Board of Transport — has been formed in 1947 to deal 
with the major problems of transport and policies in the country and 
it formulates broad policies. The two main objectives of the Board 
are (1) maximum co-ordination of all forms of transport and (21 the 
co-ordination of transport planning and its execution with the plans 
for agricultural and industnal development. The Board’s objective is 
to secure the optimum movement of goods according to priority and 
simultaneously relief of the strain on railways by harnessing "other 
forms of transport. The Board consists of the Ministers for Trans- 
port and Communications and Commerce and Industry and other senior 
officers of the Ministries of Finance, Defence, Commerce and Industry, 
Home Affairs, Railways and Transport. 

Service Commissions — ^There are Railway Service Commissions 
in Bombay, Calcutta, Lucknow and Madras. 

_ Efficiency Bureau — has been set up whose function mainly is to 
investigate problems ha%-ing a bearing on the efficiency of the rail- 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


173 


'ways in various facets of working and to suggest ways and means of 
securing improvements in efficiency. 

TOURIST TRAFFIC — The Ministry of Transport in New Delhi 
has a Tourist Division which has four sections. One section deals with 
administration, another with tourist traffic matters, a third with 
tourist literature and other publicity material and fourth with the 
■distribution of it. The country has been divided into four main 
regions (Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western and Central India) 
for organising tourist traffic. The Bombay region comprises States 
■of Bombay, Hyderabad, Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Bharat (Southern 
half of Saurashtra and Kutch) and Bhopal ; Delhi those of Kashmir, 
Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Vindhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Bharat 
(Gwalior and Shivpuri) and Himachal Pradesh ; Under the Madras 
region come the States of Madras, Andhra, Travancore-Cochin, 
Mysore and Coorg. 

The Government of India has also been mindful to the need for 
■expansion of tourism abroad. For this reason they have undertaken 
to establish Tourist Information Offices abroad for drawing foreign 
tourists to India. There is a tourists bureau in New York and 
tourist offices in San Francisco, London, Paris and in West Germany. 

In order to deal with tourist problems with all their ramifica- 
tions, Regional Advisory Committees have been set up to associate 
the local and state governments and various agencies that are in 
the business, such as Travel Agents, Carriers and Hoteliers. There 
is also a Central Tourist Traffic Advisory Committee. 

For the growth and expansion of tourist traffic in India, the 
government is trying to solve many problems connected with it — 
(1) Simplification of travel formalities i.e. standardisation of police 
formes and of customs baggage allowances according to interna- 
tional agreements, (2) Accomodation — The Ministry of Transport is 
keeping a close liaison with the hotel industry, encouraging hoteliers 
to provide better amenities and improve standards. The hotel 
industry is organised into four regional associations integrated into 
All India Hotel Federation, (3) Communications — ^The means of 
Gommunications in India are not up-to-date or adequate. There are 
places which suffer from lack of even elementary facilities in this 
respect, such as Konark in Orissa. Planning Commission has accepted 
. that certain roads leading to tourist centres can have claim on the 
national budget if they cannot be justified on any other ground. 
(4) Transport — ^The transport in India is not also upto the required 
standard. Every effort is being made to improve this_ department 
of tourism so that the tourists can reach the places of interest with 
ease and comport. 

Guide books, pamphlets, posters and folders are .being brought 
out and travel films made for distribution and exhibition abroad. 
Foreign tourists has been increasing at the rate of about 20 per cent 
per annum. About 39,330 tourists came to India in 1954. 

India has joined the International Union of Official Travel Orga- 
nisations which has now set up a Regional Travel Commission for 
Asia and the Far East. 


174 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


RAILWAY AMENITIES — Greater attention is being paid to- 
wards the amenities of third class passengers, for which provisions are 
being made every year. For this purpose, the Financial Convention 
of 1949 earmarked a sum of Rs. 3 crore annually for five years 
beginning with 1951-52, following are the amenities — (1) opening of 
new stations, (2) opening of waiting halls and rooms, (3) new 
model carriages and fittings, (4) opening of new booking offices and 
out-agencies, (5) improved catering arrangements, (6) better sani- 
tation, (7) elimination of overcrowding by the introduction of new 
trains, such as Janata expresses consisting exclusively of class III 
carriages. A new type of Janata corridor train with dining car 
has been introduced from 1955. (8) introduction of 3rd class sleep- 

ing accommodation, (9) Electrification of stations, (10) Raising of 
platforms, (11) Dining cars and retiring room facilities for third 
class passengers on long journeys etc. (13) introduction of new 
trains to eliminate overcrowding. 

RAILWAY AND THE PLAN — ^The target of expenditure on 
railway decelopment under the First Five-Year Plan was Rs. 400 
crores and the railways have exceeded this by Rs. 32 crores ; of 
the total estimated outlay of Rs. 432 crores, net investment amounts 
to Rs. 267 crores, the balance representing current depreciation. 
In the Second Plan a total outlay of Rs. 1125 crores is provided for, 
of which Rs. 900 crores would be net investment ; it provides for 
additional capacity of 15 p.c. for passenger traffic and 35 p.c. for 
freight traffic. Of the total outlay, the railways would contribute 
Rs. 375 crores, comprising Rs. 225 crores by way of provision for 
depreciation and, at the level of passenger and freight rate-, prevail- 
ing in 1955-56, Rs. 100 crores from revenue surplus, leaving a gap 
of Rs. 50 crores to be covered. To meet this shortfall in resources, 
freight rates have been raised. 


INDIAN RAILWAYS, 1955 


Indian Railway systems have been classified as Government and 
Non-Government Railways. After the federal financial integration 
and regrouping of railways under the Government management, the 
other railways represented a small group accounting as on March 31, 
1953 for 756 miles. So for statistical purposes, the Indian Railways 
have been slassified as (1) Government Railways and (2) Non Govern- 
ment Railways, instead of Class I, II & III from the .nancial year 

ins-i CO * • 


Govt, Railways Route 

1. Central 

(a) Central 

(b) Elichpur-Yeotmal 

(c) Pulgaon-Arvi 

2. Eastern 
Eastern 

3. North-Eastern 

(a) North-Eastern 


mileage Oioned by 

5,288 Indian Govt. 
118 Branch Line Co. 
22 

4,733 Indian Govt. 
4,729 


Managed by 

Indian Govt. 
Indian Govt. 

tJ 


*9 


ft 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


175 


Route mileage 

(b) Chaparmukh Silghat 61 

(c) Katakhal Lalabazar 23 


4. Northern 

(a) Northern 

6,995 

(b) Rupar Nagal Dam 
5. Southern 

34 

(a) Southern 

6,837 

(b) Tenali-Repalle 

22 

(c) Cochin Harbour 

Extension 

4 

(d) Alnavar-Dandeli 

(e) West of India 

19 

Portuguese 

61 

(f) Peralam-Karaikhal 

15 

(g) Pondicherry 

8 

(h) Tinnevelly Tiru- 

chendur 

38 

(i) Nanjangud Town 

Chamarajnagar 

22 

6. Western 

6,631 

Total Govt. I Railways 
Non-Govt. Railways 

33,582 

1. Ahmadpur Katwa 

32 

2. Arrah Sasaram Light 

66 

3. Bankura Damodar 

River 

60 

4. Barasat Basirhat Light 62 

6. Bengal Provincial 

33 


G. Dasgbara Jamalpurganj 8 
7. Baktiarpur Bihar Light 33 


8. Burdwan Katwa S3 


Owned by Worked by 
Branch Line Co. „ 

9t 9f 

Indian Govt. „ 

tf tf 


99 99 

District Board, „ 

Guntur 

Cochin Harbour 
Authority 

Govt, of Bom. „ 

99 

West of India 
Portuguese 

Ry. Co. n 

French Govt. » 

Pondicherry 

Ry. Co. w 

Dist. Board, 

Tinnevelly 

District Boards 
Mysore & 

Mandya » 

Indian Govt. • »» 


Branch Line Ahraadpur Zat- 
Co. via Ry. 

Company sub- Arrh Sasaram- 
sidised Light Ry. Co. 

Branch Line Bankura Damo- 
Co. dar River Ry. 

Co, 

Company sub- Barasat Basir- 
sidised hat Lt. Ry. Co.. 

Unassisted Co. Bengal Prov. 

Ry. Co. 

Branch Line Dasghara-Ja- 
Co. malganj Ry. 

District Board, Baktiarpur- 
Patna Bihar Light 

Railway. 

Branch Line Burdwan Katws- 
Co, . . By. Co. 



176 


HINDUSTAN TEAK-BOOK 


9. 

Dehri Rohtas Light 

24 

10. 

Futwah Islampur 

27 

IL 

Howrah Amta Light 

44 

A2. 

Howrah Sheakhala 


Light 

20 


Company sub- Debri Kobtas 
sidised Light Ry. Co. 

Branch Line Futwah Islam- 
Co. pur Lt. Ry. Co. 

Company sub- Howrah Amta 
sidised Light Ry. Co. 

Company sub- Howrah Shea- 
sidised khala Lt. Ry. 

Co. 


13. Jagadhri Light 

14. Kalighat Falta 

15. Shahadara (Delhi) 

Saharanpur Light 


3 Unassisted Co. Jagadhri Light 
Ry. Co. 

26 Branch Line Kalighat Falta 
Co. Ry. Co. 

93 Company sub- Saharanpur 
sidised Light Rly. 


railway reseritb funds 

(Crores of Rupees) 

Appropriations Witft- Net accre- Closing 
drawals tion Balance 


Depreciation Reserve Fund 


1953-54 


33-97 

38-02 

— 1-05 , 

112-79 

1954-55 

• • 

33-72 

45-82 

—12-10 

100-69 

1955-56 (RE) 

, , 

48-63 

48-57 

0-06 

100-75 

1956-57 (BE) 

- • 

48-77 

45-42 

3-35 

104-10 

Revenue Reserve Fund 
1953-54 . . 1-13 


1-13 

37-18 

1954-55 


1-18 



1-18 

38-36 

1955-56 (RE) 


8-50 

—0-02 

8-52 

46-88 

1956-57 (BE) 

•• 

1-54 

— 

1-54 

48-42 

Development Fund 
1953-54 . . 3-29 

9-81 

—6-52 

20-62 

1954-55 


9-70 

12-78 

—3-08 

17-54 

1955-56 (RE) 


2-85 

12-32 

—9-47 

8-07 

1956-57 (BE) 


23-27 

22-17 

1-10 

9-17 

Total 

1953-54 


38-39 

47-83 

—9-44 

170-59 

1954-55 

. . 

44-60 

58-60 

—14-00 

156-59 

1955-56 (RE) 

. • 

59-98 

60-87 

—0-89 

155-70 

1956-57 (BE) 

-- 

73-58 

67-59 

5-99 

161-69 


(Report on Currency & Finance, 1955-56). 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


177 


RAILWAY FINANCES 
(Crores of Rupees) 


I. 

Capital-at-charge 

1954-55 

{Actual) 

901-58 

1955-66 1955-56 

{Budget) {Revised) 
961-07 973-66 

1956-57 

{Budget) 

1,087-09 

II. 

Total Receipts 

286-81 

292-55 

314-18 

345-05 

m. 

Total Expenses 

242-74 

249-34 

268-44 

282-39 

IV. 

Net revenue (II-III) 

44-06 

43-21 

45-74 

62-66 

V. 

Dividend to general 
Revenue 

34-96 

36-07 

36-16 

39-67 

VI. 

Surplus (ly-V) 

9-10 

7-14 

9-68 

22-99 

TII. 

Appropriation to 
(a) Dev. Fund 

9-10 


2-44 

22-99 


(b) Rev. Reserve Fund — 

7-14 

7-14 

— 


{Report on Currency & Finance, 1955-56). 


Mileage of Indian Railways 


1853 

Mileage 

20 

1913-14 

Mileage 
. . 34,656 

1949-50 

Mileage 
. 34,002 

1863 

. . 2,507 

1923-24 

. . 38,039 

1950-51 

, 34,079 

1873 

. . 5,697 

1933-34 

. . 42,953 

1951-52 

. 34,119 

1883 

. . 10,447 

1943-44 

. . 40,612 

1952-53 

. 34,275 

1893 

. . 18,459 

1947-48<' 

. . 33,985 

1953-54 

. 34,406 

1903 

. . 26,956 

1948-49 

. . 33,861 

1954-55 

. 34,705 

F’rance 

Railway 

Mileage of Leading Countries 
. . 25,600 Argentina . . 

. 26,710 

Germany 


. . 36,256 

Mexico 

» • • 

. 14,981 

-Great Britain 

. . 19,151 

China (approx.) 

. 19,000 

U.S.S.R. 


. . 57,487 

Brazil 

. . 

. 21,251 

Italy 


. . 11,383 

India 


. 34,705 

Poland 


. . 13,375 

Burma 


. 1,787 

Japan 


. . 12,556 

Pakistan 


. 7,082 

•Canada 


. . 41,158 

S. Africa 


. 13,413 

U.S.A. 


.. 224,816 

Australia 


. 26,623 

Route mileage of Railways per 1000 
Route miles per 1000 
sq. miles 

India . . . , 27 Canada 

square miles 
Route miles 
sq. 

per 1000 
miles 

.. 12 

U.S.A 


.. 74 

France 


.. 120 

U.K. 

. • 

.. 204 

Japan 

• • 

.. 87 


Route mileage according to population 


Route mileage per 
100,000 population 
India . . . . 9 

TJ.S.A . . . . 138 

■U.K. . . . . 27 


Roiite mileage per 
100,000 population 
Canada . . . . 272 

Prance . . . . 60 

Japan . . . . 14 


* Following the partition of August 15, 1947. 
12 



178 

HINDUSTAN 

YEAR-BOOK 



Passenger Coaches on the Indian Line 


1938-39 

15,553 

1951-52 

13,150 

1948-49 . 

11,991 

1152-53 

13,502 

1949-60 

12,047 

1953-54 

- 13,802 

1950-51 

12,815 

1954-55 

14,667 


Total Passenger Miles in India 



Millions 


1938-39 

17,988 

1951-52 

39,030 

1948-49 

37,129 

1952-53 

36,928 

1949-50 

38,465 

1953-54 

37,076 

1950-51 

41,159 

1954-55 

38,316 


Passenger Earnings 

on Indian Railways 



{Lakhs of Rupees) 


1871 

202 

1931-32 

3,135- 

1801 

379 

1941-42* 

3,969 

1891 

686 

1951-52t 

11,142 

1901 

1,007 

1952-53 

10,183 

1911 

1,849 

1953-54 

10,135 

1921-22 

3,429 

1954-55 

10,074 


Traffic on Indian Railways 



{Passengers— 

-Thousands) 


1871 

19,283 1911 

3,89,863 1951-62t 

12,32,073 

1881 

63,764 1921-22 

5,69,684 1952-53 

12,12,090 

1891 

1,22,855 1931-32 

5,05,836 1953-54 

12,20,400 

1901 

1,94,749 1941-42* 

6,23,072 1954-55 

12,59,150 


RAILWAY FACTS 

The Indian Railways form the largest rail transport undertaking- 
in Asia and the fourth longest railway system in the -world. 

* « * • • • 

Among the railway in Asia, the Indian Railways are the largest, 
the Chinese and the Japanese Railways foUo-wing as the second and 
third in points of the route mileage. 

* 4 ! * ^ * 

There are about 6,000 Railway Stations in India. 

• • • • ■ • • 

Third class passengers contribute 90 p.c.^of the railway receipts.. 

The Indian Railways carrying daily about 3,600,000 passengers- 
(one per cent of India’s population) in 6,000 trains to or from 6,000 
stations. 


* Burma Rly. separated in 1937; 
t Following Partition of 16th August 1947. 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


179 


India has three gauges of railways — ^Broad Gauge (BS'), Metre 
Gauge (3' and 3-i"), Narrow Gauge (2' 6" and 2'). 

» * * * * 

Most Indian railway gauges are five feet six inches wide and 
they are the broadest in the world. 

• « * * 

The famous trains of India are the Deccan Queen of the Central 
Railway which links Bombay with Poona. It is the fastest short 
distance train maintaining for sometime a start to stop speed of 45 
miles per hour. Flying Ranee run by Western Railway between 
Bombay and Surat is a corridor train in India. Delhi Madras 
Grand T7~ank Express runs 1,361 miles and traverses half the sub- 
continent of India. Frontier Mail though shorn of its previous 
grandeur, provides the shortest and the quickest service between 
Bombay and the North. 

» » » • * 

Indian railways carry about 1300 million passengers per annum, 
nearly equivalent to four times of India’s population. 

* 

Indian Railways carry 80 per cent of the goods trafBc and 70 
per cent of the passenger trafBc. 

Railway station with smallest letters is “IB’ railway station in 
South-Eastern Railway between Jharsuguda and Brajarajnagar in 
Orissa. 

* » « • 

With capital of 1,000 crores of rupees invested by the State, the 
Indian Railways are one of the largest enterprises of the world. 

« * * « * 

Biggest Indian Railway tunnel is the Torsi Tunnel which is 
three quarters of a mile long. 

***** 

Fully vestibuled third class Janata train was introduced from 
October 7, 1955 between Delhi and Howrah. Similar trains have 
since been introduced on other main trunk routes, viz., Delhi-Madras, 
Madras-Howrah and Madras-Bombay. 

***** 

Old iron bridge in India is the old iron bridge over river Gumti, 
Lucknow. 

***** 

The longest platform in India (2,415 ft.) is at Sonepur. 
***** 

There are 349 bookstalls on the Indian railways. The Railway- 
wise distribution is : Southern 91 ; Central 66, Northern 61 ; 
Western 41 ; North-Eastern 40 ; Eastern 29 and South Eastern 21. 


* 


« 


* 


* 



180 


HINDirSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Important Railway Dates 

lg 53 — First Indian Railway was opened on 16tli April, 1853 
between Bombay and Kalyan, a distance of 13 miles. 

1905 — Railway Board came into existance in March 1905. 

1925 — First electric train in India ran between Victoria Terminus 
(Bombay) and Kurla. 

1937 — First air-conditioned coach to run in public service in India 
was attached to an Indian train in 1937 between Bombay and Delhi. 

1951 — Formal opening of the Chittaranjan Locomotive Works 
on 26th Jan. 1951. 

19o2 — Railway Staff College at Baroda was opened in Jan._ 1952. 

1953 — Indian Railways Centenary Exhibition was opened in New 
Delhi and Calcutta on 2nd Oct., 1956. 

1956 — First vestibuled Air-conditioned third class express started 
between Delhi and Calcutta on 2nd Oct., 1956. 

1956 — First All-Indian all-steel integral broad gauge passenger 
coach was launched at Perambur (Madras) on 14th August, 1956. 

2. ROADS IN INDIA 

UTILITY OF ROADS IN INDIA — The importance of roads and 
the facilities of transport in a vast country like India can scarcely be 
exaggerated. A system of well-kept and well-constructed roads is 
essential for country’s economic and cultural progress. The roa^ 
have also a vital role to play in the defence of India. The effecti- 
veness of defence depends on the ability of our armed forces -to con- 
centrate at any threatened point within shortest possible time. So 
the effectiveness of our defence to a large extent depends on the effi- 
ciency of our road system. India’s deficiency in the matter of roads 
has contributed very largely to her agricultural, commercial and in- 
dustrial backwardness to-day. The most serious defect is the lack of 
proper and adequate road communication between villages and 
markets. Another aspect of the inadequacy of our road system is 
that it is unbalanced. The trunk roads are, for example relatively 
more highly developed than the district and village roads. Most of 
the rural roads are fair weather roads. With the arrival of the 
monsoon, they are turned into mud and pools of dirty water and are 
rendered unusable. 

India has lagged behind many other countries in the develop- 
ment of roads. The total mileage of roads in India is far short of 
the country’s requirements. India has 239,137 miles of roads f.c., 
there are 19-6 miles of roads for every 100 square miles. The com- 
parable figures for U.S.A., U.K. and Japan are 100, 200, 400 miles 
respectively which give an idea as to how far behind we are in this 
respect. 

SHORT HISTORY OF ROAD PROCESS — The present road sys- 
tem IS a superstructure raised on the old Mughal and other roads. Its 


TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


181 


development began about one hundred years ago under the auspkeg 
of the Government of India. But Government's entire energy being 
directed towards opening of railways, the roads came to be regarded 
as of local importance, a fit subject for devolution. The culmination 
of the lack of interest was reached in the Government of India Act 
of 1919 which transferred the subject to the provinces. The Central 
Government ceased to concern itself with road development except 
roads of military importance and certain arterial roads in Indian 
States, the provinces in their turn placed greater part of road mileage 
in the charge of local bodies taking direct responsibility for the 
maintenance and construction of only a strictly limited mileage. 

But the circumstances changed after the World War I, Motor 
transport began to come in the forefront and it became a common 
feature on the principal roads throughout the country. The result 
was that the road expansion could not keep pace with the increase 
of motor traffic and the existing roads began to deteriorate. A 
resolution was carried in the Council of State in 1927 for the improve- 
ment of road system with the result that a committee of both the 
chambers of the Central Legislature was set up under the chairman- 
ship of Dr. M. R. Jayakar to investigate and report. The Jayakar 
Committee in 1928 reported that onus of road development was pass- 
ing beyond the capacity of provincial governments and local bodies, 
that it was becoming a matter of national importance, and to that 
extent might be a proper charge on central revenues. The Commit- 
tee recommended that the Centre should assist co-ordinated develop- 
ment by making annual block g:rants to provinces from out of a 
Central Road Fund built up by a petrol tax surcharge of two annas 
per gallon. The Committee considered that the balances in the Fund 
should not be allowed to lapse at the end of each year, as road pro- 
gramme was required to be planned and executed over a number of 
years and for this purpose continuance of funds should bo 
assured. The Jayakar Committee also recommended the setting 
up of (i) a separate Road Development Committee in the Central 
Government, (ii) a Transport Advisory Committee consisting of the 
representatives from Central Government and the Provinces, (tit) a 
Central Organisation of Information and Research. A Central Road 
Organisation was set up in 1930 and a Transport Advisory Council in 
1935. On the recommendation of the Jayakar Committee, also a 
Road Conference first met in 1931 to discuss various technical 
matters. 

ROAD ADMINISTRATION — Road Development is shared by the 
Centre and the States, the former being responsible for the National 
Highways and certain selected roads of strategic or other importance 
and the States for their own state roads and for village roads. A central 
Road Fund was created in 1929 from the proceeds of a surcharge on 
petrol tax. Out of this fund, block grants were made to the provin- 
ces for road-building. In 1947, the Central Government assumed the 
responsibility for the construction and maintenance of the “National 
highways”. Under the Indian Constitution, national highways have 
become Central subjects,' while other roads, namely State highways 



182 HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 

and district and village roads, are the responsibility of the State 
Governments. 

CENTRAL ROAD FUND — ^The creation of Central !^ad Fund in 
1929 on the recommendation of Jayakar Committee constitutes a mile- 
stone in the history of road transport in India. This fund was built 
up out of an additional tax of two annas (now 2i annas) a gallon on 
motor spirit. The Road Fund is administered by the Central Govern- 
ment with the advice of a standing committee of the Central Legis- 
lature. Part of the fund — one sixth — ^was to be reserved for central 
administration, research, intelligence and grants for undertakings of 
Special or all*lndia importance. The balance of the fund is for allo- 
cation to the provinces and States according to the consumption of 
petrol in each administrative unit. Block grants to the provinces 
from the fund is intended to augment principal allotments for road 
development. The Central Road Fund continues to provide an im- 
portant source for financing road development and research activities. 
It now provides about Rs. 45 crore annually for the development of 
roads other than national highways. 

Although the fund is still relatively small compared with the 
overall expenditure on road development throughout India, the 
achievements of the Fund are remarkable. No fewer than 382 new 
bridges and causeways have been built over the country since the 
Fund was created and some 1,2B0 miles of modern surfaced roads. 
1,600 miles of fair-weather roads and 2,200 miles of road recondition- 
ing completed upto 1950. A part of the Fund (now one-fifth) has 
been reserved for works of special all-India importance, the 
balance being allocated to the States for approved works, 

NAGPUR PLAN — In December, 1943, a Conference of Chief En- 
gineers was convened by the Government of India at the instance of 
the Indian Road Congress. This conference is an important land- 
mark in the history of Indian roads so far as the road development 
in India is concerned. This conference drew np a ten-year plan of 
road development which is known as Nagpur Plan, The Nagpur 
Plan called for an increase of road mileage from 265,000 to 400,000 
and an improvement of the existing roads. The Plan visualised 
the growth of a network of road communications at a cost of Rs. 372 
crore_ within ten years. The programme however has had to be 
drastically reduced owing to a shortage of money, material and 
trained personnel. 

The Conference classified roads under the following heads — 
National Highways, Provincial or State Highways, Major District 
Roads, Minor District Roads and Village Roads, National Highways 
is to be the frame-work for the country’s road system. The National 
Highways will connect capitals of provinces and States, ports and 
highways and constitute the main arteries of communication in 
tte country. They will include roads of strategic importance. 
The Provincial or State Highways will be the main trunk roads of 
a province or state. Districts Roads will connect areas of production 
and markets with either a highway or a railway. • They will also 
form the main links between headquarters of neighbouring districts. 


\ 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


183 


Minor District Roads and Village Roads -will mostly meet the re- 
quirements of rural population, they connect villages and group ol 
^ages -with one another and with nearest district road or river ghat. 

Nagpur plan recommends the assumption hy the Central Govern- 
ment of complete financial liability covering both fresh development 
and annual maintenance for roads designated as National Highways. 
These are to be administered by an impartial Road Board. With 
effect from 1st April, 1947 complete financial liability for the 
construction and maintenance of every road which is classified as a 
National Highway has been undertaken by the Government of India. 

Proposed National Highway routes generally follow the existing 
trunk roads which are already largely surfaced. The total mileage 
of National Highways is about 13,800. These include Grand Trunk 
Road from Calcutta to Amritsar via Banaras, Kanpur, Agra and 
Delhi ; Agro-Bombay Road ; Bombay-Bangalore-Madras Road ; 
Madras-Calcutta Road ; Calcutta-Nagpur-Bombay Road ; Banaras- 
Nagpur-Hyderabad-Kumool-Bangalore-Cape Comorin Road ; Delhi- 
Ahmedabad-Bombay Road ; road from Ahmedabad to Kandia Port 
with a branch road to Porbandar ; Hindustan-Tibet road from 
Ambala to Tibet border via Simla ; road from Delhi to Lucknow, 
Gorakhpur and Muzaffarpur with a branch road to the Nepal border ; 
Assam Access road ; Assam Trunk Road on the south bank of the 
Brahmaputra and the road branching off from the Assam Trunk road 
towards the Burma border through the State of Manipur. 

INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS— The Central Government took 
steps to promote the creation of a semi-official body known as Indian 
Roads Congress in 1934. The membership of the body is open to qua- 
lified engineers dealing with roads. The Roads Congress is designed 
to provide a forum for the regular pooling of experience and ideas on 
all matters affecting the construction and maintenance of roads, to 
recommend standard specifications, and to provide a platform for, the 
expression of professional opinion on matters relating to road i en- 
gineering, including such questions as those of organisation and 
administration. 

The most important contribution of Indian Roads Congress to 
the 'science of road engineering in India, besides the study of roads 
from various aspects, is the "standard specifications and Code of 
Practice for Road Bridges in India” which has been accorded general 
acceptance throughout India. 

When the highway engineers got busy to complete the projects 
and were ready with their blueprints to start work, a sudden set- 
back came in the shape of the partition of India which dislocated all 
transport and various organisations concerned with the procurement 
of road materials. The financial stringency of the Government of 
India compelled the progress to slow down. As a result, in the 
period of three years from 1947, not even one hundredth part of' the 
Nagpur target of building and improving roads could be completed. 

GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS— At the Centre, the Govern- 
ment have built up the Central Roads Organisation under the Con- 



184 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


suiting Engineer to the Government of India (Eoads). The Eoafe 
Organisation activities are not confined to National Highways, it 
tackles a host of other problems concerning road development in 
general, grants to State Governments, for development of roads other 
than National Highways, road research, road statistics, hulk pro- 
curement of machinery and overseas training of road engineers. 

, RESEARCH AND TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES AND TRAINTNG 
The Central Designs Office of the Road Organisation deals with items, 
such as, type designs for route marking for the _ national high- 
ways and for furlong and boundary stones, principles to he fol- 
lowed in the erection of advertisement boards on road-sides, form of 
recording data on bridges, etc. 

Central Road Research Institute has been started at Okhla in 
Delhi in July 16, 1952 for the research on road engineering_ in its 
various aspects and construction and maintenance of all kinds of 
roads. Technical advice is also given to State Governments on vari- 
ous problems concerning road works. 

Facilities for acquiring advanced practical training in modem 
methods of highway and bridge engineering are now being provided 
tmder various Schemes, such as under Commonwealth Technical Co- 
operation Scheme, Point-Four Aid Programme. The Central Roads 
Organisation also imparts training to en^eers from State Govern- 
ments in modem methods of road and bridge designs. 


Road Mileage in Various Countries in Relation to Area and Population 


India 

U. S. A. (1940) 
U. K. (1939) 
France (1939) 


Mileage of Mileage of Total mileage 

motorable roads unmotorable roads of roads 


181,406 57,575 

. . 1,000,000 2,009,000 

160,120 19,170 


238J)81 

3,009,000 

179,290 

405,028 


Indian Union’s Road Development Plan 



Existing 

Nagpur plan 

Total Road mileage (1943) 

239,081 

385,226 

Motorable road mileage (1943) 

181,406 

289,855 

Total road mileage per million persons 
Motorable road mileage per million 

749-89 

1,208-18 

persons 

.Total road mileage per 1,000 sq. miles 

668-99 

909-14 

of area 

Motorable road mileage per 1,000 sq. 

196-45 

316-53 

miles of area 

149-06 

238-17 

■' ' {From Govt, of India ^pamphlet “Our Roads”) 



transpoet and communications 


18& 


Extra Municipal Roads in India, 1948 
Metalled 

Bitu- Con- Water- 0 

minus crete bound jv 


Un-me- Grand- 


macadam (Surfaced) 


India (excluding 
the former In- 
dian States)^ 
Former Indian 
States 

9,036 

1,675 

652 

111 

54,436 

24,634 

62,124 

25,984 


10,711 

763 

79,070 

88,108 


3. 

ROAD TRANSPORT 


The Constitution empowers the Central * “Ho 

on the principles of motor vehicles te^^tion.-^ut the power to le^ 
taxes on motor vehicles vests in the States. Motor veh^ India 

playing an important part in the road transport of India 

and are slowly replacing bullock-cart. It Hnded 

known before World War I, but soon after that war ^ded^ 
public transport services rapidly sprang “P’ . , for con- 
Vehicles Act of 1939 was a big step towards ci eating for c^^^^ 
dition enabling motor transport to India The 

Direct taxation of motor vehicles is a state subject suffers 

two main disabilities from which the i«st°%transport in Indm suttere 
are heavy taxation and the threat of fstionalisation. inree 
agencies levy taxes on motor transport, viz, the ^s^Hased on any 
and the Local Bodies. Further the taxes are not based ^n^any 
common policy but only on the exigencies of • - jufjes 

taxes are import duties on cars etc., and customs and excise 

on motor spirit. The present duty of Rs. 0-15-9 per anjr 

spirit is the heaviest ad valorem duty ,?vp'^Hid and diamonds, 

commodity including the most luxurious c*’®® l-j^it and a motor- 
The States levy tivo taxes, a sales tax o" “’^fPHocal taxel are 
vehicle tax, both varying from state transport in this 

octroi, transit fees and wheel tax-. The motor transport m_r 

country has been solely developed by ^nd their spare 

estimated that the value of vehicles in circulation and tneir sp 

parts is about Rs. 300 crores. of-tP ic divided into two 

Under Indian Motor Vehicles Act, e^ch State is dmd^ea^^^ 

or more regions with a Regional . A,,4.i,(,j.jt;y there is in 

region. To co-ordinate the work p„„t, state. The Act 

addition a Provincial Transport ' f motor vehicles in 

has also provided for compulsory insurance 

respect of third partie^ Act 1950, statutory 

Under the Road Transport basis by the 

transport corporations are being onHators. The State- 

State Governments, railways and P ort. State operated) 

operated services mainly provide passenger t p 
services exist in 21 out of 28 States in Indi . ^ 



186 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


Motor, VeMcles (Amendment) Act to amend the Act of 1939 tos 
passed in i95G. The Act provides for the implimentation of the motor 
transport reorganisation schemes of the State Governments and 
several other measures connected -with the planned development of 
motor transport in the country. The Act nill facilitate the devdqp- 
ment of motor transport generally in the country to meet the additio- 
nal demand on transport created by the large-scale development of in- 
/dustries. The Act contains the provitions for the nationalisation of 
motor transport service. It also sects to remove the defects of the 
old Act. The set provides for the establishment of Inter-State Trans- 
port Commission which would be appointed by the Central Government 
There is also provision for the payment of compensation to private 
■operators whose transport undertakings are nationalised before the 
•expiry of their permits. 

Nationalisation of Transport — About all the major States of 
India have accepted nationalisation of bus services as a basic policy 
and many have reached a stage where they have nearly taken over 
the entire private bus transport in their area with a view to ensur- 
ing autonomy and efficient administration. But in consultation with 
the Ministry of Transport, the Planning Commission has advised the 
State Governments to defer the nationalisation of goods transport 
■imtil the end of Second Plan and to nationalise the passenger trans- 
port service according to a phased programme. 

Central Board of Transport — -was set up in Nov. 1947 to con- 
aider major transport problems and policies. It tries to achieve 
the maximum co-ordination between all forms of transport and 
to ensure that the development of transport conforms to the 
n^cultural and industrial plans of the country. The Board has Mi- 
nister of Transport as Chairman. 

ROPEWAYS — ^Ropeways are used in India in areas of Klly and 
broken country where valleys and streams abound and gradients are 
steep and where other forms of communication are primitive or non- 
■existent. These conditions obtain in the foothills of the Himalayas 
and in some parts of South India. In India the use of ropeways is 
confined to "the movement of materials and merchandise. The 
following are_ the Ropeways operating in India at present — (1) 
Darjeeling-Bifatibari mono-cahle ropeway which is five miles long 
with one span of 6,000 ft. (2) Zlono-cabJe ropeway at Kalimpong 
which climbs 3,400 ft. in its lengft. Both these ropeways are re- 
garded as extensions to railway system. (3) Cherra Chatak Rope- 
■ways at Cherrapunji in Assam. (4) Armamalai Ropeway in South 
India serves tea and coffee on the 5,000 feet high plateau. 

Apart from these several purposes, public or semi-public appli- 
■cations, ropeways transport is extensively used in the tea planting 
districts. It is also found in coal-mining areas, mainly in Bihar and 
Hrngal where it provides a particularly economical method of 
•transporting waste to spoil' dumps. It is used in the manufacture 
■of cement and the working of quarries, mines, sand, gravel and day 
pits. Ropeways are used elsewhere in civil engineering for large 
'Constructions, such as masonry dams and bridges. There are 
•approximately 100 ropeways operating in India today. 



TKANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


187 


Total Nnmber of Motor Vehicles, 1953 


Motor cycles 
Private cars 
Taxi cabs_ 
Buses (Diesel) 
Buses (Others) 


29,124 
156,154 
13,261 
3,524 
, 35,925 


Goods Vehicles (Diesel) 1,561 
Do (Others, .. 88,514 

Other Vehicles (Diesel) 402 
(Others) 4,754 


Grand Total 


333,219 


i. 


Progress under Five-Year Plan during 1st two years 
mtional Highways ejection ^19^1-5^ 

(a) New Hoads , . 

(b) Improvement of existing 


640 


roads 
(c) Bridges 
. Selected Roads 


750 

17 

140 


1,500 

20 * 

233 


3,000 

40 

not fixed 


•during third year 


3. INLAND WATER TRANSPORT 

From ancient times, the trade and ^ 

has been facilitated by the on alone the 

History records evidence of a imnortance 

rivers and canals of India from the -f \hp rail- 

of waterways gradually diminished with the withdrawn 

ways with the result that steamer service was gradually witnarawn 

and country boat traffic also decreased. ic Tnninlv con- 

At present inland water transport in India is maiffiy c^on 

fined to the States of Assam, West Bengal, I affordin'' 

Madras, Andhra and Kerala. The total drafts of 

perennial navigation to steamers and county g qoq 

2 ft. to 6 ft. is estimated to be about 5,7^50 miles. Of tos total W 

miles represent navigable rivers and the pst 1200 miles 

waters of the Malabar coast. The ™ 

of the Ganga river system, 920 miles of riveS in 

system, 150 miles of the Hooghly nver, and Baitarani 

West Bengal, 190 miles of the htahanadi, , co rniles of the 

rivers of Orissa, 288 miles of the Godavan nver and 52 mUes^^^n_ 
Krishna river. Of this total about 1,600 miles of t country 

putra river systems are navigable by steamers ot rainy season, 

boats only. Except for about ^o months du g putna 

when the Bhagirathi is navigable, steamers fr which means 

ply through the Sunderbans and^ast „ between Calcutta 

a detour of about 450 miles. ^ The steamer ser^w b^een ^ 

and Dibrugarh also passes thr^gh ^^JSJfta tjadoraters comprise 
The 2,750 miles of fp/”f thi Sone Canal, 287,' 

107 miles of the Ganga canals, 204 "y^Orissa canals, 9S 

miles of West Bengal canals, 170 miles ot unssa 



188 


HINDUSTAN THAE-BOOK 


miles of the Godavari Delta canals, 420 miles of the Erishna Belts, 
canals, 73 miles of the Knmool-Cnddapah Canal, 258 miles of the 
Buckingham Canal, 33 miles of the Vedaranniyam Canal and ahont 
700 miles of vrest coast canals and backwaters. The West Coast 
canals consist of estensive streches of backwaters with ariindal 
canals joining them. 

Steamer trafdc on the Ganga and Brahmapntra is of the order of 
625 million ton-miles a year. Conntry-boat traSc on these rivers is 
probably twice as much. 

The new multipurpose river valley projects include schemes for 
navigation channels. D.V.C. for instance, envisages a channel 
from Calcutta to Eaniganj coal fields which is under construction; 
Karkrapar Project in Bombay will provide navigable channels from 
the sea to Kakrapar Dam and 50 miles further inland ; and the Hira- 
kud Project will make the Mahanadi navigable for the last 300 mfies 
down the sea. 

As things stand, the railways and road services are unable to- 
cope with the transport requirements of the country. These tran^ 
port requirements will assume large proportion, with the rapid 
industrial development in the second and secceeding Plans. A 
beginning has already been made with the constitution of the- 
Ganga Brahmaputra TTofcr Transport- Board in 1952 by the Govern- 
ment of India. This Board has been charged rrith the responsibility 
of impro-ring the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems for navigatioa 
and to e3:tend it as far as possible. This Board has programmed to- 
run pDot projects on the Ganga and Brahmaputra to try to improve- 
types of boats and the latest methods of towing. 

The Board is under the control of the Cent^ Iilinistry of Trans- 
port. The functions of the Board are the development of water 
transport, the improvement of navigable facilities, the handfing 
of admiidstrative problems such as those arising out of registration 
and licensing, the fixing of passenger and freight rates and the ad- 
ministration of a pilot project for to-wing counriy craft -with shallow 
draught tugs. Plans are now afoot for starting'a pilot project -with 
ui>-to-date craft for to-wing barges on the shallow stretches of upper 
Ganga between Patna and Allahabad. 

Slaster Plan for the Development of Inland Water Transport — 
The Central Water and Power Commission of the Government _ of 
India is understood to have dia-wn up a master plan for developing 
inland waterways in the conntry in order to pro-ride adeqna^ 
and cheap transport in a developing economy. The plan en-ri- 
sages the Uniting of Calcutta Port on the east with Cochin on the- 
west via Cuttack and Madras by a network of canals connecting 
some of the minor rivers of Orissa, Andhra and Madras, a continnons 
-waterway from Western India to northern and north-east India via- 
Central India and a continnons -waterway from the west coast to- 
the east coast through the hinterlands of Bombay, Madhya Pradesh 
and Andhra Pradesh. 

Administration of Inland Waterways — In our Constitution, 
*national -waterways’ have been included in the Union List, while in- 
land na-rigation with respect -to mechamcally-propelled vessris ap- 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


189 


years in the Concurrent List. The Central Water and Power 
'Commission is the departmental body specifically responsible 
:for surveys, planning and development of water transport. In- 
land Steam Vessels Act of 1947 as amended in 1951 provides com- 
pulsory registration of all inland steam vessels. State Governments 
have been asked to consider the feasibility of registration of dumb 
■craft including country boats. 

Government has set-up a Ganga Brahmaputra Water Transport 
Board which will co-ordinate and stimulate the navigational activities 
•of the States of U.P., Bihar, West Bengal and Assam situated on 
this river system. 

IMPORTANT WATERWAY PROJECTS 

(i) Revival of navigation of the Ganga river upto Allahabad 
-and the Ghagra river upto Bahramghat and development of naviga- 
tion in the Yamuna River in Uttar Pradesh. 

(ii) Development of navigation on the Gandak river and 
•development of Son river after the construction of the Riband Dam 

(Bihar). 

(iii) The construction of a navigation canal from Durgapur to 
Hooghly under Damodar Valley Project, to connect the coal fields 
•of West Bengal and Bihar with the Port of Calcutta and resuscita- 
tion of the Bhagirathi route affording direct and shorter connection 
with Calcutta Port by the construction of barrage on the Ganga 
■which is still under consideration of Government of India. 

(iv) The Mahanadi Valley Project provides for navigation on 
the Mahanadi river in Orissa upto 200 miles from the Sea and con- 
necting the hinterland with Paradip, 10 miles up the Mahanadi from 
its infall into the sea where it is proposed to construct a port and 
model studies in this connection are now in progress in Hydraulic 
Research Station, Poona. 

(v) The various tributaries of the Brahmaputra offer great 
:scope for development of navigation in Assam. 

(vi) Possibilities of navigation on the Narmada river in Madhya 
Pradesh have to be examined when dealing with the Narmada Valley 
'Project. 

(vii) The proposed works on the Godavari, the Krishna,^ the 
iPranhita and the Wain Ganga will also provide navigation facilities. 

4. CIVIL AVIATION IN INDIA 

HISTORY OF CIVIL AVIATION— Human flight began in India 
'by balloon, when Mr. Joseph Lynn took off fro™ i-nn ’ r t 
•Gardens Bombay in 1877 and rose to a height of 7,500 feet. 
Ey 1911, however, army officers were making demonstration fights in 
-■a “power driven” aeroplane ; and in the same year the world s first 
‘“air mail” was flown from Allahabad to Naini Junction — a distance 
•of six miles, by a French pilot M. Picqet. Lord Lloyd, then Goi^rnor 
•of Bombay, organised the first regular airmail service in 1920, but it 
wvas not until 1926 that the pace of development accelerated. 



190 


HINDUSTAN TEAB-BOOH 


The Tilans of Imperial Ainvaj^ for a service between Englana 
and India during that year Indian civil aviation a powenri 

stimolns. A Department of Civil Aviation was established to regs- 
late international and internal services in 1927 ; aerodromes w^ 
constructed, and flying clubs started encouraging public interest la 
t>iig new form of transnort. "With the first scheduled flights betweea 
Dondon and Karachi, in 1929 India joined other countries on the new 
air maps of the world. 

In the following fifteen years, from 1930 to the end of norli 
War n in 1945, Infian Civil aviation expanded, until the fmtheri 
comers of the sub-continent were linked by air. Foremost in this 
growth were Tata Airlines Ltd. and Indian National Airways, follow- 
ed by many other private companies almost all of which benefited ia 
experience,* equipment and finance by their military service during 
the war years. The war also brought about tremendous advances 
in other aspects of air transport : hundreds of new aerodromes were 
built. Sight aud communications techniques were improved, and the 
advantages of flying as a safe, efficient and comfortable form of 
transport were firmly established. _ 

pSum 1945, passenger and freight trame steadily increased over 
the air routes of the eleven companies then licensed to operate. 
But costs also rose steeply, and while several lines eventually dosed 
down, the Government found it necessary to provide very conside- 
rable indirect subsidies to the remainder, A committee of enquiry 
was appointed in 1950 presided over by the late Idr. ^jadhyaksha to 
examine the working of the air lines and make recommendatiDn 
regarding putting the Indian civil aviation on a stable basis. The 
Committee recommended (1) number of operating units in the 
country was much greater than that required for the volume of busi- 
ness, (2) cost of most of the companies were excessive. (3) subject to 
reorganisation and reduction of costs, operation of air lines by urivate 
enterprise^ might be allowed to continue. 

The financial position of the companies, however continued to 
deteriorate. The companies were not in a position to raise 
funds in open market and suggested most of the finance should come 
from the Government in the form of loans on a nominal rate 
of interest without any early prospects of repayment. Taking all 
these into consideration, the Government came to 'the conclusion that 
all the units of operation should be owned by the State. The 
result was the passing of the Air Corporation Act, 1953 wMch came 
into force on the 2Sth May, 1953. It provided for the setting up of 
two Corporations one for the operation of long distance and another 
for domestic services and services to neighbouring countries. The 
two Coiporations took over the existing cmpanies as going con- 
cerns with their assets and liabilities in accordance with the provi- 
sions of the Act. 

The main Provisions of the Air Corporation Act — (l)An Air 
Transport Council to be established to tender advice on matters of 
public importance. (2) An Advisory Cnmrr.ittcc for each corporation 
to be established for the purpose of maintaining liaision with the pub- 
lic. (3) There will be Labour Relations Committee for each corpora- 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


191 


tion consisting of representatives of the corporation and of employees. 
This committee will give advise to the Corporation relating to labour. 
(4) Finally each Corporation was to act so far as may be on bnsi- 

"'^'^Thl^SJ^co-operations, viz., Indian “^^^unT wif 

India International came into formal existence on the 15th June, 195d. 

On the 1st August, 1953 Air-India International took over tne 

business of the Air-India International Ltd., while 

lines Corporation took over as a going concero, the 

and business of eight units, namely, I 

Aviation Ltd., Kalinga Airlines, Bharat Airways 

Air Services of India Ltd., Deccan Airways Ltd., and Indian National 

^^The Corporation had appointed Resident 

tioned at the appropriate Line offices. The ^ re^on one 

had also been divided into two Regions, and in each s^h region o e 
Representative had senior charge of all other Lines, | ^ tjgjj 

now been replaced by a fully integrated De” 

in its entirety is controlled by a strong centre— each Head of a 
partment being in charge of the relevant section at the ^ones. 

The Indian Airlines Corporation consists of » ^ 

members appointed by the Government. The ^ IjusJ, 

tutory body thoroughly independent to manage its day-to-day busi 
ness. The Government, however, has the nrogram- 

to it from time to time. It_ further receive them annual program 
mes of operations and financial estimates, 

poration are audited by the Compteoller » Parliament 

are then placed by Government before bo^ Houses of 

together with appropriate audit reports, ^^en hv^the 

is required by the Corporations, .it has to be P^ovnied 

Central Government or by authorised borrowing, imder issue of b , 

debentures, debenture stock or other security. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

PROGRESS OF CIVIL AVIATION— Progress of ciidl avi^on 
in India can be summed up as follows Air Seizes - 

introduced on various routes interlinking .eveiy wg and tow of 
note and connecting India with many foreign coun ri s. g 
mail services connecting the principal cities of India p-tahlish 

introduced. Steady progress has been maintained in the establish 
ment of Indian air services to dista^ lands. Our air h^s .^P ^ 
to Aden, Bangkok, Cairo, Djakarta, Dusseldorf, 

dahar, London, Nairobi, Paris, Rome, S'agapor^Hongkon^Tokio and 

Australia as well as to our neighbourmg countaes 

Nepal and Pakistan. Air traffic control ser^ces, navigataonal aids 

and to ground and point to point communication haw been provided 

at various aerodromes. A network of radio beacons, radio 

radio direct-finding stations are now available to all ’^^10 

tant aerodromes, the instrument landing ^ystein is also avafiable ta 

help aircraft in safe approach and landing pnng had weather 

Aeronautical radio facilities have been brought ® jP nero- 

the number of such facilities lytodate is BSO. 

dromes are controlled and operated by the Civil Aviati p 



192 


HINDUSTAN yEAE-BOOK 


x)i the Governmeiit of India. A Civil Aviation Training Centre has 
been established at Allahabad where pilots, aircraft maintenance 
engineers, aerodrome officers, control operators, radio officers and 
•technicians are trained. 

ORGANISATION OF CIVIL AVIATION — ^The civil aviation in 
India is placed in the charge of a Director-General assisted by Deputy 
Directors General and the functions of the Department are distributed 
«mong several directorates, each responsible for several branches 
•of ci-^ aviation activity. The Civil Aviation Department is at 
present attached to the Ministry of Communications which controls 
-the Posts and Telegraphs Department which utilise air transport 
Tor the carriage of mails. Indian Air Force is in the Ministry of 
Defence but Civil Aviation is not entirely independent of military 
aviation. In order to co-ordinate policy with respect to civil and 
milita^ aviation and to maintain the necessary liaison, a Standing 
■Committee has been constituted comprising officers of the Ministries 
•of Defence and Communication who meet as necessary for the sup- 
plement of important questions of policy. 

The Director General of Civil Aviation is the administrative 
^authority for controlling all civil aviation acti'vities in India. 

AVIATION TRAINING AND FLYING CLUBS— To meet the 
meeds of the country for trained technical personnel the Government 
-of India is running the Civil Aviation Training Centre at Allahabad 
•which provides courses in flying, aircraft maintenance engi- 
meering, air traffic control, aeronautical telecommunications and sir 
-navigation. This Training Centre at Allahabad comprises the follow- 
ing four wings — (1) Plying Schools (2) Aerodrome officers’ Training 
School (3) Engineering School (4) Communication School. In addi- 
tion a Repair and Overhaul Organisation is also attached to the 
Centre for carrying out repairs and overhaul of the Central aircraft. 
Twelve subsidized flying clubs, with headquarters at Delhi, Bangalore, 
Bhubaneshwar, Bombay, Jullundur, Luchnow, Madras, Nagrpur, Patna, 
Barrackpore, Jaipur and Indore have been subsidized by the Govern- 
ment of India. These Clubs trains ‘A’ and ‘B’ licence pilots. Two 
gliding clubs, the Indian Gliding Association, Poona and 
the Delhi Gliding Club, New Delhi, are also subsidized by the Govern- 
ment. 

_ AERODROMES IN INDIA — ^The total number of aerodromes 
maintained by the Civil Aviation Department at the end of 1955 was 
81 — of these three are international air ports — Bombay (Santa Cruz), 
•Calcutta (Dnm Diim) and Delhi (Palam). The following aerodromes 
have been declared customs aerodromes — Agartala, Ahmedabad, 
Patna, Bombay (Santa Cruz), Calcutta (Dum Dum), Delhi (Palam), 
Delhi (Safdarganj), Madras (St. Thomas Mount), Tirucbirapalli, 
•Jodhpur, Bhuj and Amritsar, 

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL— As a member of the International 
• Civil Aviation Organisation, India has to meet the standards laid down 
by that organisation in respect of aerodrome equipment and air 
-teffic control facilities. So _ Air Traffic Control Organisation has 
I been established for the maintenance of air traffic control services 


TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


193 


for international aircraft landing and passing through the country as 
well as internal air services. The Air TrafiBc Control Organisation 
is responsible for the safety and control of aircraft in the air and 
on the ^ound. For this purpose the country has been divided into 
four regions with area control centres at Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay and 
Madras. 

THE FLEET — ^Indian Airlines and Air Indian International have 
a large fleet of aircraft consisting Dakotas (twin engined), Skymas- 
ters (four-engined). Vikings (twin engined), Super-Constellations, 
two Comets, four-engined Viscounts and Herons etc. The number 
of aircraft holding currents certificates of registration at the end of 
Dec. 1955 was 547, of which 210 held current certificates of air- 
worthiness. During 1955, 18 new aircraft were registered. 

NIGHT MAIL— Mention must be made of Indian Airlines’ opera- 
tion of the unique Night Airmail system. Every night four lAC 
aircraft fly between Bombay and Nagpur, Madras and Nagpur, Cal- 
cutta and Nagpur, and Delhi and Nagpur. Letters, packets and par- 
cels are re-distributed at Nagpur, then flown back to the four main 
cities. For no extra charge, the Indian people thus have the fastest 
possible long distance postal service to all points in the country. And 
to make full use of these aircraft, passengers can “fly with the 
mails”, as it were, at specially reduced rates. 

INTERNAL AIRLINE ROUTES — Frequent air services are 
available — (1) Along the two coasts : From Colombo through Madras- 
Visakhapatnam-Bhubaneswar to Calcutta in the east ; and from 
Trivandrum through Cochin-Mangalore-Bombay to Jamnagar, Bhuj 
etc., on the west. (2) Through the interior : Linking Madras and 
Bombay with Bangalore, Hyderabad and Poona ; Bombay and Cal- 
cutta with Banaras, Lucknow and Nag^pur. (3) In the far north 
from Delhi to Srinagar. (4) In the east between Calcutta and 
Imphal and other points in Assam. 

Other Indian Airlines routes bring country’s nearest neighbours 
within a few hours’ flight, as between Delhi and Karachi via Jaipur 
and Jodhpur, Delhi and Lahore, Calcutta and Dacca-Chittagong ; 
Patna and Katmandu in Nepal. Yet another “neighbour” service 
links Kandahar and Kabul in Afganistan with Eiarachi and Delhi or 
Bombay. 

EXTERNAL AIRLINE ROUTES — ^In the field of international 
air transport Air India International has made vast progress. There 
are four weekly services between India and the United Kingdom, twice- 
weekly services between Bombay and Nairobi and a service between 
Bombay and Singapore via Madras. Regular external services are 
being maintained to Cairo, Rome, Paris, Geneva, London, Aden, 
Nairobi, Bangkok, Singapore, Ceylon, Burma, Nepal, Pakistan, 
Afganistan and Australia. 

Progress of Civil Aviation 
{For Schedxilcd Services) 

miles flown passengers freight mails 

(in 000) (in 000) (in 000) (in 000) 

1947 9,362 265 , 5,648 1,405 

1948 ' ' 12,049 341 11,948 1,583 

13 



194 HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


1949 

15,098 

357 

22,500 

5,032 

1950 

• 18,896 

453 

80,007 

8,356 

1951 

19,498 

449 

87,665 

7,182 

1952 

19,562 

434 

86,038 

8,377 

1953 

19,202 

404 

84,820 

8,846 

1954 

19,798 

‘•i' 432 

86,400 

10,674 

1955 

20,740 

452 

92,209 

11,112 


BOARD OF DIRECTORS, INDIAN AIRLINES CORPORATION 


Saiikar Prasad, I.C.S., Chairman, 

J. R. D. Tata. 

M. L. Khaitan. 

Michael John. 

M. J. Maneckji. 


Air Marshal, S. Mukherji. 
B. N. Jha, I.C.S. 

L. C. Jain I.C.S. 

M. V. RangacharL 

y. N. Vanna — Secretary. 


BOARD OF MEMBERS, AIR INDIA INTERNATIONAL 


J. R. D. Tata, Chairman, 
Sankar Prasad. 

K. C. Mahindra. 

Michael John. 

B. N. Jha. 


M. V. RangacharL 

L. C. Jain. 

Air Marshal, S. Mukherji. 
B. K. Patel, Gen, Manager. 


Air India International 

2nd half year of 1955 . . 29,149 passengers 

1st half year of 1955 , . 21,975 Do 

Indian Airlines Corporation 

2nd half year of 1955 . . 193,635 passengers 

1st half of 1955 . . 231,353 passengers 

INDIAN AIRLINES CORPORATION 
<A) Madras. 

(1) Madras— Trivandrum — Madras, (2) Madras — Hyderabad 
—Nagpur — ^Delhi, (3) Madras — Nagpur — Delhi {Night 
airmail service). 

<(B) Bombay 

(1) Bombay — ^Poona — ^Hyderabad — ^Bangalore, (2) Bombay — 
Nagpur — Calcutta {Night airmail service), (3) Bombay — 
Karachi — Bombay, (4) Bombay — Ahmedabad — Bhuj — 

Karachi, (5) Bombay — ^Bhavnagar — Rajkot — Jamnagar — 
Bhuj, (6) Bombay — Keshod — Porbandar— Jamnagar, (7) 
Bombay — ^Belgaum — ^Mangalore — Cochin. (8) Bombay — 
Calcutta — ^Bombay, (9) Bombay — Colombo — Bombay, (10) 
Bombay — ^Delhi — Bombay. 

<C) Calcutta. 

(1) Calcutta — Gauhati — Tezpur — Jorhat — ^Mohanbari, (2) Cal- 
cutta — Gauhati — Jorhat — Lilabari — Jorhat — ^Mohanbari 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


195 


Passighat, (3) Calcutta — ^Agartala — Gauhati — Silchar, (4) 
Calcutta — Agartala — Khowai — ^Kamalpur — Kailashahar— 
Silchar — ^Imphal, (5) Calcutta — Bangalore — Calcutta, (6) 
Calcutta — Dacca — Calcutta, (7) Calcutta — Chittagang — 
Calcutta, (8) Calcutta — Rangoon — Calcutta, (9) Calcutta 
— Gauhati — Calcutta, (10) Calcutta — Agartala — Calcutta, 
(11) Calcutta — Bagdo^a — Calcutta, (12) Calcutta — Gau- 
hati — Mohanhari. 

(D) Agartala — Gauhati — ^Agartala. 

(E) Kathmandu — ^Patna; Kathmandu — Simra — ^Kathmandu; Ka- 

thmandu — Biratnagar — ^Kanthmandu; Kathmandu — Pohh- 
ra — ^Bhairawa — ^Pokhra — Kathmandu. 

(P) Delhi. 

(1) Delhi — Calcutta — ^Delhi, (2) Delhi — ^Lucknow — Gorakhpur 
— Banaras — ^Patna — Calcutta, (3) Delhi — Srinagar — Delhi, 
(4) Delhi — Lahore — Delhi, (5) Delhi — ^Karachi — Delhi, 
(6) Delhi — Amritsar — ^Kabul, (7) Delhi — Agra — Gwalior 
— Bhopal — ^Indore — Aurangabad — Bombay, (8) Delhi — 

Bikaner — Jodhpur — Ahmedabad — Rajkot, (9) Delhi — ^La-' 
hore — Delhi, (10) Delhi — ^Agra — Gwalior — Bhopal — Indore 
— ^Aurangabad — Bombay, (11) Delhi — ^Bikaner — Jodhpur 
— Ahmedabad — ^Rajkot. 

(G) Srinagar — ^Pathankot — Srinagar. 

Non-Scheduled Airline Operators 

Air Assam, Calcutta. El A1 Israel Airlines Ltd. Bombay. 

Air Survey Co. of India, Calcutta. Indamar Co., Bombay, Calcutta. 

Associated Airworks, Dum Dum. Jamair, Calcutta. 

Darbhanga Aviation, Calcutta. Kalinga Airlines, Calcutta. 


Flying Clubs 


Aero Club of India, New Delhi. 

“Bengal Flying Club Ltd., Bar- 
rackpore. 

“Bihar Flying Club Ltd., Patna. 

^Bombay Fljnng Club, Juhu. 
Bombay. 

“Delhi Flying Club, Civil Aero- 
drome, New Delhi. 

“Hind Provincial Flying Club, 
Kanpur, 

Hind Provincial Flying Club, 
Allahabad. 


Hind Provincial Fl^^ng Club, 
Lucknow. 

Hyderabad State Aero Club, Hy- 
derabad (Dn.). 

M. P. Flying Club, Indore. 

Madras Flying Club, Madras. 

Northern India Flying Club, Jul- 
lundur Cantt. 

Orissa Flying Club Ltd., Bhuba- 
neswar. , 

Rajasthan Flying Club, Jaipur. 


Gliding Clubs 

Delhi Gliding Club, Safdarganj, Government Gliding Centre, 
New Delhi. Poona. 



196 


HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


foreign services 

1 . Air Ceylon Ltd,, Madras. 7. Pan American "World Air- 

2. Air France, Calcutta. ways, Bombay, Calcutta, New 

3. B. O. A. C., Bombay, Cal- Delhi. 

cutta. New Delhi. 8. Qantas Empire Airways Ltd.^ 

4. Cathay Pacific Airways, Cal- Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, 

cutta. New Delhi. 

5. K-L.M. /Royal Dutch Air- 9. Scandinavian Airlines Sys- 

lines, Bombay, Calcutta, Mad- tem, Bombay,^ Calcutta, Mad- 
ras, New Delhi. ras. New pelhi. 

6. Pakistan International Air- 10. Thai Airways, Calcutta. 

lines Corporation, Bombay, 11. Union Aeromaritime De 

Calcutta, New Delhi, Transport, Calcutta. 

12. Union of Burma Airways, 
Calcutta. 

SOME IMPORTANT DATES 

1911 — ^First Official Air Mail on 18th February, 1911 flown from U.P- 
Esihibition grounds, AUahabad to Naini Junction by M- 
Picquet, a French aviator. 

1911 — First passenger in an aeroplane in India was Sir Sefton- 
Branker. 

1912 — Jules Tyck and Baron de Carters gave India her first public- 
flying demonstration at Calcutta (Christmas Eve). 

1918 — First flight from Egypt to India hy Capt. Ross Smith- 

1919 — First Eng.-Inffia flight by Sqdm.-Leader McLaren & Lt. Haley- 

1920 — First Air-mail service was organised by Govt, of India &■ 
operated by R.A,F. between EArachi and Bombay. 

1927 — Imperial Airways sent first air liner to India, January, 8. 

1927 — Civil Aviation Department formed in India. 

1928 — First Flying Club in India. 

1929 — ^First regular air-mail introduced between England and India 
on March 30, 1929. 

1930 — ^First India-trained pilot -with ‘B’ License was Bhagat Lai. 

1932 — First Indian air-line came into cxistance on Oct. 15, 1932 when- 

Tata Air-lines began to operate between Karachi-Bombay- 
Madras. 

1949 — First class internal mafis by air -without a surcharge was in- 
troduced on April, 1949. 

1953 — -Indian Airlines nationalised on 1st August. 


5. .INDIAN POSTS .AND TELEGRAPHS 

EARLY HISTORY — ^The first British postal svstem was intro- 
duced in 176G hy Lord Clive but this was used mainly for official pur- 
poses, During the administration of Warren Hastings, the posts were 
made available to tbe public for the first time and a regular organisa- 
tion was set up in 1774 by Lord Dalhousie who created an Imperial 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


197 


System of post offices. He reduced the rates for carriages of letters 
and introduced postage stamps. Act 17 of 1837 is the earliest enact- 
ment establishing a public service in India. The Act 17 of 1854 is a 
landmark in the history of postal system in India, for the entire de- 
partment was placed under Director General and uniform rates were 
fixed for all India. The first issue of postal stamps was made in 
India in Sind in 1825. They were of three kinds — (a) design 
embossed on white paper without colour (6) blue-embossed on white 
paper (c) design embossed on Vermillion wafers. The basis of 
authority of the existing postal system in India was Act 6 of 1898. 

The honour of laying the first experimental telegraph line from 
Calcutta to Diamond Harbour in 1839 goes to Dr, William B. 
O’ Shanghnessy, professor of chemist^, Calcutta Medical College. 
It was then the longest telegraph line in the world — ^21 miles with a 
7,000 feet river crossing. 

But it was not 12 years later in October 1851, to he precise, that 
the first official telegraph line was opened for traffic between Cal- 
cutta and Diamond Harbour. 'The construction of long distance 
overhead telegraph line began in Nov. 1853 between Calcutta and 
Agra. The first telegraph message was sent over the circuit on 
March 24, 1864. Later on, this line was extended to Bombay on one 
side and to Peshawar on the other. Telegraph circuits were gradu- 
ally extended to all parts of India till they reached 14,900 miles of 
wire in March 1867. To-day the total mileage of overhead wires is 
over 8,00,000. 

THE POSTAL SYSTEM— The Posts & Telegraphs Department 
is under the Ministry of Communications, whose control is vested with 
the Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs who is assisted by a 
Posts and Telegraphs Board under the chairmanship of the Director- 
General. The other members of the Board are the Chief Engineer, 
the senior Deputy Director-General and the Joint Secretary, Ministry 
of Finance (Communications Division). The Chief Engineer is the 
technical-adviser to the Director-General on telecommunication 
matters, while the Senior Deputy Director-General undertakes a 
similar function in regard to postal and R. M. S. matters. The De- 
partment is responsible for postal, telegraph, telephone and wireless 
communications. In addition, it undertakes the management of 
P.O. Savings Bank, National Savings Certificates, Postal Life Insu- 
rance and collection of Broadcast Receiver Licence fees. 

The Posts and Telegraphs organisation functions as a commer- 
cial-cum-utility department, but unlike Railways, its finances have not 
been separated from the general revenues of the Central Government. 
The worlring expenses as well as the interest on the capital invested 
in the service are deducted from the gross receipts. Out of the 
surplus, an outright contribution is made to the general revenues 
and the rest is maintained to the credit of the Department. The 
Department, however, reserves a rebate on such accumulated 
surpluses. 

Territorial Units — ^The country has been divided into 13 terri-. 
torial units, including 12 posts and telegraph circles and a postaL 



198 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


•circle for Delhi. In addition, there are four telephone districts in 
the vcities- of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and Delhi. Besides, there- 
are four administrative units on a functional basis dealing with 
telecommunication developments, posts and telegraph workshops in. 
-Calcutta, Jabalpur and Bombay, telegraph and telephone stores and 
postal life insurance respectively. 

P. & T. Circles Jurisdiction 


I 


1. Postmaster-General, West 
Bengal 

2. Postmaster-General, Bihar 

3. Postmaster-General, U. P. 

4. Postmaster-General, Punjab 


5. Postmaster-General, Bom- 

bay 

6. Postmaster-General, Madras 


7. Postmaster-General, Central 

Circle 

8. Director of Posts & Tele- 

graphs, Eajasthan . . 

9. Director of Post & Tele- 

graphs, Andhra 

10. Director of Posts and Tele- 
graphs, Assam 

XI. Director of Posts and Tele- 
graphs, Orissa 

12. Director of Postal Services, 
Delhi 

, 13. Director of Postal Services, 
Hyderabad 

• 14. General Manager, Calcutta 
Telephone District . . 
16. . General Manager, Bombay 
■ • . Telephone District 

il6. .Dist. Manager, Delhi Tele- 
i phone District 

.17. District Manager, Madras 
..... ' Telephone District 


West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar 
Islands, Sikkim. 

Bihar. 

Uttar Pradesh. 

Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, 
PEPSU, Bilaspur, Jammu & 
Kashmir, Delhi (Telegraphs 
only). 

Bombay, Saurashtra and Kutch, 

Madras, Mysore, Travancore- 
Cochin, Coorg, Hyderabad 
(which is a sub-circle under a 
Director). 

M. ?■., Vindhya Pradesh. 

Rajasthan, Madhya Bharat 
Bhopal and Ajmer. 

Andhra. 

Assam, Manipur and Tripura^ 

Orissa. 

Delhi (postal only). 

Hyderabad (Sub-Circle). 

Calcutta City. 

Bombay City.- 

Delhi & New Delhi. 

Madras City. 


FUNCTIONAL UNITS 


Additional Chief Engineer P. & In-charge . of telecommunications 
- T.i Jabalpur .. development (design ■& Re- 

• search) 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


199 


General Manager, Workshop . . In-charge of P. and T. workshops 

Calcutta, Jabalpur & Bombay 
Chief Controller of Telegraph In-charge of telegraph & tele- 

Stores . . . . phone stores 

PROGRESS OF POSTAL SYSTEM — ^The postal system was 
inaugurated in India in October 1854. Next to Railways, the Posts 
and Telegraphs Department is the largest civil undertaking in India. 
The programme of providing every village with a population of 2,000 
and above with a post office has been successfully completed in 1953. 
From April 1, 1963, a new policy for setting up post offices in rural 
areas has been evolved ; it combines the criteria of population in 
groups of villages and distances from existing post offices. 

Introduction of All-Up Air Mail Scheme in 1949 constituted a 
landmark in the history of mail communications in this country. 
. All letters, post cards, money. orders and insured letters are carriM 
by air, wherever air transport is available and is advantageous with- 
out any surcharge. The introduction of night air services connect- 
ing the principal cities of India facilitated the introduction of AII-Up 
Mail Service resulting in the abolition of the surcharge on mails for 
air conveyance. Over 27 p.c. of the entire inland mail receives air 
transmission. 

Urban Mobile Post Office was first started as an experimental 
measure in Nagpur. Later, the scheme was extended to Madras, 
Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Kanpur, The mobile post office visits 
important centres of the city at specified hours after ordinary post 
office have closed for the day. 

The following are the notable progresses — 

(1) In 1953-54 total number of post offices (permanent and 
temporary) in existance was 46,907. 

(2) There is today one post office for every single village with 
a minimum population of 2,000. 

(3) Every village with a minimum population of 600 receives 
a visit from the postman at least once a week. 

(4) Number of post offices in urban area was 6,179, 

RESEARCH AND POSTAL EDUCATION— The P. & T, Train- 
ing Centre has been opened at Saharanpur on April 1951 to give in- 
tensive practical training to the operative staff and to instil in them 
the qualities of discipline, courtsey, punctuality, regularity, cleanli- 
ness and a spirit of service to the public. The Telecommunication 
Research Centre has been set up in 1956 functioning very shortly. 

TELEGRAPH SERVICE — ^The telegraph service in India cele- 
brated its centenary in November 1953. The policy of opening tele- 
graph offices in every town with a population of over 5,000 and every 
sub-divisional headquarters is being implemented. Voice Frequenejf 
Telegraph (V.F.T.) systems have been introduced in many places. 

Indian telegraph is the oldest government-owned public utility 
in the world and it is the second largest employer in India (225,000 
workers). At present there are 8,590 telegraph offices all over India 
handling annually about 3 crores telegrams inland , and foreign. 
Indian telegraph has 400,200 miles of wire and 26,000 miles of cable 
-conductor -and 2745)000 miles of channel crossing. 



200 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


The Hindi Telegraph Service — A twenty-four hour Hindi tele- 
graph service has been introduced between the five principal centres 
of telegraph service — Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, New Delhi and 
Agra under which telegrams in any Indian lan^ages written in Deva- 
nagri script are accepted, is now available in 917 telegraph ofiices 
throughout the country. 

Printogram Service — ^has been introduced from 1st March, 1956 
which is designed to provide a direct teleprinter service between the 
subscriber and the telegraph office eliminating the intermediary 
messenger service. The telegrams meant for delivery to the subs- 
cribers are transmitted to them from the instrument room of G.T.O. 
and will be received by them on their teleprinters. This system is 
now operating in Bombay. • 

A new class of telegrams known as flash message has been in- 
troduced on April 1947 for the press. These telegrams receive^ a 
higher priority. Another class of telegram, known as Human Life 
telegram which receives priority in transmission in case of accidents, 
serious illness or death of a person. 

De Lux telegram has been re-introduced to foreign countries. 

TELEPHONES — Only five-years after the invention of telephone 
by Bell in 1876, India had a 60-line telephone exchange in Calcutta in 
1881. Though India was almost one of the first countries in the 
world to have a telephone exchange, Calcutta was the first place 
to have it, Calcutta has the largest number of telephones in any 
single city in India. India has to day only *7 telephones per thousand 
population as against 310 in U.S.A. Even after our second 
Five-Year Plan, we will probably have only 1'25 telephones 
per thousand of population. Licenses were granted to a private 
company known as Oriental Telephone Co., for the establishment of 
exchanges at Calcutta, Bombay, Karachi, Madras and Rangoon. All 
these lines, however, was taken up by the Government in 1942. The 
first automatic telephone was installed in India at Simla with -700 
lines in 1913. At the time of partition in 1947 there were only 278 
telephone exchanges and 114,922 telephones. The total number of 
telephones including non-exchange telephones and telephones on 
licensed system in 1955 rose to 265,000 as against 234,177 in 1954. 
To facilitate telephone expansion “oivn your telephone scheme” was 
introduced in 1949, Under this scheme, a sum of Rs. 2,500 in Bom- 
bay and Calcutta and Rs. 2,000 in other places is realised in advance 
from the subscriber for a telephone connection for 20 years. The 
maintenance charge is Rs, 2 per month. 0^on your Exchange was 
introduced in 1960, Under this scheme, the Department undertakes 
to open a 60-line exchange if institutions, firms or individuals advance 
a loan of Rs. 50,000 at 2J per cent, interest per annum. This loan is 
repayable after 20 years. The number of trunk calls was 151 lakhs 
in 1954-66 against 44 lakhs in 1948-49.’ 

In most places message-rate system of charges has been intro- 
duced. Under this . system, a subscriber, besides paying a fixed 
monthly rental for the -telephone, also pays for every call that he 
makes. 

Telephone Industries — ^The Indian Telephone Industries Ltd., 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


201 


Bangalore owned jointly by the Government of India, Government of 
Mysore and the Automatic Telephone and Electric Company Ltd., 
of England manufacture telephones, automatic telephone lines and 
various types of carrier equipments 

Wireless — In addition to telegraph and telephone facilities, India 
has a wireless communication system, which serves several useful 
purposes. Wireless stations maintain contact between fixed points 
as a standby to telegraph system in case of the breakdown of the 
latter. Stations at coastal places maintain contact with ships at 
sea and also aircraft flying over the sea. Such stations are established 
at Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and also at some minor ports. Mete- 
riological stations exchange weather data with ships and also with 
other countries. Monitoring stations have been established at Jabal- 
pur, Calcutta, Delhi and Bombay. 

OVERSEAS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE— Since independence 
there have been phenomenal increase in the external radio communica- 
tion services between India and foreign countries. The first foreign 
electrical communication between India and other countries was estab- 
lished by an undersea cable connecting Bombay with London. In 1927 
first radio telegraph link was opened between Bombay and London. 
Radio telecommunication with other countries of the world was routed 
to the international network via London. The private Company in 
India (Overseas Communication Service) was nationalised in January 
1947. Its development was included in first five-year plan, which 
has increased the direct channels of radio communications by 
300 per cent. 

The Overseas Communications Service is a separate department 
headed by a Director-General, Overseas Communications Service 
under the Ministry of Communications. Hitherto the chief centre 
had been at Bombay. The new radio centres for communications 
have been opened at Delhi, Calcutta and Madras. 

Its functions are provision, operation and development of all 
facilities for communications between India and outside world. 

Following classes of services are carried out by the Overseas 
Communications Service — 

(1) Radio-photo service. 

(2) Wireless Telegraph service. 

(3) Radio-telephone service. 

(4) Press newscast service. 

(5) Submarine Cable Telegraph service. 

(6) Wireless monitoring service at Bangalore, Bombay, Cal- 
cutta, Delhi and Jabalpur. 

(7) Inland photo-telegrain service inaugurated for the first 
time between Bombay and Delhi on Januairy 26, 1955. 

India now has direct radio telephone service with the following 
countries — ^Aden, Bahrein, Burma, China, East Africa, Egypt, Hong- 
Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Malaya, Poland, Saigon, Switzerland, 
United Kingdom and U. S. S. R. 

Radio telephone services via London are available between India 
and 35 foreign countries and also via Berne (Switzerland) to Yogoslo- 
via. This service is also available at sea by some ships. 



202 


HINDUSTAN TEAR-BOOK 


The orerseas Communication service also operates radio telegraph 
service to 13 Countries. Direct radio photo services operate between 
India and the U. S. A, XJ. S. S. R., U. K., and China. 

Some Postal Statistics — ^The Indian postal system covers 1,60,000 
miles of road. Of these, 24 per cent are covered by rail, 17 
per cent by motor and five per cent by miscellaneous means, such as 
steamers, mail-carts, bullock-carts, horses, mules and camels. The 
rest constituting 54 per cent of the total is covered by runners and 
small boats. 

The number of persons employed in the posts and telegraphs 
Department was^ 263,000 in 1955. During 1955-56, the Department 
hantUed 2,879 million postal articles _{as against 2,728 million in the 
pre'sdous_ year), bopked nearly 33 million telegrams (as against 31 
million in the previous year) and put through about 19 million trunk 
calls (as against 15 millions in the previous year). The total number 
of post offices in India upto 1956 has gone upto 51,539, of which 'the 
number opened since Independence is 29,423. The number of total 
telegraph offices in India is 4,880. The total number of telephone 
exchange in India is 759 on December 1955. The total number of 
telephones in India is 265,000. 


TOTAL POSTAL REVENUE 
{In thousands) 

Rs. 

1921 .. 5,82,76 1951 

1931 ,. 7,36,84 1953-64 

1941 . . 9,85,26 


Office 

Rural Post offices 
Urban Post offices 
Letter Boxes 


POSTAL EXPANSION 

1948 1953 

19,181 37,434 

4,160 5,769 

97,408 


Rs. 

21,03,63 

26,64,00 


1954 

39,728 

6,179 

1,03,906 


POSTAL LANDMARKS 


1825 — 1st. Indian postage stamp 
issued at Karachi for Sind only. 

1830 — First overland post be- 
tween England and India estab- 
lished when steamer ‘Hugh 
Lindsay' made the first voyage 
from Bombay to Suez. 

1840 — P. & O. obtained charter 
for conveyance of mails between 
London to Suez en route to India. 

1851 — ^First Govt. Telegraph 
line opened between Calcutta and 
Diamond Harbour. 

1854 — 1st. postage stamp on all 
India basis issued on 1st October. 

1865 — First ' ■ telegraph line 


opened between England and 
India, 27 Jan. 1865. 

1870 — G. P. 0, Calcutta was 
opened and occupies the site of 
the old fort. 

1871 — ^V.P. system was 
established. 

1877 — ^V. P. System started. 

1880 — ^51.0. system introduced- 

1885 — Postal Savings Bank 
sta^d. 

1888 — ^M. O. system started. 

1911 — First official Air Mail 
flight on 18th February, when 
6,500 letters were flown from 
.Allahabad to Naini , .Junction. 



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS 


20S: 


1929 — ^U. K.-India Air Mail 
Service started, 4th April, 1929. 

1931 — New Delhi inauguration 
commemoration stamp issued. 

1935 — Silver Jubilee of King 
George VI Stamp first issued 
showing various modes of trans- 
port of mails. 

1942 — ^Airgraph Service start- 
ed, February, 2, 1942. 

1943 — Photo Telegram Service 
introduced 3rd June, 1943. 

NEW POSTAGE STAMPS 

1947 — ^India issues three Jai 
Hind stamps commemorating 
Indian Independence, depicting 
the Asoka capital, National Flag 
and an aircraft. 

1948 — Commemoration stamp 
for the first flight of India’s first 
external air service from ' Bom- 
bay to London. 

1948 — A set of Gandhi memo- 
rial stamps in four values on the 
1st anniversary of India’s Inde- 
pendence (15th August, 1948). 

, 1949 — Set of stamps for 75th 

anniversary of Universal Postal 
Union. 

1949 — ^New stamps represent- 
ing the illustrations of Ajanta, 
Trimurti, Konark Horse, Sanchi 
Stupa, Kandaraya Mahadeva 
Temple and Bhubaneswar Tem- 
ple, Buddha Gaya Temple, Tomb 
of Adil Shah of Bijapur, Amrit- 
sar Golden Temple, Tower ot 
Chittorgraph, Red Fort of Delhi, 
Taj Mahal of Agra, Qutab Minar 
of Delhi etc. on Independence 
Day. 

1960 — ^Independence _ stomp 
commemorating the coming into 
operation India’s new constitu- 
tion (26th Jan.). 

1961 — One stomp representing 
a pair of Stegoden Ganesa, an 
extinct species of modem Indian 


1946 — Two Pice Post Card re- 
introduced from 1st July. 

1947 — Govt, of India purchased 
Overseas Telecommunications 
Service, Jan. 1, 1947. 

1949 — ^Telegraph Transmission' 
in Hindi in Devnagri script in- 
troduced in June 1949. 

1954 — Indian Postage Stamp- 
Centenary celebration on 1st. 
Oct. and International Postal- 
cum-Philatelic Exhibition. 

SINCE INDEPENDENCE 

elephant for the centenary of 
Geological Survey of India. 

1951 — tissue of two stomps de- 
picting a torch against the south- 
ern coast line of Asia on the oc- 
casion of first Asian games im 
New Delhi, March 4, 1951. 

1952 — ^A new series of stamps- 
bearing the portraits of sainto- 
and poets of India. 

1953 — Two Everest conquest- 
commemoration stamps (2ndi 
Oct.). 

1953 — One stomp issued to- 
commemorate Indian _ Railway 
centenary on 16th April. 

1953 — ^Two stomps on the cente- 
nary of Indian Telegraphs on 1st- 
Nov. 1953. 

1954 — Set of four stamps com- 
memorating centenary of the 1st. 
issue of Indian stomp. 

1954 — 2-anna stamp commemo- 
rating U.N. Day (24th Oct.). 

1954 — 2-anna stamp on the- 
occasion of 4th World Forestry- 
Congress at Dehra Dun (Dec.). 

1955— Five-Year Plan series of 
postage stamps on 26th Jan. 

1956 — ^Two, Buddha Jayantii 
stomps, of two annas and four- 
teen annas issued on 24th May. 

Tilak centenary stamp issued! 
23rd July. 


INDIAN SHIPPING 

POSITION OF INDIAN MERCANTILE MARINE— India has 
.-about 3,500 miles of coastline extending international trade with the 
East and the West, a vast population to ‘feed’ and good prospects of 
industrialisation. She fully realizes the need of a powerful merchant 
mavy able to compete in speed, carrying capacity and efficiency^ of 
service with the best mercantile marines of other nations. India’s 
•shipping industry is insignificant when compared to those of great 
maritime powers. Indian shipping now (511,077 g.r.t.) — hardly 0.52 
p.c. of world tonnage, is about adequate to carry the entire coastal, 
about 40 p.c. of the adjacent and about 5 p.c. — a distressingly small 
proportion — of the over-seas trade. Her coastal vessels carry about 
2 million passengers a year, while about 200,000 overseas passengem 
-travel by Indian ships. The Shipping Policy Committee of 1947 laid 
■down the following objectives for Indian shipping with a view to 
secure a tonnage of two millions in the near future, thereby securing 
for Indian shipping — (1) 100 per cent of the coastal trade of India,' 

(2) 75 per cent of Indian’s trade with Burma, Ceylon and other 
neighbouring countries, (3) 50 per cent of India’s overseas trade and 
(4) 30 per cent of the orient’s trade formerly carried by Japanese, 
•German and Italian vessels. Plan envisaged a rise in India’s shipping 
tonnage from 390,707 GRT to 600,000 GET by 1956. 

The Government of India, by their resolution dated July 12, 1947 
fully endorsed the above view of the Committee. They agreed that 
-the definition of Indian Shipping should be shipping owned, controlled 
and managed by Indian nationals. They also laid down that follow- 
ing conditions should qualify any shipping company for treatment as 
■"Indian shipping companies”. — (a) The steamers should be registered 
at a port or ports India, (b) At least 76 p.c. of the shares of the 
-companies should be held by Indians in their own rights, (c) All the 
-directors should be Indians, (d) Managing agents, if any, should 
he Indians. 

Further, steps were taken to reserve the costal trade of India 
■for Indian ships only and a system of statutory licensing was intro- 
duced under the Control of Shipping Act, 194?, to give effect to the 
policy on coastal reservation. Some of the principal steps taken by 
•the Government to encourage the development of Indian shipping 
•are detailed below : — 

(1) Reservation of coastal shipping. 

(21 Grant of loans. 

(3) Sale of ships built at the Hindustan Shipyard at the United 

‘Kingdom parity price. ' 

(4) Allotment of Government' owned and/or controlled cargo. 

(5) Inclusion of clauses in trade agpreements to ensure a pro- 
’portion of cargo to Indian ships. 

(6) Establishment of shipping, services with the U.S.S.R. and 
S^oland. 

(7) Sponsoring admission to international Conferences. 

(8) Establishment of State shipping Corporations. 



INDIAN SHIPPING 


205 - 


(9) Establishment of a Directorate. 

(10) Establishment of a Directorate. 

(11) Administration of labour. 

(12) Training of _ personnel. 

In conformity with the Industrial Policy Resolution, which in- 
cludes sea transport among the industries wherein the State will 
increasingly establish new undertakings, the first move was in I960- 
when the Eastern Shijiping Corporation was sponsored by the 
Government with a majority share. On August 15, 1956 the Corpora- 
tion became fully state-owned and operated. It owns six vessels 
totalling 42,293, GRT and has regular services to Australia, East 
Africa, Malaya and Japan. Another State shipping corporation the 
TFestcm Shipping Corporation (Private) has been set up in 1956. 
It will operate services between India and the ports of Persian Gulf, 
the_Red Sea, Poland and the Soviet Union. A demand for adequate 
Indian tanker tonnage to move mineral oil and its refined products 
along' the coast and to bring crude oil from abroad has developed. 
The Government of India have decided that India should have a 
nucleus fleet of three tankers, of which one should be purchased In 
private sector and the other two in public sector. One in the private 
sector has been purchased by an Indian shipping company with the 
aid of government loan. For the public sector, two medium-sized 
tankers of 6,000 tons GRT each are to be acquired through Eastern 
Shipping Corporation. 

SHIPPING CONTROL DEPARTMENT— The Shipping concerns 
several ministries : Transport, Production, Commerce and Industry, 
Defence, Works, Housing and Pow-er. So, Directorate General of 
Shipping has been set up in Bombay in 1949, It is the central body of 
the Government of India controlling the whole problem of shipping in 
the country. Semi-Government shipping corporations, maritime con- 
ventions, seamen’s welfare, nautical surveys, licences for deep sea 
navigation and light houses are among the several maritime sub- 
jects ■which are dealt -u-ith by the organisation. The three principal 
ofiicers of the Mercantile Marine Department at Bombay, Calcutta 
and Madras ■will function under the jurisdiction of the Director- 
General. The function of the Director-General includes the imple- 
mentation of the Government’s policies 'with regard to the develop- 
ment of India’s merchant na'vy and the co-ordination of the activities 
of various ports. 

CONSULTHTS COMMITTEE OF SHIPPING INTEREST— 
With a view to ensure better understanding and co-operation between 
the Government of India, the country’s export trade and the foreign 
shipping interests operating in India, the above additional committee 
has been founded is 1955 'with 7 members, being 4 from overseas 
shipping conferences, 2 from Indian National Steamshipowners’ 
National Association and one from the export trade sphere. 

CONSULTn’E COMMITTEE OF SHIPOWNERS— with a view 
to bringing about better liaison between the Government and the 
Indian shipping industry, an advisory body called Consultive Commi- 
ttee of Shipowners has Ijeen constituted. 



206 


HINDUSTAN 'XEAR-BOOK 


CATEGORIES OF INDIA’S MARITEHE TRADE— India’s mari- 
-time trade today may be summarised in the following categories. — 

Pure coastal trade, originating and or terminating at ports on 
the coast of the Union of India and the non-coastal trade i.e., the 
balance of the maritime trade with other countries of the world 
-which would be styled as overseas trade. This latter may further 
Tie divided into : (1) Indian Ocean Trade ; (2) Atlantic Ocean trade; 

(3) Atlantic or Pacific Ocean Trade. The first of these may be fur- 
ther divided into Western i.e., comprising South and East Africa, 
Red Sea and Persian Gulf, and Eastern including Burma, Ceylon, 
Malaya, China, Japan and Australia. 

COUNTRY CRAFT — ^The importance of country craft in the eco- 
nomics of India’s water transport cannot be ignored. The sailing 
vessel, though small in size, carries the bulk of the cargo between 
neighbouring ports at a relatively cheap cost and plays a vital part 
in serving as a feeder to industry. The Sailing Vessels Committee 
appointed in 1948-49 to enquire in the conditions of the industry has 
submitted recommendations for the rehabilitation of this industry. 

COASTAL AND NEAR TRADES — Our coastal trade has been 
reserved to national ships since August 1950. The aggregate quan- 
tity of cargo in dead-weight tons earned on the coast came upto 
24.49 lakhs in 1951, 26.08 lakhs in 1952, 28.84 lakhs in 1953 and 28.49 
fiakhs in 1954. While all coastal cargo is now carried by Indian 
rships, the Government also negotiated with foreign shipping interests 
.-and ensured for Indian Shipping a fair share of the Near Trades, 
i.e. -the trades with Burma, Ceylon and Pakistan. The position in 
this respect is now as follows — (1_) The Coastal Trade : governed 
by the Indian Coastal Conference with 14 member liners, aU Indians, 
(2) The ludia-Burma Trade : governed by the India-Burma Confer- 
ence with five member liners, 3 being Indian and 2 being British. 
Trade is shared half and half between Indian and the British lines. 
The trade with Ceylon and Pakistan is governed by two conferences : 
India-Ceylon Conference and India-Pakistan-Burma-Ceylon Confer- 

• ence, this latter being more concerned with inter Burma-Ceylon- 
Pakistan trade. These Conferences also have each a membership of 
5 liners, of which 2 are British 3 are Indian. 

MERCHANT SHIPPING — ^Among the steps taken towards 
building up the country’s merchant shipping the most important is 
the reservation of coastal trade for Indian vessels. In the coastal 
"trade, the share of Indian shipping which was about 53 per cent in 
1948 witnessed the phenomenal spurt in the succeeding years and 
reached 100 per cent by 1955. Side by side with the direct investment 

• of government capital, a significant step taken by government is 
the formulation of the policy of State aid by way of loans to units of 
private sectors. 

No picture of the country’s merchant fleet is complete without 
-the inclusion of about 1,800 sailing vessels operated from Indian 
Torts. With a total cargo-carrying capacity of 150,000 tons, they 
:play an important role in the sea communication of India. 

OVERSEAS SHIPPING— It is estimated that Indian Liner Com- 



INDIAN SHIPPING 


207 


panies 'between tbemselves do not carry more than 5 per cent of the 
■overseas trade. The total tonnage employed by Indian Companies 
in the foreign trade is presumably about 265000 gross registered 
tons. The four Indian Companies are now operating in foreign 
-trades and their total gross tonnages are — (1) Scindias — 197,288 
■GRT, (2) India Steamship 73,293 GRT, (3) Bharat Lines 64,489 GRT. 
(4) Great Eastern Shipping 38,167 GRT. (5) Western Shipping 
■Corporation Private Ltd., has be^n operation from October 1, 1956 
.and it functions along the India — ^Persian Gulf, India — Red sea, 
India — Poland and India — Russia routes. A part of these tonnages 
however is employed exclusively on the coast, the overseas tonnage 
employed being 265,000 GRT. Though the Government has 
■endorsed the policy of Indian shipping carrying at least 
50 per cent of India’s trade in international waters, there are 
number of hurdles which Indian shipping will have to cross for 
•carrying 60 per cent of Indian overseas trade. The hurdles are — 
(1) a large number of Liner Conferences dominate these trades. 
Entry into such Conferences is not an easy matter. Indian Lines 
“have not yet been admitted to membership of a number of Conferences 
in the way-trades on the main route between India and 'U.K. and India 
.and the Continent such as Colombo-U.K., U.K.-Colombo, Colombo-Con- 
-tinent, U.K.-Aden and U.K.-Port Said Conferences. (2) Indian Shipping 
Companies will have to expand their tonnage on different lines where 
•they do not go at present. (3) Passenger services should be opened 
■with modem amenities. The Government of India has been 
helping Indian shipping companies to become full members of the 
Shipping Conferences controlling the India-U.K.-Continent, India- 
North America, India- Australia and India-Malaya trades. In 
•order to facilitate the entry of Indian shipping into all impor- 
■tant overseas trades and to assist in solving the difficulty experienced 
by Indian shipping companies by raising the necessary capital, the 
Government announced their scheme for the setting up of Shipping 
•Corporation on a state-cum-private ownership basis. The Eastern 
Shipping Corporation was registered in March 1950 with an initial 
■capital of Rs. 20 million, 61 per cent of its shares are owned 
by the Government. This corporation now operates six ships in all 
•with 42,202 gross tons. This corporation is plying on the India-Aus- 
•tralia, India-East Africa and India-Malaya services. Bharat Lines 
has been regularly running India-Persian Gulf route. 'While the India 
Steamship and Scindias have concentrated on the U.K.-Continent 
trade. Necessary assistance was also given to Indian shipping com- 
panies for acquisition of additional tonnage by furnishing information 
regarding availabilities and arranging liberal release of foreign ex- 
•change. Government is also using its good offices to ensure that 
Indian companies operating in the overseas trades get their fair share 
of cargoes. 

Indian Shipping Tonnage — ^The tonnage of Indian shipp- 
ing (Company-^wise) employed in the overseas liner service trades 
in 1955 is as follows — (1) Seindia Steam Navigation Co Ltd., Bom- 
bay — 12 Ships and 83,160 tons, (2) India Steamship Co. Ltd., Calcutta 
— 10 Ships and 72,248 tons, (3) Eastern Shipping Corporation Ltd., 



208 


HINDUSTAN TEAR-BOOK 


Bombay — 6 Ships and 42,293 tons, (4) Bharat Line Ltd., Bombay — 
3 Ships and 9,861 tons. (5) Western Shipping Corporation, Total — 
31 Ships and 2,08,562 tons. Great Eastern Shipping does not operate 
in foreign liner service, though they do foreign tramp shipping and 
their tonnage is not included in this. 

INDIA AND THE CONFERENCE LINES — ^When after Indian 
independence, India entered into overseas trade, few people knew the 
struggle which Indian companies had to encounter in order to get their 
legitimate share in India’s trade. A layman would perhaps feel that 
a shipping company is at liberty to ply its ships ^wherever it 
chooses. But in practice, it is not so. There are Shipping Con- 
ferences for different trades to which Indian shipping companies 
must be full members before they can participate in the foreign 
trade. These Conferences are exclusive foreign bodies which would 
not allow an outsider to come in and have the due share in the trade. 
But after prolonged struggle the Indian companies have been ad- 
mitted into Conferences whereby they are enabled to opera.te on the 
trade freely with due regard to rules, regiilations, restrictions, etc. 
These Conference Lines cover trade between (1) India and U.K., 
(2) India and U.S.A. and North Atlantic Ports, (3) India and Austra- 
lia, (4) India and the Continent. The oldest and the most established 
of these Conferences is the India-tl.K. Conference. 

Besides these four principal overseas conferences, there are 
shipping conferences for trades between India and Far East and 
Japan, India and South America, India and Persian Gulf and India 
and African Coasts. An institution which is not a full-fledged con- 
ference is called Rate Agreement. Rate Agreement exists for the 
trade between Calcutta and Port Said, Eastern Mediterranean and 
North African Ports whereby parties to the Agreement agree to 
quote same rates and follow imiform shipping practices. 

Indian Coastal Conference — came into existence in the begin- 
ning of 1951 which now consists of 14 Indian companies full members. 

New Conferences — In 1951, the following four Conferences have 
also come into emstence with a view to covering the trades with 
Burma, Ceylon and Pakistan — (a) Pakistan-India-Burma-Ceylon 
Conference, (6) India-Burma Conference, (c) Burma-India Confer- 
ence, (d) Burma-Ceylon Conference. 

TRAINING FACILITIES — To train up Indian boys as executive 
officers and marine engineers for the Indian merchant navy of India, 
the_ second line of defence in the navy, facilities are provided by the 
training ship Dufferin in the Bombay Harbour and at the Directorate 
of Marine Engineering Training respectively. Post-sea training is given 
at the Nautical and Engineering College, Bombay and also at the 
Marine Engineering College at Calcutta. Two training ships, Bhadra 
at Calcutta and Mekhala at Visakhapatnam train about 1,000 ratings 
annually. Bhadra takes candidates for training from Bengal and 
adjoining areas while Mekhala trains recruits from other areas like 
Madras, Bombay and Visakhapatnam. At Navlakshi in Saurashtra, 
a third training establishment for ratings has been set up 
to train . 600 boys annually. There has been recently established 



INDIAN SHIPPING 


209 


a Dockyard Apprentice School inside the Dockyard at Bombay 
for Marine Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Naval Architecture 
Training, etc. For the training of Indian boys to marine jobs. West 
Bengal Government have opened in 1949 a training school under Cal- 
cutta Port Commissioners. From the middle of 1950, Government 
of India have taken over Lady Fraser and Andrews from Calcutta 
Port Commissioners, to convert them as training vessels. 

The Radar Trainning Centre, the first of its kind in India, was 
opened under the auspices of the Nautical and Engineering College 
in October 1953. 

CREW EMPLOYMENT — ^To regularise employment of Indian 
crews on board vessels at Indian ports, the Government have set up 
in 1955 Steamers Employment Boards, one in Calcutta and one in 
Bombay. The principal objectives of these two Boards are — (1) to 
ensure or square deal between the Indian crew and their employers, 
(2) to see that more and more the trained Indian crews are 
absorbed into services by shipping companies and (3) to regularise 
procedure of employment of crew and to create a long line of really 
efficient, medically fit, first class Indian crews. 

SHIP BUILDING — The idea of reviving ship building and estab- 
lishing a modem ship building yard in India was first mooted 
out by the Scindia Steam Navigation Company Ltd., in 1919. 
During the World War H Scindias pioneered the project for estab- 
lishing a ship building yard in India. In June 1941 the foundation 
of the shipyard was laid at Visakhapatnam. The keel of the first 
ocean-going vessel of 8,000 ton d.w. was laid in June 1946 and 
it was launched in March 1948. In accordance with the policy of 
establishing nation-building industries and projects in the public 
sector and because of the un-economic nature of ship-building in- 
dustry for private enterprise to develop that the Government of India 
took over in March 1952 the shipyard at Visakhapatnam. The ship- 
yard is now owned and operated by a Government-sponsored com- 
pany, the Hindustan Shipyard Private Limited in which about 75 p.c. 
of the capital is held by the Government of India and the reminder 
by the Scindia Steam Navigation Company Ltd. The shipyard 
occupies a total area of about 72 acres. It is equipped with four 
large-sized shipways, on which ships of 250 ft. in length and 
16,000 tons d.w. can be built. As an adjunct to the shipyard, a pro- 
ject for the construction of a dry dock has also been sanctioned by 
the Government at an estimated cost of Rs. 2.16 crores. This is ex- 
pected to be completed in 1959. 

So far (1956), the shipyard has built 15 ships, 12 of which are 
steamhips of 8,000 d.w. tons each, the remaining three being diesel 
ships of 7,000 tons d.w. of modern design. The Indian shipping 
companies have now some 36 vessels under construction in Indian and 
Foreign yards, the tonnage of which aggregate some 200,000 GRT. 

Tanker Fleet — A beginning has been made in the formation of a 
nucleus of a tanker fleet on the Indian Register by the purchase of a 
second hand tanker Bianca (8,208 gross tons) by the Great Eastern 
Shipping Co. Ltd., Bombay. It is also proposed to acquire 2 or 3 
more tankers by the Government during the Second Plan period. 

14 



210 


HINDUSTAN TEAB-BOOK 


TONNAGE OF VESSELS ENTERED & CLEARED 
{Monthly averages — In thousands of tons) 

Foreign Trade Coasting Trade 



Tonnage 

Tonnage 

Tonnage 

Tonnage 


entered 

cleared 

entered 

cleared 


Ind & 

Ind & 

Ind & 

Ind & 


Foreign 

Foreign 

Foreign 

Foreign 

1950 

.. 670 

607 

638 

652 

1951 

.. 777 

647 

796 

764 

1952 

. . 775 

743 

837 

825 

1953 

.. 750 

885 

898 

871 

1954 

.. 754 

800 

898 

880 

1955 

.. 806 

703 

831 

9S2 


(Monthly Abstract 

of Statistics, 

Sept. 1956). 


INDIAN CARGOES 



(Monthly averages — 000 of tons) 



Foreign Trade 


Coasting Trade 


Tonnage Tonnage 

Tonnage 

Tonnage 


entered cleared 

entered 

cleared 

1949 

.. 21 

30 

150 

150 

1950 

.. 38 

50 

245 

247 

1951 

54 

66 

362 

371 

1952 

.. 56 

76 

397 

418 

1953 

. . 50 

87 

440 

452 

1954 

. . 55 

79 

438 

439 

1956 

.. 66 

76 

417 

444 


(Monthly Abstract of Statistics, Sept. 1956). 


Number and Tonnage of Indian-owned vessels in the overseas and 
coastal trades on 30th June, 1956 


Overseas 

No. of Vessels 

GJt.T. 

India-U.K. / Continent 

.. 27 

187,916 

India /Persian Gulf 

.. 3 

9,861 

Bombay /East Africa 

.. 1 

8,521 

India/Japan/Far East 

.. 2 

10,759 

India/ Australia 

.. 2 

14,433 

India / Malaya/ Singapore 

.. 1 

8,580 

Tramp Trade 

.. 2 

14,463 

SS 

254,463 

Coastal 

38 

254,463 

Cargo 

.. 59 

207,722 

Cargo -cum-passenger 

.. 4 

10,587 

Passenger 

.. 6 

4,754 

Tanker 

.. 1 

8,208 

Short Coastal Range 

.. 18 

7,196 

Total 


238,467 

.. 126 

492,930 


(Indian Shipping, 

July, 1956). 



BANKS IN INDIA 

INDIAN BANKING SYSTEM — India’s banking system is one 
of the most highly developed aspects of Indian economy. Banking 
is operated along both indigenous and western lines. Scheduled 
banks which represent the western type of banking, tend to be 
concentrated in the five States of Bombay, West Bengal, Uttar 
Pradesh, Madras and Delhi where major commercial and industrial 
centres are located. Branch banking and unit banking have deve- 
loped side by side. Unit banks are typically small and together 
control only a small part of India’s total banking business. 

Indian banking system has now emerged from a period of con- 
solidation to a period of expansion. The Imperial Bank of India 
has now been nationalised as the State Bank of India in order to 
fill the vacuum in the supply of institutional credit to agriculture and 
rural industries. New institutions have been planned to supplement 
the existing agencies of credit, such as, the setting up of the Indus- 
trial Credit and Investment Corporation of India with the assistance 
of the World Bank and with the participation of private capital from 
U.K. and the U.S.A. ; under the auspices of the Government of India 
a National Industrial Development Corporation has also been esta- 
blished to finance new industries, there are also now regional indus- 
trial finance corporations in 12 States. 

With the Reserve Bank at the apex, the Indian banking system 
comprises State Bank of India, Indian Scheduled Banks, Exchange 
Banks, non-scheduled banks. Reserve Bank’s control has been 
steadily strengthened in the last five years over these institutions 
with a view to establishing sound banking practices. 

The modem banking system in India began with the British 
Agency houses established at Bombay and Calcutta in the 18th 
century. Second step was the establishment of three presidency 
banks at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in the 19th century. These 
presidency banks were amalgamated into the Imperial Bank of India 
in 1921 by a special Act which has now been converted into the State 
Bank of India. The next stage was the starting of the Reserve 
Bank of India in April, 1935. 

There was no comprehensive legislation regarding joint-stock 
banks in India until the passage of the Banking Companies Act which 
came into force on the 16th March, 1949, and now extends to the 
whole of India. It does not however apply to co-operative banks. 

The Banking Companies Act of 1949 centralises all supervision 
as well as control over the banks in the hands of the Reserve Bank 
of India. The main duties imposed upon the Reserve Bank in this 
respect may be classified as follows : (a) Supervision and inspection 

of banks, (b) the licensing of banks and control over opening of 
branches, (c) the examination and sanction of schemes of arrange- 
ment and amalgamations, (d) the liquidation of banking companies, 
(e) the receipt and scrutiny of prescribed returns and_ (/) advising 
banks generally and helping them in times of emergencies. 


212 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Under the Indian Banking Companies Act of 1949, the business 
which a hanking company may transact has been defined and the 
minimum paid-up capital and reserves, varying with the geographical 
coverage of a banking company, have been prescribed. The minimum 
paid-up capital and reserves required of a banking company having 
only one office, situated outside the city of Bombay or Calcutta, have 
been fixed at Rs. 50,000. A banking company is required to use as 
part of its name the word ‘bank,’ ‘banker’ or ‘banking’ and a non- 
hanking company is prohibited from using any of these words in its 
name. 

CLASSES OF BANKS IN INDIA— The banks in India are 
generally classified under the following heads — (1) Reserve Bank of 
India, (2) Indian banks comprising, (a) State Bank of India and other 
Indian Scheduled banks, (b) Indian nqn-scheduled banks i.e. Indian 
joint stock banks (including State-owned and State-controlled 
banlcs) other than those included in the Second Schedule to the 
Reserve Bank of India Act and (c) Indian co-operative banks regis- 
tered under the laws of the States where they are situated and 
(3) Forei^ banks comprising scheduled and non-scheduled banks 
whose registered ofiices are located outside the Indian Union. 

Scheduled Banks — ^Banks which carry on the business of 
banking in any state to which the Reserve Bank of India Act 
extends and which (a) have paid up capital and reserves of an 
aggregate, real or exchangeable, value of not less than Rs. 5 lakhs 
and (b) are companies as defined in the Indian Companies Act, or cor- 
porations or companies incorporated by or under any law in force in 
any place outside India, and (c) satisfy the Reserve Bank that their 
affairs are not being conducted in a manner detrimental to the interest 
of their depositors, are eligible for inclusion in the Second Schedule 
to the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and when so included are 
known as Scheduled Bmiks, The Scheduled Banks are frurther classi- 
fied into _ (a) Indian scheduled banks (class A 1) i.e. banks having 
their registered offices in the Indian union and (b) foreign scheduled 
banks Le. banks having their registered offices outside the Indian 
Union. 

Non-Scheduled Banks — The non-scheduled banks have been 
classified into four classes : A 2 Banks or banks which have paid- 
up capital and reserves of Rs. 5 lakhs and above each, but which 
have not been included in the Second Schedule to the Reserve Bank 
of India Act ; B Banks or banks having paid up capital and reserves 
between Rs. 1 lakh and Rs. 5 lakhs each ; C banks or banks each 
having paid-up capital and reserves between Rs. 50,000 and Rs. 1 
lakh ; and D Banks or banks each having paid-up capital and reserves 
of less than 50,000. 

Co-operative Banks — comprise State and Central Co-operative 
Banks and _ registered non-agricultural (urban) Co-operative 
Credit Societies with limited liability, each having minimum paid-up 
capital and reserves of Rs. 1 lakh. They are sub-divided into two 
passes, namely, ‘A -banks or banks With capital and re'^ervc of 
Rs. 6 lakhs and above each and ‘B’ bank or banks with capital and 
reserves ranging between Rs. 1 lakh and Rs. 5 lakhs each. 



BANKS IN INDIA 


213 


FINANCE, INVESTMENT, CREDIT CORPORATIONS— Besides 
the above class of banks, Industrial Finance Corporation, State 
Finance Corporation and Industrial Credit and Investment Corpora- 
tion and Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation have come 
into existence for the development of industries through banks. The 
details of these class of banks are gpven below — 

(1) Indtistrial Finance Corporation — ^In March 1948 the Govern- 
ment provided for an Industrial Finance Corporation for the 
purpose of aiding private enterprise through long and medium 
term credit to qualified establishments. The I.F.C. as established 
under Industrial Finance Act is a body corporate which can sue and 
be sued and is to operate on business principles. Its total authorised 
capital is Rs. 100,000,000 divided into 20,000 shares, although only 
10,000 were issued in the first instance. Shares are guaranteed by 
the Central Government as to principal and as to a minimum divi- 
dend currently set at 2i p.c. In no event may dividends exceed 
5 p.c. The I.F.C. funds for aiding private enterprises comes from 
its share capital and reserves. It may also obtain further funds 
by issuing bonds and debentures upto five times the paid value of its 
share capital and reserves and by accepting deposits from the public 
for period of not less than five years upto a total of Rs. 100,000,000, 
To obtain foreign currency, the I.F.C. may borrow from the Inter- 
national Bank of Reconstruction and Development. I.F.C. may only 
assist public limited companies or co-operatives which are incorpora- 
ted and registered in India and which are engaged in the manufac- 
ture or processing of goods, in mining, or in the generation and dis- 
tribution of power. 

(2) State Finance Corporations — ^In 1951 the State Financial 
Corporation Act authorised State Governments to establish finan- 
cial corporations which are to be operated as the Central 
Government operates the Industrial Finance Corporation. Although 
the Central Government will have no direct control, both the Reserve 
Bank and the Industrial Finance Corporation will provide part of the 
capital and appoint some of the directors of the State Corporations. 
Unlike the Industrial Finance Corporation, the State Corporations 
permit the public to subscribe upto 25 p.c. of the total shares. 
The purpose of the State Corporation is to supplement the acti- 
vities of the Industrial Finance Corporation by providing to small 
establishments services similar to those extended by the latter to 
large enterprises. The total number of State Finance Corporations 
so far established is thirteen. 

(3) Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation — The object 
of the Corporation is to assist industrial enterprise within the 
private sector. The Corporation was registered as a private limited 
company on Jan. 5, 1955. The authorised capital is Rs. 25 crores 
consisting of five crores in ordinary shares of Rs. 100 each and 
Rs. 20 crores in unclassified shares of Rs. 100 each. Of the Rs. -5 
crores, Rs. 2 crores are to be taken by Indian Banks, insurance com- 
panies and directors and their friends and associates. The Ameri- 
can investors are taking up Rs. 50 lakhs, U.K. subscribes are expec- 
ted to take Rs. one crore and Rs. one and half crores are offered for 



214 


HINDUSTA2J TEAE-BOOK 


public subscription in India. The Government of India is to advance 
to the Corporation Es. 7* crores, free of interest repayable ^in 15 
equal annual instalments World Bank is to lend 10 million dollars 
in foreign currencies. 

(1) RESERVE BAlvK OF INDL4 

The Reserve Bank of India vras established on Aprfl 1. 1935 in 
accordance vrith the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India_ Act, 
1934. The central banking functions including the right of issue, 
formerly exercised by the Imperial Bank of India, were transferred 
to the Reserve Bank. The Reserve Bank was owDed_ by private 
sharebolders with the exception of a small fraction of the shares 
held by the Central Government. On September 3, 194S, the Reserve 
Bank was nationalised by the Reserve Bank (Transfer to Public 
ownership) Act, the shares of private shareholders bring purchased 
by the Central Government. The Central Board of Directors under 
this Act is composed of 11 directors, one a Government official, four 
representing the local boards, and six representing other interests. 
Four lessor boards were established to represent regional and local 
interest. All of the members of both the local and central boards 
are appointed by the Central Government. 

P^unctions of the Reserve Bank — The role of the Reserve Bank 
in the Indian economy may be divided into following functions — 
(11 issue of currency, (2) banker’s bank, (S) fiscal agent of the 
Central and State Governments, (4) iniscellaneons_ matters. 

Issue of Currency — The Eeserve Bank’s special Issne Depart- 
ment carries out its function as the sole bank of issne in India. The 
Issne Department is required to maintain at least 40 per cent of 
its assets in gold and sterling although exceptions can be made for 
a limited period provided tax is paid on the deficiency. The remain- 
der of its assets are rupee coin and rupee securities. 

A Bankcr^s Bank — The Preserve Bank assists and co-ordinates the 
activities of the various local banks throughout the country. It also 
supervises and regulates their practices and policies. Its authority 
in these respects was greatly expanded in the Banking .Act of 1949. 
Dnder the Banlang Act of 1949,* (1) the Eeserve Bank is accorded 
broad powers to regulate incorporated haulm operating in In^ 
including non-scbeduled banks but excluding co-operative banks, in- 
digenous banks, money lenders etc. (2) The primary responsfoility 
for the enforcement of Banking (Companies .Act is that of the Reserve 
Bank. The Act establishes the general framework within which 
banks must operate. The Reserve Bank is given the general autho- 
rity to make rules to carry out the purposes of the .Act. In addition 
to the controls over banks and banking operations, the Reserve Bank 
exercises control over bank lending policies and supply conditions 
of credit. 

Fiscal Agent of Government — The functions of the Bank as a 
fiscal agent of the Central and State Governments include manage- 
ment of their receipts, expenditures and public debts. The Bank is 
also authorised to make 90-day advances to these Governments and 



BANKS IN INDIA 


215 


to advise and • assist them in floating of new loans and in their 
financial matters. 

Miscellaneous functions — ^The Reserve Bank of India has a 
number of other functions including the administration of exchange 
control, _ participation in the ownership and management of the 
Industrial Finance Corporation, special responsibilities with regard 
to rural credit, the supply of various forms of currency, the exten- 
sion of remittance facilities, the management of clearing houses 
and the publication of banking statistics. 

Reserve Bank Developments — The Reserve Bank of India 
(Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act was enacted on 
13ec. 30, 1953. The Act seeks to enlarge the scope of financial occo- 
modation by the Reserve Bank for productive purposes and also to 
enable the Reserve Bank to reintroduce high denominational notes. 
Accordingly the Reserve Bank of India commenced issuing new 
notes of the denomination of Rs. 1,000, Rs. 6,000 and Rs. 10,000 from 
April 1, 1964. 

Keeping in view the requirements of monetery and credit poli- 
cies in the context of the Second Five-Year Plan, the Reserve Bank 
Act has been amended vesting the Bank with power to vary 
reserve requirements of scheduled banks. The amendment has set 
up a system of flexible reserve ratios, giving the Bank the power to 
vary the cash reserves which scheduled banks have to maintain with 
the Reserve Bank between 5 and 20 per cent in th case of demand 
liabilities and between 2 and 8 per cent in the case of time liabilities 
as against the present ratios which remain fixed at 5 per cent and 2 
per cent respectively, under Section 42 of the Reserve Bank' of 
India Act. 

The currency reserve provision (Sections 33 and 37) have also 
been amended. It provides for a minimum holding of Rs. 400 crores 
in foreign securities and of Rs. 115 crores in gold in the Issue 
Department of the Bank; the existing requirement is that not less 
than 40 per cent of the assets of the Issue Department must 
consist of gold coin, gold bullion or foreign securities provided that 
the amount of gold coin and gold bullion is not at any time 
less than 40 crores in value, gold being valued for this purpose 
at the rate of Rs. 21-3-10 per tola. The amendment also pro'vides 
for revaluing the gold holdings of the Bank at the rate agreed to by 
the International Monetary Fund, namely, Rs. 62-8 per tola (i.e., 
equivalent of Rs. 35 an announce). 

Bill Market Scheme — was introduced in January 1952, under 
which advances were introduced to Scheduled Banks on the security 
of usance promissory notes of their constituents. This ensured the 
grant of credit against bonafide transactions and at the same time 
imparted flexibility to the monetory policy of the Bank. The Bill 
Market Scheme was originally available to scheduled banks with 
deposits of Ife. 100 million ; it was later extended to banks with 
deposits of over Rs. 50 million in June 1963 and in July 1954 ; it was 
extended to all scheduled banks in possession of a_ licence from the 
Reserve Bank, irrespective of their total deposits. Though the 
scheme is based on ad hoc bills it has obviated the need to purchase 



216 


HINDUSTAN 1ZAR-B00K 


securities, "wHle providing at the same time a substitute instrument 
for credit expansion. The minimum limit of advances under the 
Bill Market Scheme is novr a million rupees ; the minimum for an 
individual bill is Rs. 50,000. 

Agricultural Credit Department — The Reserve Bank of India 
from its very inception, has had an Agricultural Credit Department. 
It is the statutory obligation of the Bank to render all possible help 
to agricultural credit. The Reserve Bank provides accommoda- 
tion to the co-operative movement through the apes co-ope- 
rative banks at a concessional rate of li per cent for financing 
seasonal agricultural operations. The benefit of these advances 
■were derived by two States — Madras and Bombay— ^'which have an 
organised co-operative movement. But the most important step 
taken by the l^serve Bank "was the appointment of an expert com- 
mittee in August 1951 to organise a Rural Credit Survey. 

In pursuance of the recommendations of the All India Rural 
Credit Survey Committee, two funds, viz^ the National Agricultural 
Credit (long term operations) Fund -with an initial smn of Rs. 10 
crores and the National Agricultural Credit (stabilization) Fund to 
which the Bank’s annual contribution shall not be less than Rs. 1 
crore were started. While the long-term Operation Fund would make 
loans and advances to State Govemmente for subscribing to the 
share capital of Co-operative Credit Institutions and to the central 
land mortgage banks, the Stabilization Fund would make medium 
term bonus and advances to State Co-operative Banks to enable them 
to convert short-term credit into medium term credit wherever 
necessary. 


LIABILmES AND ASSETS OF RESERVE BANK OF INDIA 
(i) Issue Department 
(in Lakhs of Rupees) 

Notes held Notes in Total liabi- Gold coin 


SOth 

J^ine. 

in Banking circulation 
Dept. 

litics (total 
nates issued) 
or Assets 

ajid bulli- 
on held in 
India 

Foreign 

Securities 

1950 

36,61 

1,168,53 

1,205,14 

40,02 

638,15 

1951 

34,84 

1,257,48 

1,292,32 

40.02 

678.15 

1952 

34,40 

1,129,48 

1,163,88 

40.02 

583.15 

1953 

38,47 

1,136,32 

1,174,78 

40,02 

603.15 

19,54 

41,08 

1,172.03 

1.213.12 

40.02 

653.15 

1955 

31,78 

1,309,76 

1.341.55 

40.02 

652,05 


Total Gold coin 



& bullion & 

Rupee 

coin 

SOth June 

foreign 

securities 

1950 

678,17 

55,30 

1951 

718,17 

57,52 

1952 

623,17 

76,08 


Govt, of India 
Ritpce SCC7I- 
rities 


471,67 

516.63 

454.63 


P.C. of gold 
coin & bul- 
lion & 
foreign 
securities 
to total 
liabilities 
56-27 
55-57 
53-54 



BANKS IN INDIA 


217 


1953 

643,17 

91,76 

439,86 


64-76 

1954 


693,17 

98,73 

421,22 


57-14 

1955 


692,06 

105,84 

543,65 


51.59 



(ii) Banking Department 





(In Lakhs of Rupees 




K 

’ic- 


tz 

©5 K 


_ C. 

£w: C 
«- 

-= at; 


c5 S 

o 

.2 = 
ec 

c 

jS 

sc 

c 


c e 
a.O'-;s 


e 


ic c 

o 

1950 

10,00 

271,89 

3,81 

12,14 

297,83 

36,74 

1951 

10,00 

310,00 

2,37 

9,82 

332,19 

34,98 

1952 

10,00 

241,54 

3,31 

8,01 

262,87 

34,56 

1953 

10,00 

247,02 

1,96 

14,68 

273,66 

38,69 

1954 

10,00 

241.45 

2.18 

20,97 

274,60 

41.33 

1955 

10,10 

146,18 

6,95 

23,40 

186,53 

31,91 


Jz 


-4 » 




S 



o 

St 




a, ^ z 

v* 

nd 1.^ 


<^2 § o 




e c 

“2 £ 
5^ 9 

222 
e § C 

c 2 V 

o: 

sec 
e a 

c ^ 

1 

*5,2 
to ^ 

S to 

Other 

assets 


1950 

1,76 

189,25 

93 

10,01 

57,05 

1951 

2,09 

178,35 

7,50 

18,71 

88,12 

1952 

10,19 

98,24 

1,68 

28,28 

86,94 

1953 

14,60 

111,70 

3,40 

20,88 

79,80 

1954 

5,83 

92,65 

47 

37,47 

91,31 

1955 

11,72 

60,91 

76 

28.24 

46,39 


VWJWA. •vr \J,i, 

(Statistical Tables relating to banks in India, 1955) 


2,10 

2,44 

3,08 

4.59 
5,56 

6.59 


(2) INDIAN BANKS 
(a) State Bank of India 

The State Bank of India vras the ontcoine of the recommendation 
of the Committee of Direction of the All India Rural Credit Survey 
appointed by the Reserve Bank of India in August 1951. The Com- 
mittee recommended the setting up of a State Bank as one strong in- 
tegrated state-partnered commercial banking institution •with an 
effective machinery of branches spread over the whole country for 
stimulating banking development by providing vastly extended remitt- 
ance facilities for co-operative and other banks and follo'wing a policy 
which would be in effective consonance with national policies adopted 
by Government ■without departing from the canons of sound business. 
The Committee was of the view that the State Bank of India should 
be formed by taking over the Imperial Bank of India and other State- 
associated banks. Accordingly the State Bank of India Act was 
passed in 1955. 



218 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


The State Bank of India came into being on July _1, 1955, 
when the entire undertaking of the Imperial Bank of India including 
all its assets and liabilities was transferred to it. The State 
Bank has an authorised capital of Es. 20 crores and an issued capital 
of Rs. 5,62,50,000, which stands allotted to it in lieu of the shares of 
the Imperial Bank of India. The Reserve Bank of India holds at 
least 55 per cent of the issued share capital and may transfer the 
balance of 45 per cent of the State Bank shares to private share- 
holders, preference being given to the existing shareholders of the 
Imperial Bank of India. The erstwhile shareholders have been paid 
compensation at the rate of Rs. 1,765-10-0 for every fully paid up 
share and Rs. 431-12-4 for every partly paid share. 

The management of the Bank vests in Central Board consist- 
ing of (1) a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman appointed by the 
Central Government in consultation with the Reserve Bank. (2) not 
more than two Managing Directors, if any, to be appointed by the 
Central Board with the approval of the Central Government, (3) six 
directors elected by the shareholders, other than the Reserve 
Bank, whose names are entered in the various branch registers, 
(4) eight directors nominated by the Central Government in 
consultation with the Reserve Bank to represent territorial and econo- 
mic interests, (6) one director nominated by the Central Govern- 
ment and (6) one director nominated bjr the Reserve Bank. 

The State Bank continues to provide credit to industiY, trade 
and commerce as the Imperial Bank used to do. In addition, it is 
e:^ected to assist banking development on more vigorous lines. It 
will open about 400 branches within a period of five years. It will 
provide considerably larger remittance facilities and attempt to mobi- 
lise available rural savings. Later, with an expanded organisation 
and with development in warehousing and marketing, the State Bank 
is ej^ected to be a powerful agency for enlarging the supply of rural 
credit. The Reserve Bank will continue to provide assistance for the 
extension of rural credit through the apex co-operative banks, as at 
present 

The State Bank shall, if so required by the Reserve Bank, act as 
agent of the Reserve Bank at all places in India where it has a branch 
and where there is no branch of the Banking Department of the 
Reserve Bank. With the sanction of the Central Government, the 
State Bank may also enter into negotiations for acquiring the business, 
including the assets and liabilities, of any banking institution. 


1950 

1951 

1952 


Liabilities and Assets of the State Bank of India 


(In Lakhs of Rupees) 


Paid-up 

Capital Reserves 

Total 

Deposits 

Cash 
in hand 

Cash in 
Banics 

Invest- 

ments 

(Govt. 

Securi- 

. 5,63 

6,33 

231,37 

7,17 

21,01 

ties) 

107,15 

. 5,63 

6,35 

230,91 

6,71 

22,86 

68,93 

. 5,63 

6,35 

205,85 

3,65 

21,90 

80,64 



BANKS IN INDIA 


1953 

1954 

1955 


1950 

1951 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 


5,63 

5,63 

5,63 


6,35 

6,35 

6,35 


206,97 

231,13 

225,77 


3.69 

3.70 
3,42 


15.95 
32,67 

25.96 


Other invest- 
ments 
. . 14,40 
. , 16,23 

. . 16,61 
. . 13,19 

. . 13,77 

.. 12,02 


Loans 
& Ad- 
nances 
94,44 
133,66 
107,12 
92,03 
96,15 
90,55 


Bills discounted 
& purchased Net profit 
7,51 1.25 

8.81 1.30 

6,05 1.33 

14,28 1.27 

6,17 1.37 

16,80 4,36 


219 

80.95 

94.95 
104,96 


No. of 
offices 
382 
393 
410 
424 
455 
484 


(Statistical Tables Relating Banks m India, 195 ). 

Joint-stock Banks or Other Indian Scheduled Banks 

Other Indian scheduled hanks are Indian* Scheduled 

India and 15 major exchange banks, ^ese otner x 
Banks are re^stered under are sub-divided into 

Known also as the Joint-Stock Banks, tney Reserves 

four classes, namely (a) t^ose clpitel and Rese^es 

of Rs. 5 lakhs and over ^nd other divisions 

between one lakh and less than Ks. 5 laans anu 

with less capital and reseiwes. . nrvmTncrcial banks. These 

Indian Scheduled Banks are f^dlities^ They receive 

Banks provide India s internal ci ^ 

deposits or mortgages, p„„RanKe securities, grain or 

counts, advance loans against stock exchan^ .jT^ey 

cloth, buy and sell shares and transact other b ng^ render 

keep the valuables of their austonwrs in saf^ 

other services to their customers. The a^cuiru j ^jj^j^ers and 

banks is small and is generally confined to Dig 

planters. 

LIABILITIES & ASSETS OF OTHER INDIAN SCHED 

banks 

(In lakhs of Rupees) 


1950 

1951 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 


■»-. ej 

S-’e 

£ 

Q OQ 

o 

<5 S 

:i’i 

03 

t? 



« 


.. 74 
.. 75 
.. 75 
.. 72 

.. 71 

.. 71 

30,23 

28,82 

28,08 

27,12 

27,03 

27,22 

20.33 
20,98 
20,30 

20.37 

20.34 

20.38 

522,70 

617,34 

509.52 

633.04 

686,08 

561,55 



39,67 

37,30 

33,42 

33,73 

32,88 

35,49 


e 

eo 

B 

O 

51,48 

48,44 

50.00 

46,68 

54,23 

63,31 



222 HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


1952 

20,67 

3,69 

42,01 

1,68 

52 

1,330 

1953 

20,49 

4,15 

41,90 

1,64 

62 

1,262 

1954 

21,69 

4,99 

40,79 

1,65 

62 

1,199 

1955 

25,47 

5,65 

41,42 

2,11 

53 

1,169 


TOTAL ASSETS AND LLABILITIES OF SCHEDULED AND 
NON-SCHEDULED BANKS 



No. of 
Banks 

Paid-up 

Capital 

s> 

5 

CO 

o 

Ci 

Total 

deposits 

Cash in 
hand 

Cash 
in Bank 

1950 

605 

46,11 

30,56 

1,001,90 

56,53 

93,40 

1951 

566 

43,84 - 

31,31 

988,08 

54,53 

96,88 

1952 

531 

43,20 

31,26 

954,65 

45,81 

90,03 

1953 

521 

41,82 

31,40 

969,39 

45,81 

78,90 

1954 

498 

41,46 

31,50 

1,062,53 

44,97 

105,16 

1955 

474 

41,30 

31,49 

1,154,72 

48,66 

97,69 


t ^ 

t-. s 

§ 

Is ?(i 

'3| 

2§ 

=511 

t 

*??■ 


53 — * 

S ” 
o ? 

?> 

O.g 

<3,2 

^ s & 



1950 

388,95 

51,00 

486,17 

66,91 

8,11 

4,310 

1951 

321,94 

53,41 

590,93 

75,46 

9,58 

4,115 

1952 

339,78 

52,99 

516,01 

62,45 

7,81 

3,976 

1953 

348,69 

51,81 

488,40 

84,03 

7,47 

3,943 

1954 

368,32 

56,71 

539,62 

89,24 

7,79 

3,964 

1955 

407,68 

59,31 

587,18 

133,40 

8,81 

4,027 


EARNINGS & EXPENSES OP INDIAN NON-SCHEDULED 

BANKS 


1951 

No. of 
Banks 

(In Lakhs 

Earnings 

of Rupees) 

Expenses 

Disposal of 
net profits 
& accumu- 
lated sur- 
pluses 

Allocation 
of sums 
available 

59 

1,93-0 

1,70-2 

15-3 

15-3 

1952 

61 

2,10-6 

1,87-8 

14-2 

14-2 

1953 

56 

1,96-3 

1,63-3 

31-2 

31-2 

1954 

67 

2,12-8 

1,76-1 

35-4 

35-4 

1955 

59 

2,37-1 

2,00-0 

26-3 

26.3 


(.Statistical Tables Relating Banks in India, 1955). 



BANKS IN INDIA 


223 


EARNINGS & EXPENSES OF INDIAN SCHEDULED BANKS 
(In Lakhs of Rupees) 

Disposal of 
net profits 

& accumw- Allocation 


1951 

No. of 
Banks 

Earnings 

Total 

Expenses 

lated sur- 
pluses 

of sums 
available 

72 

32,28-0 

24,77-1 

10,41-2 

10,41-2 

1952 

73 

34,38-2 

26,94-6 

8,16-1 

8,16-1 

1953 

68 

34,33-7 

27,82-0 

7,44-2 

7,44-2 

1954 

70 

37,18-7 

30,15-1 

7,94-1 

7,94.1 

1955 

69 

41,45-4 

34,08-8 

8,30-8 

8,30.8 


(Statistical Tables relating Banks in India 1955). 


(C) CO-OPERATIVE BANKS 

The Co-operative Banking organization owes its origin to the 
Co-operative Credit Societies Act of 1904. This Act was further 
amended by the Act of 1912. Under Co-operative Societies Act, all 
classes of registered societies whether in themselves prima)^ units 
or federation of constituent societies are spoken as ‘Societies.’ In 
actual practice, however, the primary units are in some provinces 
known as banks and in others as societies. Co-operative Banks com- 
prised State and Central co-operative banks, and registered non-a^- 
cultural (urban) Co-operative Credit Societies, with limited liability, 
each having minimum paid-up capital and reserves of Rs. 1 lakL 
They are sub-divided into two classes, namely ‘A’ bank or banks 
with capital and reserves of Rs. 5 lakhs and above each, and ‘B’ 
banks or banks with capital and reserves ranging between Rs. one 
lakh and P-s. 6 lakhs each. 

The Co-operative Banking system consists of the Provincial 
Bank at apex, the affiliated Central Banks, and lastly the primary 
societies affiliated to the Central Banks. According to the rules 
framed under the Act, these banks cannot generally lend to non- 
members. 

The functions of Co-operative Banks are as follows ; — 

(1) Attracting deposits from money-lenders and professional 
classes. (2) Lending money to the primary co-operative societies. 
(3) Taking away the excess fund of a Co-operative Society and uti- 
lising it for making up the deficiency of others. (4) Supervising 
and guiding the actions of affiliated Societies. 

LIABILITIES AND ASSETS OF ALL CO-OPERATIVE BANKS 




93 

O 

03 

- 

5* 

Q 03 

s w 

t ^ 

^3, 

p 

o 

03 

■H S. 


03 


5 e 

o 

« 

o o 
E-iC) 

o.§ 

oJ 

417 

9^0 

9,29 

100,99 

3,81 

7,78 

460 

10,55 

10,29 

105,80 

3,62 

8,00 


1950- 51 

1951- 62 



224 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


1952-53 

i'll 

12,27 12,01 

115,37 3,39 

8,52 36,17 

1953-54 

542 

14,69 12,67 

129,39 3,73 

8,84 38,70 

1954-55 

572 

16,96 13,77 

144,95 4,10 

14,89 42,11 


Loans & Advances 

Net profit 

No. of ofiices 

1950-51 


. . 73,65 

1,12 

823 

1951-52 


. . 82,24 

1,26 

869 

1952-53 


. . 87,49 

1,29 

920 

1953-54 


. . 98,71 

1,37 

1,014 

1954-55 


.. 107,74 

1,55 

1,113 


FOREIGN SCHEDULED (Exchange) BANKS 

The main business of the Exchange Banks is financing the 
foreign trade of India. The Exchange Banks are all incorporated 
outside India. They purchase bills in foreign currency, grant loans 
against shipping and other documents. They also play some little 
part in the financing of inland trade mainly for the movement^ of 
goods for export or of goods imported. But now they are extending 
their operations in the interior of the country and are receiving 
deposits also on saving and fixed accounts and are engaged in financ- 
ing the internal trade of India. Because the Banking Companies Act 
of 1949 requires banks to maintain 75 per cent of the liabilities 
in the form of assets inside of India, the exchange banks’ internal 
financial operations are likely to increase. 

The Exchange Banks furnish the immediate link with the out- 
side world of trade and commerce. Primarily the exchange banks 
specialise in the finance of foreign trade and their beginning dates 
back to the Oriental Banking Corporation in 1842. 

The Exchange Banks are — National Bank of India, Lloyds Bank, 
Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, Grindlays Bank, 
Hongkong and Shanghai Bankiitg Corporation, Mercantile Bank of 
India, Eastern Bank, National City Batik of Netp York, Bank of 
Tokyo, British Sank of Middle East. Netherlands Trading Society, 
American Express Co., Comptoir National D’Escompte de Paris, 
Bank of China. 

Foreign Scheduled Banks 
(In Lakhs of Rupees) 


1950 

1951 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 


No. of 
Banks 


16 

16 

15 

16 
16 
17 


All de- 
posits 


174,16 

169.84 
176,50 

165.84 
178,49 
195,13 


Invcst- 


Cash 
in hand 
& banks 

menfs 
(Govts. 
Securi- 
ties & 

Loans 
& Ad- 
vances 

Bills dis- 
counted 
& pur- 
chased 

Net 

profit 


others) 




19,13 

50,61 

112,73 

23,01 

2,09 

24,84 

46,30 

148,69 

25,83 

. 3,14 

16,83 

44, SB 

131,00 

19,31 

1,87 

14,59 

47,00 

110,71 

20,44 

1,39 

16/)5 

48,23 

124,94 

25,75 

1,25 

17,80 

49,67 

141,79 

31,88 

1,68 


{Siaiistical Tables Relating Banks in India, 1955). 



BANKS IN INDIA 


225 . 


INDIGENOUS BANKS 

A large part of India’s credit is absorbed by agriculture, small- 
scale manufacturing and retail trade. Pew such borrowers are able 
to obtain credit from either scheduled or non-scheduled banks and 
must turn to less strict sources of credit such as indigenous bankers, 
money lenders, loan offices, mutual aid societies or co-operatives. 

The indigenous bankers are those who carry on banking business 
according to traditional Indian methods. They are known as Shroffs. 
Saimkers, Nidhis, Chettiyars. The Indian Central Banking Enquiry 
Committee defines an indigenous banker or bank as an individual or 
private firm receiving deposits and dealing in hundis or lending 
money. Those who do not receive deposits were to be known as 
money lenders. Their business is generally a family concern. They 
supply their own capital. Some of them also accept deposits from 
the public. Their main function is to grant loans against the secu- 
rity of gold or ornaments. Government Securities etc. They grant 
loans to village money-lenders, banias and small artisans. They 
finance movement of agricultural crops from one part of the country 
to another by drawing hundis or internal bills of exchange. They 
also discount hundies. Indigenous bankers are generally divided into 
three categories — (1) Those who confine their business in banking 
proper, (2) those who are principally traders or merchants but employ 
surplus funds in banking business and (3) those who are both bankers 
and traders and cannot be easily classified as principally bankers 
or principally traders. The indigenous bankers are found to render 
valuable services in connection with financing of internal trade and 
middle sized and small industries and inland remittance works. 

LAND MORTGAGE BANKS 

Royal Commission on Agriculture in India in 1928 and Banking 
Enquiry Committee in 1930 recommended that Land Mortgage Banks 
based on co-operative principles are desirable in many parts of India. 
The principal objects of these banks should be the redemption of the 
land and houses of the agriculturists and liquidation of old debts. 
Other objects are improvements of land and of methods of cultiva- 
tion and the building of houses of agriculturists and purchase of land 
in special cases. 

Land Mortgage Banks have been started under the auspices of 
the co-operative movement in the Punjab, Madras, Bombay, Bengal 
and Assam, but the beginning is very small. 

I5IPORTANT BANKING DEVELOPMENTS 

Banking Companies Act — ^The Act was passed on Feb. 17, 
1949 and applied to all banking companies except co-operative banks. 
Banking has been defined as “the accepting for the purpose of lend- 
ing or investment, of deposits of money from the public, repayable 
on demand or otherwise, and withdrawable by cheque, ^aft, order or 
otherwise.” 

Under the Banking Companies Act, 1949, the business which a 

15 



228 


HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


and National Agricultural Credit (Stabilisation) Fund. The Eeserve 
Bank constituted the first of these, the National Agricultural Credit 
(Long term Operations) Fund, on February 8, 1956, with an initial 
sum of Es. 10 crores. An annual contribution of not less than Es. 5 
crores for the five years commencing from June 30, 1956 is to be made 
towards this Fund. The Fund will make loans and advances to State 
Governments for subscribing to the share capital of co-operative 
credit institutions and to central land mortgage banks. The first loan 
out of the Fund for Es. 8 lakhs were sanctioned to the Government 
of Madras for contribution to share capital of large-sized credit 
societies. 

The Stabilisation Fund would make medium term loans and 
advances to State Co-operative Banks to enable them to convert short 
term credit into medium-term credit whenever necessary. 

TEAINING IN BANKING — (1) Bankers’ Training College was 
opened at Bombay on the 14th September, 1954 by the Eeserve Bank 
of India for imparting training in practical banking to supervisory 
staff of commercial banks. Students will be trained in all aspects of 
banking and a dummy bank would be opened in the institution to 
give more practical work to them. 

(2) Co-operative Training Centre has been opened in Poona for 
training workers of the co-operative banks in India. 

(3) Baroda University has opened training course in banking 
at Baroda. The course is meant for graduates in banking who 
wish to take banking as a profession. 


INDIAN JOINT-STOCK BANKS, 1955 
Number of Banks 


I. Indian Banks 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

(i) Scheduled (Al) 

' (ii) Non-Scheduled — 

76 

73 

72 

72 

A2 

70 

67 

65 

64 

B 

194 

196 

191 

190 

C 

114 

114 

116 

105 

; D 

60 

54 

37 

25 


, 

. 



. Total of (i) & (n) 

(iii) Co-operative 

514 

504 

481 

456 

■A 

90 

104 

124 

140 

B 

360 

373 

418 

432 


■■ 

.1 



.. 

Total of (iii) 

450 

477 

542 

572 

. ' Total ({), (ii) & (Hi) 

II. Foreign Banks — 

964 

981 

1,023 

1,028 

(i) Scheduled 

15 

16 

16 

17 

(ii) Non-Scheduled 

2 

1 

1 

1 


-1 

■ — 

- — 

__ 

. • . Total I & II 

981 

998 

1,040 

1,046 

.; (Statistical Tables relating Banks 

in India, 

1955). 



BANKS IN INDIA 


'229 


POST OFFICE SAVINGS BANK TRANSACTION’S 



No. of 
depositors 
(000) 

Deposits 
including 
interest 
(in lakhs) 
of Re.) 

With- 
drawals 
(in lakhs 
of Rs.) 

Balances 
(in lakhs 
of Rs.) 

Average 

balance 

per 

depositor 

Rs. 

1951 

. . 4,090 

110,19 

93,80 

185,06 

452-5 

1962 

. . 4,446 

121,33 

108,65 

199,81 

449-4 

1953 

. . 4,830 

124,49 

106,74 

217,68 

450-7 

1954 

. . 6,070 

141,18 

126,91 

231,96 

457-5 

1955 

. . 6,384 147,17 122,63 256,49 476-4 

(Statistical Tables relating Banks in India 1955). 

NUMBER OP CHEQUES & AMOUNTS CLEARED, 1954 

No, of Amount in No. of Amount in 

cheques lakhs cheques lakhs 

Calcutta 

80,35,485 

3,066,31 

Delhi 

22,61,751 

233,03 

Bombay 

1,33,44,912 

2,995,63 

Bangalore 

9,16,400 

102,94 

Madras 

Kanpur 

41,45,873 

8,95,789 

412,21 

146,11 

Others 

68,62,953 

364,63,163 

872,88 

7,819,01 


STATE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL INDIAN JOINT-STOCK 


Andhra 


BANKS, 

No. of 
Banks 

6 

1955 

Paid-up 
Capital 
(Rs. 000) 
48,07 

Reserves 
(Rs. 000) 
15,86 

' No. of 
offices 
182 

Assam 


4 

12,36 

3,26 

29 

Bihar 


7 

69,21 

21,64 

144 

Bombay 


.. 42 

8,94,05 

10,03,94 

641 

M, P. 


4 

47,76 

4,20 

161 

Madras 


.. 139 

4,16,61 

77,27 

766 

Orissa 


2 

27 

4,25 

17 

Tunjab 


.. 12 

68,25 

88,69 

206 

U. P. 


.. 21 

1,78,88 

45,23 

414 

W. Bengal 


.. 27 

11,12,96 

8,77,69 

188 

Hyderabad 


6 

81,10 

66,90 

98 

M. B. 


3 

19,29 

29,56 

63 

3Iysor6 


.. 16 

86,62 

1,02,52 

128 

BEPSU 


1 

16.00 

64,94 

77 

"Rajasthan 


8 

1,82,66 

90,46 

- IVl 

Saurashtra 


3 

1,03,65 

48,86 

‘ 105 

Travancore-Cochin 

.. 137 

3,30,05 

1,11,66 

656 

Ajmer 


1 

41 

13 

11 

Bhopal 

• 

1 

12,60 

30 

6 


'230 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


Coorg 

■ * • • 

• • • • 



6 

Cutch 


• • • • 


, , 

6 

Delhi 

Pradesh 

.. 12 

3,99,29 

2,71,82 

94 

Himachal 

• • • • 



7 

Manipur 

, , 

1 

14,08 

98 

1 

Tripura 


1 

16,85 

34 

3 

Vihdhya Pradesh 

1 

20,00 

13,53 

10 

Jammu & 

Kashmir 

1 

7,86 

4,85 

.22 

Pondicherry 

.. 

•• 

•• 

4 



455 

41,29,68 

31,49,14 

3,959 

■ 

{Statistical Tables Relating to Banks in India, 1955). ; 



MONEY RATES IN INDIA 





{per cent per annum) 





Call 

Loan rate (b) 




{S. 

B. of India) 



; . 

Bank 

rate 

Treasuri 
Bill rate 
{Average] 

5 lakhs 
or over 

Below 

5 lakhs 

1 

ts 

4i 

Advances 
rate {d) 

s.b: of 

India 

1952-53 

.. Zl 

2-22 

35 32 

4 

1953-54 

.. 3J 

2-46 

Zh 32 

,4i • 

4^- 

1954-55 

.. 3i 

2-53 

Si 32 

4i 

4 

1955-56 

.. 3J 

2-52 

3i 32 

6or4i 

4 


(a) The standard rate at ■which the Keserve Bank of India is pre- 
.pared to buy or rediscount bills of exchange or other commercial 
paper eligible for purchase under the Reserve Bank of India Act. 

; (b) Basic advances rate of State Bank for demand loans taken 

.to, scheduled banks against government securities. 

■j ; (c) The rate at which the State Bank discounts first class three 

.months commercial bills. 

’ ^ ' (d) The general advances rate at which the State Banlr grants 

■advances to the public against gdvenrment securities. 

{Report of Currency & Finance, 1955-56). 



PUBLIC FINANCE 

Indian’s Public Finance — ^Under the Constitution of India, the 
power to raise funds has been divided between the Centre and the 
States. So there is more than one budget and one public treasury in 
the country. In fact there is a number of consolidated funds of India. 
In accordance with Article 266 of the Constitution, the Central and 
State Governments are required to set up the "Consolidated Fnnd of 
India" and the "Consolidated F^inda of the States respectively.” All 
revenues received by the Government of India and the Government 
of a State are to be credited in their respective consolidated funds. 
No money is to be, appropriated from the Consolidated Fund of India 
or of a State except in accordance with an Appropriation Act, passed 
by Parliament or the legislature of the State concerned. Provision 
has also been made for the establishment of a Contingency Fund of 
India and a Contingeeny Fund for each State to meet unforeseen 
expenditure pending proper authorisation by the appropriate 
legislature. 

The Constitution provides for the appointment of a Comptroller 
and Auditor-General of India by the President to keep wateh on tho 
finances and accounts of the Union and the States. It is his respon- 
sibility to see that the expenses voted by Parliament or the legisla- 
ture of a State and laid down in the Appropriation Act are not ex- 
ceeded and varied. 

Towards tho be^nning of the financial year in April, the esti- 
mates of receipts and expenditure are presented to Parliament by the 
Central Government and before the lepslaturcs by the State Govern- 
ment, and no expenditure can bo incurred without a specific grant 
being made for that puipose. Certain routine items of expenditure 
which cannot await legislative sanction are however, non-votable. 
These items are chargeable to the Consolidated Fund of India or 
those of the State Governments concerned. 

Allocation of revenue — ^The main source of the Central revenues 
are customs duties, excises, the Corporation and income taxes, estate 
and succession duty on non-agricidtural assets and property and the 
earnings of the mints. Besides the railway and posts and telegraphs 
contribute to the general revenue of the Centre. As much as 90 per 
cent of the total central revenue is derived from the customs and 
Union excise duties and the Corporation and income taxes. 

The main heads of revenue in the State budgets are the taxes 
other than tho union taxes, earnings from forests, fisheries and State 
enterprises and subventions and ^ants-in-aid from the Union. More 
than half of the income tax levied by the Central Government ac- 
crues to tho States. Taxes on aprricultural income constitute an ex- 
clusively state subject. Other State sources include excise duties 
on liquors, opium and other narcotics, sales tax, taxes on consump- 
tion or sale of electricity, taxes on goods and passengers carried by 
road or on inland, waterways, taxes on certain vehicles including 



232 


HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


tram cars, taxes on animals and boats, tolls, taxes on proiessions, 
trades, callings and employment, capitation taxes, stamp duties and 
taxes on luxuries and amusements. 

Devolution of taxes and grants-in-aid. — ^A major change in res- 
pect of devolution of taxes and grants-in-aid to State Governments 
took place in 1952-53 as a result of the acceptance of the Finance 
Commission’s recommendation by the Government of India. 

(1) An increase in the States’ share of the net proceeds of in- 
come tax from 50 p.c. to 55 p.c. of which four-fifths wBl be allocated 
on the basis of population and the balance on the basis of collection 
(2) allocation of 40 p.c. of the net proceeds of Union excise duties 
to States on a population basis (3) an increase in grants-in-aid to 
Assam, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal in lieu of a share in the 
export duty on jute and jute products (4) additional grants-in-aid to 
certain States which are in need of assistance and special grants to 
certain less-developed States for expansion of primary education 
facilities. 

Taxation — A. Taxation Enquiry Commission was constituted in 
April 1953 to examine inter alia, the incidence of the tax system in 
India, its suitability with reference to the country’s development 
programme and the resources required for it, and the objective of 
reducing inequalities of income and wealth ; the effects of taxation 
of income on capital formation and maintenance and development of 
productive enterprise ; and the use of taxation as a fiscal instru- 
ment in dealing with inflationary and deflationary situations. The 
Report contains far-reaching recommendations for widening and 
deepening the tax structure with a view to raising finance for deve- 
lopmental purposes without jeopardising investment and employment 
in the private sector. This objective is to be achieved through in- 
creases in the rates of income and commodity taxation as well as 
an extension of their coverage both as the Centre and in the States, 
and through adjustments in the scheme of taxation, including reduc- 
tion in its level at points, with a view to stimulating capital forma- 
tion and development of productive enterprise. 

Finance Commission — Art. 280 lays down that President, 
shall within two years from the commencement of the Constitu- 
tion and_ there-after at the expiration of every fifth year or at such 
earlier time as the President considers necessary, constitute a 
Finance Commission. It shall be the duty of the Commission to 
make recommendations as to (a) the distribution between the Union 
and the States of the net proceeds of taxes which are to be 
or may be divided' between them and "the allocation between the 
States of the respective shares of such proceeds (6) the principles 
which should govern the grants-in-aid of the revenues of the States; 
out _ of the Consolidated Fund of India and (c) the continuance or 
modification of the. terms of any agreement entered into by the Gov- 
ernment of India v^th the govt.-'of any Part' B 'States (d) any .other 
matter referred to the Commission by the President in the interest of 
sound finance. 

A Finance Commission has been appointed under Article 280 (1) 
of the Constitution for a period of fifteen months commencing from 



PUBLIC FINANCE 


233 


June 1, 1956. This is the second Finance Commission, the first having 
submitted its report on December 31, 1962. The Commission will 
make recommendations regarding the distribution of divisible Central 
taxes, the principle which should govern the grants-in-aid from the 
Centre to the States and the continuance or modification of the terms 
of agreements entered into by the Central Government and Part B. 
States. The Commission will also go into the following matters (1) 
the sums which may be prescribed as ^ants-in-aid to Assam, Behar, 
Orissa and West Bengal in lieu of assignment of a share of the net 
proceeds of export duty on jute and jute products, (2) assistance by 
way of grants-in-aid under Article 275 to such states as are in need 
of assistance for 2nd Plan (3) the method of distribution of the Estate 
Duty among States, (4) the terms which can be apporpriately fixed 
for different kinds of Central loans to the States. 

UNION GOVERNMENT BUDGET 
REVENUE ACCOUNT 

1955- 56 (Revised Estimates) — ^The revised estimates for 1956-56 
place revenue Rs. 20 crores higher and expenditure Rs 10 crores 
lower than the budget estimates ; the deficit of Rs. 17.4 crores in the 
budget estimates thus turns into a surplus of Rs. 12.3 crores. 

1956- 57 (Budget Estimates) — ^The budget estimates for 1956-67 
place expenditure substantially higher at Rs. 636 crores than the 
levised estimate of Rs. 482 crores for 1955-56. Since revenue at 
existing tax levels would be lower by Rs. 10 crores, at Rs. 484 crores, 
the deficit for 1956-67 is placed at Rs. 62 crores. The fall in 
revenue is mainly under customs duties. The bulk of the increase 
in expenditure is accounted for by developmental services (Rs. 30 
crores) and defence services (Rs. 19 crores). To cover the revenue 
deficit, tax proposals involving changes in both direct and in- 
direct taxes were made, estimated to yield to the Centre an addi- 
tional revenue of Rs. 84.16 crores. Subsequently certain minor con- 
cessions mainly in respect of Corporation taxes and tax on registered 
firms and their partners were given, the revenue effect of which is 
not expected to be more than Rs. 60 lakhs. The revenue deficit is 
now placed at Rs. 18 crores. 

CAPITAL ACCOUNT 

The Capital Account shows small surpluses of Rs. 6.6 crores and 
3Rs, 18 crores in 1955-56 and 1956-57 as compared to a deficit of 
Rs. 62 crores in 1954-65. These are, however, only formal and if 
snot receipts under Treasury bills are excluded, the deficits on capital 
account amount to Rs. 189 crores, Rs. 234 crores and Rs. 338 
crores respectively for 1954-65, 1955-66 (R. E.) and 1956-67 (B. E.). 
The deficits arc largely due to the stepping up of capital outlay, 
which (excluding State Trading Schemes) has increased from Rs. 104 
crores m 1954-56 to Rs. 181 crores in 1956-66 (R. E.) and Rs. 307 
■crores in 1966-57. 

In 1956-56 the Central Government issued a market loan for 
Rs. 100 crores. The total subscriptions amounted to Rs. 104 crores. 
Allowing for repayments, net market borrowing during the year 
amounted to Rs. 33 crores. 



234 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-HOOK 


Capital receipts for 1956-57 are estimated at Es. 704 crores in- 
cluding of internal loan, small savings, and foreign assistance on the 
disbursements side, substantial increases are estimated for 1956-57 as 
compared to 1954-55 and 1955-56 in loans to States and in capital 
outlay. The most significant increases are in respect of industrial 
development and railways. 

REVENUE & EXPENDITURE OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
(REVENUE ACCOUNT) 

(Crores of Rupees) 



Revenue 

(1) Taxes on Income . . 103.64 118.54 126.65 

(-f 7.94) o 

(2) Taxes on Commodities & 

Services (ie. Customs, Im- 
ports & Exports etc.) . . 293.31 305.27 295.73 

(+ 24.90)® 

(3) Taxes on Property & Capital 
Transactions (i.e. Estate 
Duty, Stamp, Registration, 


Land Revenue) 

2.31 

2.30 

2.31 

(4) Total Tax Revenue (l-{-2-l-3) 

399.26 

426.11 

424.69 

(5) Administrative Receipts 

12.96 

16.56 

(-b 32.84) ® 
13.46 

(6) Net Contributions of Public 
Undertakings 

26.92 

27.75 

24.85 

(7) Other Revenue 

10.72 

24.16 

(-{- 0.95) ® 
21.42 ■ 

(8) Total Revenue (4-l-5-|-6-l-7) 

449.86 

494.58 

484.42 , 

Total Expenditure 

416.35 

482.27 

(33.79 ® 
536.25 

Surplus (-f) or Deficit (— ) .. 

-f 33.51 

-f- 12.31 

—18.04 b 

(Report on 

Currency & Finance 

1955-56). 


CAPITAL BUDGET OP THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
(Crores of Rupees) 

. 1954-55 . 1955-56 1956-59 

.(Accounts) (Revised) (Budgsi) 

TOTAL RECEIIPTS .. ■ 409.64 556.21 704.26 

Surplus + or deficit ( — ) .. — 52.20 -f5.52 -1-18.63 

TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS .. 461.84, 550.69 685.63 


(a) Effect of Budget proposals and' subsequent concessions. 

(b) Taking into account the effect of budget proposals and sub- 
sequent concessions. 



PUBLIC FINANCE 


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PUBLIC DEBT 

Central Goremment Debts 


GENERAL — The rising trend in the interest-bearing obligations 
•of the Government of India since 1948-49 continued in 1955-56 with 
a further increase of Rs. 273 crores to Rs. 3,312 crores. The net in- 
crease during Five-Year period 1951-56 amounted to Rs. 750 crores. 
Of the outstanding total as at the end of March 1956, internal obliga- 
tions amounted to Rs. 3,171 crores and external debt Rs. 141 crores. 
The total interest-bearing obligations are estimated to show a rise of 
Rs. 586 crores to Rs. 3,898 crores at the close of March 1957, mainly 
due to an expansion of Rs. 356 crores under floating debt. 

Interest-yielding assets of the Government of India stood at 
Rs. 2,468 crores at the end of 1955-56 or Rs. 202 crores higher than 
at the end of 1954-55 and constituted three-fourths of the .total 
interest-bearing obligations. Interest-yielding assets are estimated 
to show a further sharp rise of Rs. 528 crores to Rs. 2,996 crores by 
the close of 1956-57. 

Composition of Debt — ^At the close of 1955-56, the total rupee 
•debt of the Government of India amounted to Rs. 3,062 cgores as 
against Rs. 2,844 crores at the end of 1954-55. Of this, debt on account 
•of rupee loans amounted to Rs. 1,509 crores in 1955-56. During 
1955-56, outstanding Treasury bills showed a rise of Rs. 123 crores 
to Rs. 695 crores as against an increase of Rs. 137 crores in the pre- 
vious year, the increase over the five years ended March 1956 amount- 
ing to Rs. 237 crores. 

Repatriation of Sterling Debt — ^During 1955-66 debt of the face 
■value of £0.03 million was repatriated at a cost of Rs. 0.03 crores. 
'The total sterling debt repatriated upto the close of 1966-66 amount- 
•ed £329.1 million and the rupee counter parts created totalled 
Rs. 274.2 orores. 

SmaU Savings — ^During 1956-56 net receipts from small savings 
xecorded a 13 per cent rise; gross receipts and repayments totalled 
Rs. 197 crores and Rs. 135 crores as against Rs. 177 crores and, 
Rs. 122 crores respectively in 1954-55. 

Government Balances and ways and means Advances — ^During 
1965-56, cash balances of the Central Government with the Reserve 
Bank of India and at Government Treasuries showed a net decline of 
Rs. 38.1 crores to a debt balance of Rs. 4.6 crores; the net decline 
•during the five-year period 1951-66 amounted to Rs. 166 crores. ■ 



PUBLIC DEBT 


237 


GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ANNUAL TREASURY BILLS 


(Annual & Monthly) 
(In Lakhs of Rupees) 


Year 

Amount 

sold 

Average 
yield p.c. 
per annum 

Amount 
sold in 
favour 
of the 
Reserve 
Bank 
13,94,35 

Amount 
outstanding 
at the end 
of the 
period 

1950-51 



3,58,02 

1951-52 

• * • • 

2-22 

13,35,50 

3,14,34 

1952-53 

. . 42,00 

2-45 

12,36,50 

3,15,29 

1953-54 

. . 56,51 

2-53 

13,09,06 

3,34,95 

1954-55 

. . 23,50 

2-68 

15,23,81 

4,71,87 

1955-56 

. . 55,50 

2.52 

19,94,11 

3,95,25 


INTEREST-BEARING OBLIGATIONS AND INTEREST- 
YIELDING ASSETS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
(Lakhs of Rupees) 


1 INTEREST-BEARING 
OBLIGATIONS 



1962-53 

1953-54 

1954-55 

1955-56 

1956-57 






(Budget) 

In India 

2,499,73 

2,553,85 

2,899,98 

3,170,82 

13,721,14 

In England 

30,23 

28,97 

27,26 

28,20 

22,26 

Dollar Loans 

113,74 

111,80 

111,91 

117,57 

144,94 

U.S.S.R. Loan 

— 

— 

— 

— 

9,20 

TOTAL INTEREST- 





BEARING OBLIGA- 





TIONS 

2,643,70 

2,694,62 

3,039,15 

3,311,59 

3,897,54 

II INTEREST-YIEL- 





DING ASSETS 






(Total) 

1,862,86 

2,003,83 

2,266,08 

2,468,29 

2,995,96 


( (Report on 

Ciirrency & Finance 

, 1955-56) 


DEBT POSITION OF THE GOVERNJIENT OF INDIA 
(Crores of Rs.) 


O 



•a 

1 

03 

■Sc 

hlarkoi 

Rupee 

Loans 

S 

CO 

E-.CS) 

-o £> 

H'S 
<3 « 

1952 

1,403.51 

332.51 

372.57 

1953 

1,403.58 

315.44 

412.61 

1954 

1,364,27 

334,95 

450,51 

1955 

1,474.39 

471.87 

505.70 

1956 

1,508.67 

595.25 

668.20 


o 

•a 



•»«4 

• e 


"b 

O 



o 

H-i- 

EjtS 

O o 

Ek 

a.-s— 

351.24 

2,459,83 

—0.9 

136.99 

361.82 

2,493,45 

-1-1.4 

138.53 

355,44 

2,505,17 

-4-0.5 

136.44 

391.97 

2,843,93 

-fl3.5 

133.20 

390.29 

3,062,41 

-4-7.7 

138.78 



238 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


CENTRAL GOVERNMENT LOANS 
(Outstanding as on March 31, 1956) 
{Lakhs of Rupees) 


3 % Victory Loan 1957 1,14,06,89 

31% National Plan 


3 % Loan 1958 

50,34,63 

Bonds 1961 

75,29,00 

4J% Loan 1958-68 

5,85,73 

3 % Loan 1986 or 


3 % 2hd Victory Loan 




1959-61 

1,13,65,64 

later (Conver- 


23% Loan 1960 ‘ 

45,63,07 

sion Loan of 

- 

4 % Loan 1960-70 

63,30,26 

1946) 

2,48,91,47 

21% Loan 1961 

57,00,69 

3 % Non-terminable 


21% Loan 1962 

75,86,72 

Loan 1896-97 

8,93,35 

•3 % Loan 1963-65 

1,16,17,46 

31% National Plan 


3 % Loan 1964 

30,33,10 

Loan 1964 

1,58,17,34 

3 % Funding Loan 


31 National Plan 


1966-64 

1,10,11,78 

Bond 1965 

1,03,67,92 

3 % 1st Dev. Loan 




1970-75 

1,15,05,83 

(2nd Series) 

15,08,67,34 

23% Loan 1976 

14,77,48 

Loans not bearing 


21% Bhopal War 


interest 

3,14,84 

Bonds 1957 

26-25 



-3 % Bhopal Loan 


TOTAL 

15,11,82,18 

1966-76 

1,21,73 




PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF SJIALL SAVINGS 
{Annual & Monthly — Lakhs of Rupees) 



Total gross 

Total 

Repay- 

Total .net 

Total : out- 

T1951-52 

Receipts 

ments 

Receipts ■ 

• standings 

. . 1,45,26 

1,06,72 

' 38,54 

1,40,80 

1952-53 

. . 1,46,83 

1,06,78 

40,05 

1,80,85 

1953-54 

. . 1,52,71 

1,14,81 

' 37,90 

2,18,75 

1954-55 

. . 1,77,32 

1,22,13 

55,19 

'2,73,94 

1955-56 

. . 1,97,22 

1,34,72 ' . 

■ ■ 62,60 

■ 3,36,44 


TOTAL OF ALL POSTAL SAVINGS 
• {Lakhs of Rupees) 



Total gross 

Total re- 

Total net 

Total 

1950-51 

receipts 

payments 

receipts 

outstandings 

. . 1,30,09 

96,65 

30,44 

. 1,02,27 , 

1951-52 

. . 1,45,26 

1,06,72 

38,54 

1,40,81 

1952-53 

. . 1,46,83 

1,06,78 

40,05 

1,80,86 ■ 

-1953-54 

, . 1,52,71 

1,14,81 

37,90 

2,18,76 

:l964-65 

. . 1,72,66 

1,20,99 

51,67 

• 2,70,43 . 



STATES’ BUDGETS 

PART A STATES 

REVENUE ACCOUNT. — The consolidated budgetary position 
of Part A States on revenue account since 1952-53 is shown below : — 


(Crores of Rupees) 


. 1952-53 

1953-54 

1954-55 

(R.E.) 

1955-56 

(B.E.) 

1956-57 

Revenue 

318.2 

347.0 

368.1 

420.8 

426.1 

Expenditure 

318.3 

347.1 

384.0 

471.4 

488.9 

Surplus(-f )or Deficit(— ) 

-0.1 

-0.1 

-15.9 

—50.6 

-^62.8 

Deficit ( — ) exclusive of 
Revenue Reserve Fund 
Transactions 

-12.1 

-0.1 

-19.6 

-60.7 

-65.4 


GENERAL — Budgets of Part A States show deficits on revenue 
account in all years during the period 1951-56 except in 1951-52. 
Aggregate net deficit during the First Plan period taking into account 
revised estimates for 1955-56, amounts to Rs. 95 crores, part of which 
being financed through withdrawals from Revenue Reserve Funds ; 
the total amount so withdrawn is placed at Rs. 35 crores. In 
1955-56, while a significant rise in expenditure has been indicated, 
revenue does not show a commensurate rise. 

1955- 56 -(Revised Estimates) — Revenue and expenditure were 
both higher than budget estimates by about Rs. 22 crores, the deficit 
remaining virtually unaltered at Rs. 51 crores. While both tax and 
non-tax revenue showed increases, the bulk of the increase 
in non-tax revenue was accounted for by transfers from revenue 
reserve funds (Rs. 10.1 crores). On the expenditure side, non- 
development services accounted for the major part of the rise, 
mainly under famine relief, the provision made for this item being 
Rs. 17.5 crores as against Rs. 4.2 crores in the budget estimates. 

1956- 57 (Budget Estimates) — With revenue higher by Rs. 6 
crores and expenditure by Rs. 18 crores oyer 1955-56, the deficit is 
substantially higher at Rs. 63 crores. Dispite the large deficits, 
only a few States have made specific proposals for additional taxation, 
which are estimated to yield an aggregate additional revenue of over 
Rs. 10 crores. 

Capital Accounts — ^Receipts on capital account have increased 
from Rs. 130 crores in 1951-52 to Rs. 290 crores in 1955-56 (R.E.), 
while disbursements have risen only from Rs. 146 crores to Rs. 275 
crores in the same period. During the five year 1951-52 to 1955-56, 
the annual developmental outlay has increased by Rs. 100 crores to 
to Rs. 180 crores. The comfortable position on capital account is 
largely due to Central loan assistance which has increased from 



240 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Rs. 67 crores in 1951-52 to Rs. 227 crores in 1955-56 (R.E.). In 

1956-57 also, a surplus of Rs. 12 crores is envisaged. 

PART B STATES BUDGET 
REVENUE ACCOUNT 

General — The table below gives the budgetary position on 
revenue account of Part B States — 

(Crores of Rupees) 



1952-53 

1953-54 

1954-55 

1955-56 

1956-57 

Revenue 


102-0 

106.6 

116.4 

(R.E.'i 

118.5 

(B.E.) 

128.3 

Expenditure 


98.7 

101.1 

111.6 

133.7 

141.8 

Surplus ( -f ) 

or deficit( — ) 

-f3.3 

-t-5.5 

-h4.8 

-15.2 

—13.5 

Surplus(-f) or deficit(— ) 
exclusive of revenue re- 
serve fund transactions 

-f3.3 

-t-4.7 

4-4.8 

4-0.6 

-16.3 


Unlibe Part A States which had a revenue account surplus only 
in 1951-52, Part B States had a deficit only in 1955-56 (R.E.) and 
consequently for the Plan period as a whole there was a net surplus 
of Rs. 4.6 crores. 

1956-37 Budget Estimates — ^Budget estimates for 1956-57 place 
revenue at Rs. 128 crores or Rs. 10 crores higher than 1955-56 and 
expenditure at Rs. 142 crores or Rs. 8 crores higher. The deficit is, 
therefore, lower by Rs. 2 crores at Rs. 13 crores. Development ex- 
penditure is expected to rise by Rs. 8 crores over 1955-66. A part of 
the deficit is to be covered by additional tax proposals anticipated to 
yield Rs. li crores. 

Capital Account — Receipts and disbursements of Part B States 
on capital account which amounted to Rs. 35 crores and Rs. 42 crores, 
respectively, in 1951-52 were Rs. 84 crores and Rs. 83 crores in 
1955-56. Unlike Part A States and despite an increase of Central 
loan assistance from Rs. 7 crores to Rs. 62 crores, during the Plan 
period. Part B States show net deficit of Rs. 20 crores on capital ac- 
count. During 1955-56 three Part B States entered the market for 
loans, net borrowing amounting to Rs. 9 crores. 

PART C STATES’ BUDGETS 

The combined revenue account of six Part C States,* namely Aj- 
mer, Bhopal, Coorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Vindhya Pradesh is 
as follows — From a revenue account surplus of Rs. 1.6 crores in 1953- 
64, Part C States show increasing revenue deficits in next three years, 
with estimated deficits of Rs. 59 lakhs in 1955-56 and Rs. 1.0 crore 
in 1956-57 while expenditure has increased from Rs. 12.1 crores in 
1952-53 to Rs. 21.4 crores in 1955-56 and Rs. 23.7 crores in 1956-57, 


‘Figure relate to the undivided state of Madras. 



STATES’ BUDGETS 


241 


revenue does not sViow a similar increase and moreover, about half 
the increase in revenue is accounted for by Central grants and 
contributions. 


BUDGETARY POSITION OF PART A STATES’^ 
(On Revenue Account — In Lakhs of Rupees) 


MADRAS 

Total 

Revenue 

Total 

Expenditure 

Stirplus-)- 

Deficit— 

1953-64 1 

. . 64,38 

64,38 



1954-55 

. . 42,36 

46,27 

— 3,92 

1955-6G (Revised) 

. . 51,63 

63,84 

— 2,21 

1966-67 (Budget) 
BOMBAY 

. . 69,63 

61,19 

— 1,66 

1963-64 

. . 71,03 

69,88 

+ 1,15 

1964-65 

. . 78,01 

70,08 

+ 7,93 

1965-56 (Pujvised) 

. . 78,16 

77,33 

+ 87 

1966-67 (Budget) 
WEST BENGAL 

. . 76,34 

76,11 

+ 23 

1963-64 

. . 37,46 

44,35 

- 6,89 

1964-55 

. . 41,96 

48,46 

64,76 

- 6,50 

1965-66 (Revised) 

. . 49,67 

-15,09 

1966-67 (Budget) 
VTTAR PRADESH 

. . 48,46 

62,65 

-14,19 

1963-54 

. , 71,39 

68,56 

+ 2,83 

1954-65 

. , 72,82 

72,21 

+ 6 

1965-66 (Revised) 

. . 79,03 

79,03 


1956-67 (Budget) 
PUNJAB 

. . 77,97 

87,52 

- 9,55 

1953-54 

. . 19,76 

18,90 

+ 86 

1954-55 

. . 21,83 

19,55 

+ 2,28 

1966-66 (Revised) 

. . 26,76 

29,45 

- 2,69 

1966-57 (Budget) 
BIHAR 

. . 28,76 

29,23 

- 47 

1963-54 

. . 33,17 

31,10 

+ 2,07 

1954-66 

. . 35,35 

41,48 

- 6,13 

1955-56 (Revised) 

. . 39,24 

59,42 

-20,18 

1966-67 (Budget) .. 42,87 

MADHYA PRADESH 

63,76 

-20,88 

1953-54 

. . 24,02 

23,77 

+ 25 

1954-56 

. . 27,22 

27,76 

- 64 

1966-57 (Budget) 

. . 42,87 

63,75 

+ 61 

1955-56 (Budget) 

. . 29,18 

33,00 

— 3,82 


♦Transactions of Kutch, Manipur and Tripura are included in the 
Central Budget, while those of Bilaspur arc in Himachal Pradesh. 
fFigurcs relate to the undivided State of Madras. 

16 



242 

HINDUSTAN 

YEAE-BOOK 



ASSAill 

1953-54 

. . 13,90 

13.31 


59 

1954-55 

. . 15,71 

18,69 

— 

2,98 

1955-56 (Revised) 

. . 20,82 

21,80 

— 

98 

1956-57 (Budget) 

. . 21,15 

24,80 

— 

3,65 

ORISSA 

1953-54 

. . 11,89 

12,83 


94 

1954-55 

. . 13,56 

15,05 

— 

1,49 

1955-56 (Revised) 

. . 19,27 

26,15 

— 

6,88 

1956-57 (Budget) 

. . 18,71 

24,32 

— 

5,61 

ANBERA 

1954-55 

. . 19,31 

24,49 


5,18 

1955-56 (Revised) 

. . 21,86 

25,83 

— 

3,97 

1966-57 (Budget) 

. . 23,11 

26.36 

— 

3,25 


TOTAL BUDGETARY POSITION OF PART A STATES 
{On Revenue account — In Lakhs of Rupees) 



Revenue 

Expenditure 

Surplus + 


Total 

Total 

Deficit-' 

1951-52 

. . 3,04,80 

2,98,31 

+ 6,49 

1952-53 

. . 3,18,15 

3,18,29 

- 14 

1953-54 

. . 3,47,00 

3,47,08 

- 8 

1954-55 

. . 3,68,12 

3,84,04 

-15,92 

1955-56 (Revised) 

. . 4,20,81 

4,71,37 

—50.56 

1956-57 (Budget) 

. . 4,26,08 

4,88,93 

-62;85 


BUDGETARY POSITION OF PART B STATES 
(On Revenue Accounts) 


{In Lakhs of Ruyyces) 


HYDERABAD 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

Stirplus 
Deficit - 

1953-54 

. . 25,35 

26,49 

- 1,14 

1954-55 

. . 27,17 

28,02 

— 85 

1955-56 (Revised) 

. . 24,37 

27,58 

— 3,21 

1956-57 (Budget) 
MYSORE 

. . 25,59 

29,89 

— 4,30 

1953-54 

. . 15,13 

15,24 

— 11 

1954-55 

. . 16,12 

16,55 

— 43 

1955-56 (Revised) 

. . 17,60 

20,29 

— 2,69 

1956-57 (Budget) .. 18,30 

TRAVANCORE-CO CHIN 

22,19 

- 3,89 

1953-54 

. . 16,18 

13,86 

-f 2,32 

1954-55 

. . 16,68 

12,03 

+ 4,83 

1955-56 (Revised) 

. . 17,42 

18,83 

- 1,41 

1956-57 (Budget) 

. . 17,96 

21,04 

- 3,08 



STATES’ BUDGETS 243 


RAJASTHAN 

1953-B4 

18,51 

17,98 

+ 53 

1954-55 

21,93 

20,04 

-f 1,89 

1955-56 (Revised) 

20,95 

23,42 

~ 2,47 

1956-5Y (Budget) 

24,09 

26,79 

- 1,70 

PEPSU 

1953-54 

6,88 

6,72 

+ 16 

1954-55 

7,57 

8,93 

- 1,36 

1955-5G (Revised) 

7,76 

10,42 

- 2,67 

1956-57 (Budget) 

19,81 

9,34 

+ 47 

JSAVRASHTRA 

1953-54 

10,66 

8,42 

+ 2,14 

1954-55 

12,29 

12,27 

+ 2 

1955-56 (Revised) 

13,50 

16,32 

- 2,82 

1956-57 (Budget) 

14,12 

15,18 

- 1,06 

MADHYA BHARAT 

1953-54 

14,05 

12,41 

+ 1,64 

1954-55 

14,50 

13,71 

+ 79 

1955-56 (Revised) 

16,92 

16,80 

-1- 12 

1956-67 (Budget) 

18,41 

18,39 

+ 2 


TOTAL BUDGETARY POSITION OF PART B STATES 


{Lakhs of Rtipece) 

Total Revenue Total expenditure 


Surplus + 
Deficits— 


1951-62 


. 1,00,64 

94,37 

+ 6,17 

1952-63 


. 1,01,99 

98,74 

-f 3,26 

1953-64 


. 1,06,66 

1,01,12 

-f 6,54 
+ 4,89 

1954-55 

, 

. 1,16,44 

1,11,55 

1955-56 

(Revised) 

. 1,18,51 

1,33,66 

-16,16 

1956-57 

(Budget) 

. 1,28,28 

1,41,82 

-13,64 


BUDGETARY POSITION OF PART C STATES 


(On Revenue Account — Lakhs of Rupees) 


Total 

AJMER 

Revenue 

Total Expenditure 

SurphtsA- 

Deficit— 

1953-64 

1,00 

1,45 

-f 15 

1954-55 

. 1,54 

1,64 

- 10 

1955-66 (Revised) 

2,54 

2,54 

— 

1956-57 (Budget) 

2,56 

2,56 

— 

BHOPAL 

1953-54 

2,18 

2,21 

— 3 

1954-55 

. 2,00 

2,68 

- 8 

1955-56 (Revised) 

. 3,59 

3,65 

— 6 

1956-57 (Budget) 

. 3,34 

3A1 

— 7 



244 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


DELHI 

1953-54 

4,18 

3,81 

+ 

37 

1954-55 

4,40 

4.18 

"i" 

22 

1955-56 (Revised) 

5,31 

5,78 

— 

47 

1956-57 (Budget) 

6,14 

6,60 

— 

46 

HIMACHAL PRADESH 
1953-54 

1,99 

1,92 

4 - 

7 

1954-55 

2,19 

2.21 

— 

2 

1955-56 (Revised) 

3,04 

3,06 

— 

2 

1956-57 (Budget) 

3, So 

3,85 

— 

(a) 

YINDHYA PRADESH 
1953-54 

4,42 

3,47 

4* 

95 

1954-55 

4,03 

4,53 

. — 

50 

1955-56 (Revised) 

5,18 

4,96 

4~ 

22 

1956-57 (Budget) 

5,64 

5,74 

— 

10 

COORG 

1953-54 

91 

86 

4~ 

5 

1954-55 

95 

99 

— 

4 

1955-56 (Revised) 

1,17 

1,42 

— 

25 

1956-57 (Budget) 

1,09 

1,48 

— 

39 

TOTAL 

1952-53 

12,35 

12,10 

4 " 

25 

1963-54 

15,28 

13,72 

4 * 

1,56 

1954-55 

15,70 

16,23 

53 

1955-56 (Revised) 

20,81 

21,40 

— 

59 

1956-57 (Budget) 

22,62 

23,64 

— 

1,02 


2. STATE GO\^RNMENT DEBTS 

Debt Position — Gross debt of Part A States, ■w'hicb had increased 
by Rs. 175 crores in 1954-55, increased by another Rs. 244 crores in 
1955-56 to Rs. 965 crores, the increase during the five years 1951-56 
amounting to Rs. 720 crores. A substantial part of the increae over 
the five years was accounted for by loans from the Centre, which rose 
by Rs. 571 crores to Rs. 726 crores; permanent debt also rose signi- 
ficantly by Rs. 126 crores to Rs. 185 crores. As regards the gross debt 
of part B States provisional estimates indicate an increase of Rs. 68 
crores in 1955-56 and of Rs. 15.4 crores in 1951-56. 

State loans — The States' borrowing programme comprised the 
floatation on August 16, 1955 by ten States of 4 per cent 12-yeaT‘ 
loans for an aggregate amount of Rs. 35.75 crores and, again on 
August 30 of a second series of the same loan by seven of these States 
for a further Rs. 11.75 crores. Total subscription received amounted 
to Rs. 51.34 crores and Rs. 16.43 crores, the amount allotted being 
Rs. 42.27 crores and Rs. 12.79 crores. The proceeds of the loans were 
intended for financing capital expenditure in connection with the deve- 
lopment programme. 


(a) - A small sturplus of Rs. 32,000. 



states’ budgets 


245 


STATE GOVERNMENT LOANS 
(As on 31st March, 1956 — Lakhs of Rupees) 
A. Part A States 


Amount 

outstanding 

MADHYA PRADESH 
3% Loan 1956 .. 50,54 

3% „ 1958 . . 52,70 

3% „ 1960 . . 1,01,45 

Si.% „ 1962 .. 1,02,18 

4% Dev. loan 1963 . . 1,10,18 

•SVo „ „ 1964 . . 2,03,29 

4% M. P. Loan 1967 . . 1,63,12 


■BOMBAY 
3% Loan 1956 . . 2,97,18 

3% „ 1958 .. 3,06,66 

3% Dev. Loan 1960 . . 2,87,82 

3% Bom. Tapi Irriga- 
tion & Dev. Loan 1961 67,96 

•3% Dev. loan 1962 . . 5,53,56 

Si% Dev. loan 1962 ., 2,95,25 
4% Do 1963 . . 6A2,28 

4% Do 1964 .. 3,55,87 

4% Do 1967 .. 10,02,21 


37,08,79 

ANDHRA 

Andhra Dev. Loan 1967 
BIHAR 

4% Bihar Dev. Loan 1963 1,31,29 


3% Loan 1961-66 
3h% „ 1962 

4% Dev. loan 1963 
4% Dev. loan 1964 
4% „ 1967 

3i% U.P.E.E. Acts 
Bonds 


Amount 
outstanding 
1,57,14 
1,91,02 
5,65,16 
6,11,45 
9,62,54 

1,68,93 


7,83,46 


MADRAS 
3% Loan 1956 
3% „ 1958 

3% Loan 1959 
3% Dev. Loan 1960 
3% Dev. Bonds I960 
23% Loan 1961 
„ 1962 

4% Govt. Loan 1963 
4% Loan 1964 
4% Dev. Loan 1967 


5,00,16 WEST BENGAL 

ZWo W. B. Loan 1962 
4% W. B. Loan 1963 . 

4% Do Do 1967 1,54,02 4% „ „ 1964 

4% „ „ 1967 


VTTAR PRADESH 
3% Loan 1960 
.23% „ 1961 


2,85,31 

2,17,90 

2,20,94 


33,72,19 


1,25,10 

1.07.95 

1.23.96 
2,78,44 
4,38,25 
3,81,77 
3,01,49 

10,33,70 

5,24,81 

10,47,17 

43,62,64 


1,75,00 

3,60,23 

2,00,00 

7,58,72 


14,93,95 

Total Part A States 1,45,06,50 


B. Part B States 

4% Hyderabad Dev, Loan 3% Do Do 1956-61 5,99,78 

1963 ., 3,34,71 3% Mysore Loan 1958 5,08,06 

47o Do Do 1967 .. 2,12,42 4% State Dev. Loan 

4% M. P. Dev. Loan 1967 .. 3,54,94 

1963 .. 1,04,78 Mysore (Total) .. 20,92,05 

4% Mysore Dev. Loan 4% Saurashtra Dev. 

1963 . . 3,33,47 Loan 1963 . . 1,13,16 

5% Jlysore Loan 1955 1,63,44 

4% Do Do 1953-61 2,95,86 



246 


HINDUSTAN 'YEAE-BOOK 


Saurashtra State Loan 4% Travancore-Cochin 

1964 . . 2,52,00 Dev. Loan 1963 . . 3,25,61 

4% Do Do 1967 . . 3,61,66 

Total Part B States . . 37,96,36 

Saurashtra Total . . 7,26,82 Total (Parts A & B 

States) 1,83,02,89 

CONSOLIDATED DEBT POSITION OF PART A STATES 


{Lakhs of Rupees) 


I. Public Debt 

1951-52 

1952-53 

1953-54 

1954-65 1955-66 
(R.E.) 

{a) Permanent debt 

69,11 

80,44 

105,37 

118,61 

184,96 

(b) Floating debt 

(c) Loans from Central 

2,62 

19,10 

21 

4,47 

•• 

Govt. 

217,23 

281,69 

397,86 

648,52 

726,27 

II. Unfunded Debt 

III. Gross total Debt 

33,92 

37,52 

42,11 

49,23 

64,12 

(total of I and II) 
IV. Appropriation for re- 
duction or avoidance 

322,88 

418,75 

645,55 

720,83 

965,35 

Debt 

6,58 

8,14 

6,42 

8,87 

13,31 


{Report on Currency & Finance 1955-56). 


NEW STATES GOVERNMENT 4 P.C. LOANS OF 1956 

{All the loans will be repaid on Srd September, 196S except that of 
the Government of Bombay which will be repaid on Srd Sept., 1970), 

Rupees {lakhs) Rs. {lakhs} 

*Govt. of Andhra . . 600 Govt, of Orissa . . 300 

Govt, of Bihar . . 200 Govt, of Punjab . . 200 

Govt, of Bombay . . 750 Govt, of Rajasthan . . 300 

Govt, of Hyderabad . . 200 Govt, of Saurashtra . . 260 

Govt, of Madhya Bharat 100 Govt, of Travancore- 

Govt. of Madhya Pradesh 160 Cochin . . 200 

Govt of Madras . . 1,250 Govt, of Uttar Pradesh . . 800 

Govt, of Mysore . . 400 Govt, of West Bengal . . 700 

Total . . 6,400 



AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIA— India is one 
of the leading agricultural countries in the world and one of the 
biggest sources of its wealth is its produce from land. Agriculture 
plays a most vital role in our country. It is the basic industry and. 
provides employment to about 100 million people. It also contributes 
fifty percent of our national income. In addition, a number of agri- 
cultural products are exported and earn valuable foreigrn exchange 
for the country. Some of our biggest industries like sugar and textiks 
depend on agriculture for raw materials. 

The world position of Indian agriculture is indeed a big one. 
India enjoys a virtual monopoly in lac and leads the world in the 
production of groundnut and tea. It is second largest producer 
of rice, jute, tobacco, raw sugar, rape seed, sesame and castor seed. 

Cereals are the most important item of agricultural production, 
being grown on about 60 per cent of the cropped area. Rice accounts 
for about half of India’s cereal output ; the other half is accounted 
for by a variety of grains including wheat, millet and barley. In 
addition to cereal production, 18 per cent of India’s total cropped 
area is devoted to pulses, gram and other food crops. Nevertheless, 
India does not produce sufficient food for its own needs. One of the 
major objectives of the Five-Year Plan is to make India self-sufficient 
in foodstaifs by bringing more land under production through irriga- 
tion and reclamation and by increasing productivity. Various com- 
mercial crops are also significant. Oilseeds, cotton, sugarcane, tea, 
coffee, spices, rubber and jute are the most important. Such crops 
form the basis of some of major industries and are among the leading 
exports either in raw or maniifactured form. 

DEFECTS OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE AND SHORTAGE OP 
FOOD — ^Indeed the defects of Indian agriculture become evident when 
the per acre yield of most crops in India is compared to that of 
foreign countries. The average yield per acre of agricultural pro- 
ducts in India is comparatively poor. Average production of wheat 
per acre in India is about 700 lbs. while it is 1,918 lbs. in 
Egypt, 1,713 lbs. in Japan, 898 lbs. in China. As regards rice, pro- 
duction of India is about 750 lbs. per acre, while it is 3,444 lbs. per 
acre in Japan, 2,998 lbs. per acre in Egypt, 2,433 lbs. per acre in 
China and 2,185 lbs. per acre in U.S.A. This bespeaks the backward- 
ness of India’s agriculture which by the way is due no less to the 
growing lack of soil fertility as to the medieval technique of a^cul- 
ture and an almost complete lack of capital to be employed in it. It 
may also be said that the production of food was 

outstripped by the growth of population. The partition 

of the country in 1947 and the consequent separation 
from India of the canal irrigated areas of Sind and 

the Punjab and the lowlands of East Bengal not only aggravated the 
food shortage but also created an acute deficiency in jute and long and 



248 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


medium staple cotton. Indian agriculture has to contend with a noto- 
riously capricious nature. Draughts alternating with devastating 
floods are a common occurrence in one part of the country or another. 
Moreover agriculture in India suffers from the impoverishment of soil 
and the fragmentation of holdings. All these drawbacks account for 
the poverty of the peasant and rural indebtedness. 

AREA AND SOIL — The total area available for cultivation is 71.^ 
crore acres or 88.6 per cent of the total area._ The total area culti- 
vated annually is 30.24 crore acres. The cultivated area works out 
to 1.2 acres per head of the agricultural population. Forests cover 
11.56 crore acres while there are 5.52 crore acres of culturable waste 
land and 6.81 crore acre of fallow land. 

Four main types of soil are (1) alluvial, (2) black, (3) red and 
(4) laterite. The first three are rich in potash and lime, hut defi- 
cient in phosphoric acid, nitrogen and humus. The laterite soil 
possesses plenty of humus, but lacks most of the other chemical in- 
gredients. The alluvial soil is the most fertile and easily worked 
and covers almost the entire Indo-Gangetic plain and the narrow 
coastal strips girdling peninsular India. Highly retentive of moisture 
and sticky, the hlack soil covers the western portion of the Deccan 
plateau, while the red soil covers the eastern part. The laterite soil 
is found in Central India, Assam and along the Eastern and Western 
Ghats. 

In addition to four main groups of soils mentioned above, the 
desert soils of the sub-continent occupy a large tract in Rajasthan 
and the south Punjab. Rajasthan desert alone occupies an area of 
40,000 sq. miles. 

Saline and Alkali soils also form an important group of Indian 
soils. Such soils are characterised by a high degree of impermea- 
bility and stickiness together with high alkalinity and frequent pre- 
sence of large excess of free salts. They are usually poor in nitrogen 
and humus and unsuitable for crop growing without previous recla- 
mation. Forest soils occupy a large part of the sub-continent. These 
soils belong to brown earth and podsol groups. Marshy and peaty 
soils are foimd in coastal areas of Orissa and West Bengal, North- 
West Bihar, Almora district of U.P., South-East coast of Madras 
and in Travancore-Cochin. 

CROPS— The two outstanding features of agricultural production 
in India are the wide variety of crops and the preponderance of food 
over non-food crops. There is hardly a crop of the tropical, sub- 
tropical or temperate zone which is not grown in some part or the 
other of this country. Food crops occupy about 86 per cent of the 
total sown area. There are two well defined crop seasons: (i) kharif 
and (ii) rabi. The kharif crop is harvested in Nov. to Oct. 31 and 
rabi crop in May 1 to April 30. The major kharif crops include rice, 
jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, sugarcane, sesamum and groundnut ; 
the major rabi crops are wheat, barley, tea, gram, linseed, rape, 
mustard ; and in South India rice, jowar and cotton. 

The seasons for individual crops are as follows — ^Wheat — ^Nov. to 
Oct.; Sugarcane — ^Nov. to Oct.; Cotton — Sept, to August ; Jute — July 
to June ; Tea — Jan. to Dec.; Coffee — July to June. 



AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 


249 


Classification of Crops of India — ^The crops of India are usually 
classified as follows : — (1) Food o'ops such as rice, wheat, 
barley, millets, pulses and gram, sugarcane and spices ; Food 
■crops occupy more than four-fifths of the cultivated land (2) Oilseeds 
such as linseed, rape and mustard, sesamum, castor, groundnut and 
-cocoanut ; (3) Fibres such as cotton, jute, hemp and flax ; and (4) 
Drugs mid Beverages such as poppy, cinchona, tobacco, tea and coffee. 

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION— Research 
and extension activities are being cai’ried out by the Indian Council 
of Agricidtural Research, the Central Research Institute and the 
■Central Commodity Committees. 

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research is devoted to the 
aim of Increasing agricultural production. The I.C.A.R. was set up 
in 1929 to promote, guide and co-ordinate research in the field of 
agriculture and animal husbandry throughout India and to link it 
with research in foreign countries. The Council’s Advisory Board 
■consists of experts repi-esenting the States, the universities and 
scientific bodies, while the Governing Body is composed of State 
Ministers of Agriculture and the representatives of Parliament and 
commercial interests. The Council does not possess any research 
institution of its own, but sponsors agricultural research in co- 
operation with the State Governments in Central and State 
research institutions, universities and recognised private institutions. 
The Council mainly concerns itself with schemes of regional or all- 
India importance ; schemes of purely local interest is left to the 
State Governments. The finances of the I.C.A.R. are obtained from 
■^vemment grants, contributions from other sources and the income 
from a cess of half per cent imposed on the exports of certain agri- 
■cultural products specified in the Agricultural Produce Cess Act, 
1940. 

The Central Research Institutes are engaged on a variety of 
research projects, both fundamental and applied. They conduct 
■extensive inquiries to improve the fertility of the soil, the quality of 
grass and grass lands. They have evolved certain varieties of crops 
which are capable of resisting draught, disease, insects and pests. 

India’s largest agricultural research institute is at Delhi and is 
popularly known as Fusa Institute. The Indian Agricultural Re- 
search Institute was established by the Government of India on April 
1, 1905 at Pusa. After the Institute building was wrecked in 1934 
by a disasterous earthquake, the Government of India transferred it 
to New Delhi. The chief functions of the Institute are to conduct 
research in the agricultural sciences with a view to gaining knowledge 
■which would help to ameliorate the conditions of Indian apiculture 
■and to impart post-graduate training of a high order. The investip- 
tions of the Institute are divided into six main divisions — (1) Division 
of Botany. (2) Dmsion of Agi'onomy, (3) Division of soil science and 
Agricultural Chemistry, (4) Division of Mycology and Plant Patho- 
^ogy. (5) Entomology Division, (6) Agricultural Engineering Division. 
Central Rice Research Institute Cuttack provides field trials and 
research on the agronomy, mycology, entomology, botany and chemis- 
■try of rice. The multiplication of improved varieties of rice 



250 


HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


and experiments in green manuring and in new methods of trans- 
plantation are some of its other functions. The Institute has beeci 
selected by the F.A.O. as the venue for an international rice breeding 
course. Central Potato Institute at Poona is en^ged in evolving- 
improved varieties of potatoes capable of giving high yields. Other 
potato research stations are — ^Laboratoi’y at Potato Multiplication 
Sub-Division, Bhowali (U.P.) and Laboratory at Potato- 
Breeding Sub-station, Simla. The Central Vegetable Breeding 
Station at Kulu is experimenting on the _ adaptation of" 
European vegetables for Indian conditions. It is also investi- 
gating on self-fertilised seeds and the manipulation of agricultural 
practices to secure increased production. Indian Institute of 
Sugar Technology at Kanpur was established in 1936 and is now 
maintained by the Indian Central Sugar-cane Committee. It con- 
ducts research in different branches of sugar technology, renders- 
technical assistance to factories and trains students. The founda- 
tion stone of the Indian Institute of Sugar Technology and Sugar- 
cane Research at Lucknow was laid in 1953. Forest Research Insti- 
tute at Dehra Dun was opened in 1914 and is engaged in research on- 
silviculture, forest botany, entomology, the seasoning, preservation- 
and the technology of wood, timber mechanics, cellulose and paper 
pulp chemistry and on minor forest products. The Institute also pro- 
vides training for forest officers. Indian Veterinary Research Insti- 
tute at Izatnagar was established in 1890. It has six main research- 
divisions and four auxilary sections. In addition to research, the- 
Institute undertakes the manufacture of vaccines and trains students. 
The Institute has been recognised by F.A.O. as an international train- 
ing centre. Indian Dairy Research Institute at Bangalore trains- 
students for diploma course in dairying and conducts research on 
dairy problems. It is also engaged in the development of 
pedigree herds of Red Sindhi and Gir cows. There are two cattle 
farms at Kamal and Coimbatore and a creamery at Anand. Among 
the other important research stations are the Indian Lac Research 
Institute at Namkum, Ranchi, which is engaged in fundamental and 
applied research in the entomology and chemistry, three fisheries- 
research stations at Barrackpur, Mandapam and Bombay, Indian- 
Institute of Fruit Technology, Delhi. 

Commodity Committees — The Indian Central Committees for- 
cotton, jutOj oilseeds, sugarcane, coconut, arecanut and tobacco operate- 
and _ subsidise a number of research schemes at various research 
stations and sub-stations. These committees are financed by proceeds- 
of a cess le-ried on the particular commodity : — 

(1) Indian Central Cotton Committee is concentrating its- 
research on the development of long-staple cotton for which India is- 
deficient. At the Institute of Plant Industry, Indore important- 
research work is undertaken in botany, physiology, breeding and' 
genetics of cotton. 

(2) Indian Central Jute Committee's research and extension- 
work is undertaken by Jute Agricidtural Research Institute,. 
Barrackpur, Technological Research Laboratories, Tollyganf, Cal- 
cutta Economic Research Section and the Publicity Section. The 


AGEICULTURE IN INDIA. 


251 ’ 


Committee also sponsors schemes of fundamental research at the' 
'University of Calcutta, Bose Research Institute and Presidency' 
College, Calcutta. 

(2) Indian Central Oilseeds Committee aims at finding out the- 
relative nutritive values of oil-cakes obtained by the expeller and 
Ghani process. 

(4) Indian Central Sugarcane Committee maintains Indian 
Institute of Sugar Technology at Kanpur established in 1936. It con- 
ducts research in sugar technology, renders technical assistance to 
factories and trains students. 

(5) Indian Central Coconut Committee has two research 
stations, one each at Kasaragad and Kayangulam and foiir regional 
stations (three in Travancore- Cochin and one in Orissa). 

(6) Indian Central Arecanut Committee subsidises number of 
research schemes. There are three regional arecanut research 
stations in Mysore, Travancore-Cochin and South Kanara started) 
with the help of the Committee. 

(7) Indian Central Tobacco Committee, Madras. 

(8) Indian Central Lac Cess Committee, Ranchi. 

(9) All India Cattle Show Committee, Kamal, Punjab. 

The number of research institutes, stations and farms are also- 
maintained by the Central Commodity Committees : — 

1. Indian Central Cotton Committee has — (a) Technological 
Laboratory, Matunga, Bombay, (b) Institute of Plant Industry,. 
Indore, 

2. Jute Committee has — (a) Jitte Agricidtnral Research Insti- 
tute, Barrachpore (Bengal), (b) Technological Research Labora- 
torics, Tollyganj, Calcutta, (c) Economic Research Section, Indian; 
Central Jute Commitee, Calcutta. 

3. The Tobacco Committee has — (a) Central Tobacco Re- 
search Institute, Rajahmundry, (b) Cigar and Cheroot Tobacco Re- 
search Station, Vedasandur, (c) Hookah and Chewing Tobacco Re- 
search Station, Pusa, Bihar, (d) Cigarette Tobacco Research Sub- 
station, Guntur, (e) Wrapper Tobacco Research station, Dinhata,. 
Bengal. 

4. Sugar Committee has — Sugar Sub-station, Kamal, Punjab. 

The Directorate of Economics and Statistics — ^This sole organisa- 
tion under the Central Government dealing with all agro-economic- 
problems in the sphere of food and agriculture — has continued to- 
fulfil its useful role by supplying statistical material, preparing 
memoranda on current issues^ of agro-economic policy, besides exa- 
mining the progress in the implementation of the first Five-Year 
Plan. They issue All India Crop Estimates and All India Rice 
Estimates, regular forecasts for small millets. 

OWNERSHIP & HOLDINGS— Of the 294 million persons which 
the 1951 census estimates as depending for their livelihood on agricul- 
ture, roughly 167 million consist of those who o-wn (wholly or main- 
ly) and cultivate land and their dependents. About 314 milliom 
belongs to the category of cultivators of land not o-wned by thetm 
and their dependents. About 45 million consist of cultivating- 



252 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


labourers and their dependents and about 5S million are non-culti- 
•vating owners, rent receivers and their dependents. 

Average holding in India is about 5 acres though the size varies 
from State to State. According to the Report of the Famine En- 
•quiry Commission, it was 11,7 acres in Bombay, 10 in Punjab, 6 in 
IJ.P., 4.5 in Bengal, 4.4 acres in Madras. A greater evil _ than 
sub-division is the fragmentation of holdings. It is the biggest 
■single obstacle to economic cultivation, leading to increased overhead 
•costs and to the under-employment. 

Both voluntary method and compulsory method for the consoli- 
•dation of holdings have been tried since 1912 to check sub-division 
.and fragmentation. Punjab had led the way in voluntary consolida- 
tion. Legislation involving varying degrees of compulsion have 
therefore been enacted and revised from time to time in the States. 
^Efforts have also been made to organise co-operative farming. The 
trend of legislation and land policy in recent years has been to pre- 
vent the growth of small and uneconomic holdings and concentration 
•of land in a few hands. The legislation for the consolidation of 
holdings was first passed in Madhya Pradesh in 1928. Uttar Pradesh 
(1939), Bombay (1947), Punjab (1936 and 1948), Delhi (1936 and 
1948), Jammu and Kashmir and PEPSU have passed similar acts for 
•consolidation of holdings. 

AGRICULTURAL POLICY — The growing shortage of food had 
been the main feature of the Indian agriculture for the last 30 or 35 
-years. The acute food-shortage was brought out prominently during 
the Bengal famine of 1943. This food shortage was due to the 
•various causes such as phenomenal increase of population outstripp- 
ing production of food, partition of the country, etc. So various 
Tueans were undertaken by the government to increase the food pro- 
-duction of the country. From the famine year of 1953, Grow More 
Food Campaign vfas initiated. The shortage of food which 
India began to e:^erience during the "iVorld War II reached to an 
^icute stage. During first four years of starting of Grow More Food 
-Campaign, grants and loans were given by the Centre to the States 
to enable them to increase production. Central assistance was 
however given only for specific programmes — Such as works schemes 
and supply schemes. Works schemes include the construction and 
repair of wells, tanks, small dams, channels and tube-wells, and the 
installation of water-lefting appliances such as pumps etc. Also 
included in this class were the schemes of contour-bunding and the 
clearance and reclamation of waste land. Supply schemes covered 
the distribution of fertilizers and manures and improved seeds. 

The rapid gro-wth in the use of fertilisers is due mainly to the 
Grow hlore Food Campaign. Among the various organic manures, 
the production and distribution of compost, both urban and rural, 
are receiving considerable attention from the Government. 

The Grow More Food Campaign has given impetus to better 
irrigation facilities, increased use of fertilizers, improved varities 
-of seeds, improved cultural practices and various methods of inten- 
-.sive cultivation. Central Fertilzer Pool has been formed to make 
^ammonium sulphate available to the cultivators throughout the 



AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 


25S 


country at reduced and uniform prices. There is also the Standinir 
Expert Committee on Seeds. Other important improvements under 
G.M.F. campaigns are minor irrigation projects for sinking and con- 
structing of tube -wells and introduction of Japanese methods of 
paddy cultivation -which lays more emphasis on higher doses of ferti- 
lizers and is recommended where adequate moisture supply is assured. 
This method started as an experimental method in 1953 has been 
organised on a more systematic method with definite targets. This 
has resulted in increased food production. 

After Grow More Food Campaign came the Integrated 
Production Programme. It was formulated in 1950-61 for 
the achievement of relative self-sufficiency in food, cotton^ 
jute and sugar. It has become a part of the First Five-Year 
Plan which has, in tern, been integrated into the ten-year programme- 
of land transfo-rmation. The five main -programmes are (a) con- 
centration of the available funds and technical facilities in 48 million 
acres with an assured water supply, (6) reclamation and cultivation 
of 10 million acres of waste and fallow lands, (c) organisation of 
Bhiimi Sena, (d) gosambardhan drive for producing 80,000 stud bulls 
a year and for the eradication of rinder-pest in the country and (e) 
regular observance of Vana Mahotsava -with the object of planting 
300 million trees. 

Crop Competitions — Another method for the increase of crop 
production is the crop competitaon initiated by the Central 
Government. Under this competition, the Central Government 
award all-India cash prizes of 5,000 and a certificate of KriskH 
Pandit to the farmers producing highest yield in respect of wheat, 
gram, potato, paddy, jowar and bajra crops. 

Land Reclamation — The land reclamation work for bring- 
ing more land under cultivation is carried on by two agencies, 
namely, Central Tractor Organisation and Tractor Organisation of 
certain States, Central Tractor Organisation was founded in 
1947 with about 200 tractors abandoned by U.S. Army. 
Since its inception it _ has carried out some of the largest 
reclamation operation in Asia. Thousands of acres of land in 
Madiiya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Bharat and Bhopal 
infested with a pernicious -weed known as bans, were cleared and 
made ready for cultivation. A fleet of 240 new tractors were pur- 
chased in 1951 out of a loan obtained by the Government from the 
International Bank of Reconstruction and Development. The total 
area reclaimed by the Centra! Tractor Organisation in eight years 
of its existence exceeded eight lakh acres. 

BHOODAN MOVEMENT — On a rough estimate there are about 
4.5 million landless labourers in the country. Inspite of the abolition 
of zamindaries, there -was no hops for these landless labourers. So 
Acharya Vinoba Bhave has started Land Gift Movement. This is 
an appeal to the lando-wners of India to donate land for the landless. 
The noble efforts of Vinoba" Bhave have met with remarltable success. 
The movement has also received direct supports of the State Govern- 
ments and some political parties. Millions of acres of land 
have been donated. For the proper utilization of this donated land. 



■254 


HINDUSTAN? I’EAE-BOOK 


•tlie scope of fhe movement has been enlarged — ^snch as Koopdan 
(gifts for sinking of vrells) and Sampattidan (gifts for procming 
•agricnltnral implements and draught animals). 

SOIL COlsSERVATIOK — A special provision of Rs. 2 crore has 
been made in the Five-Year Plan for soil conservation. A desert 
afforestation research station has been established at Jodhpnr to deal 
■with the problems created by the insidious advances of the Rajasthan 
•desert and a soil conservation branch has been opened at the Forest 
“Research Institute, Dehra Dun. Contour-binding has been carried 
•out on an extensive scale in Bombay, Uttar Pradesh, and Idadhya 
Fradesh. The Central Conservation Board has started functioning 
from 1955 to undertake soil analysis and combat soil erosion. This 
Board has already started four regional centres. The Board has 
also given subsidies and loans to the States for financing the soil 
conservation schemes. Shelter belts vrere raised in Eajasthan by 
planting trees along roads and railway lines as a desert control 
measure. 

5LARKETIKG — The Directorate of Marketing and Inspection 
and marketting department in the States were created by the (Jovem- 
ment of India in 1935 for improvement of marketing conditions of 
agricultural, animal husbandry and allied products. It has conducted 
nation-wide marketing surveys for various commodities. IVith the 
help of subsidies from Indian Cotincil of Agricultural Research, the 
State Governments have established similar organisations in their 
own areas. The activities of the Directorate mainly consist of grad- 
ing and standardisation of agricultural commodities, regulation 
of markets and market practices and development of the fruit 
preservation industry. Agricultural Produce (Grading and Market- 
ing) Act was passed in 1937 for grading the agricultural produce. 
But it is a permissive act, but enjoins compulsory quality control on 
the basis of “AgamarJd’ specifications in respect of same commodities 
exported from India, such as tobacco, sann hemp, wool and bristles. 
Asamarh specification has been notified for 110 items so far. To 
ensure fair price for a^ctiltural goods 414 regulated marJccts have 
been established in India, where market charges are fixed, correct 
weigh tment is ensured etc. The Directorate of marketting and Ins- 
pection is also controlling quality of fruits and vegetable products 
under Food Products Order, 194S. Under this order, factories with 
annual production of fruits exceeding 200 lbs. have to obtain licence 
^and the quality of fruits is required to be the standard laid down for 
the purpose. 

ZOOLOGIC-AL AND BOTANICAL SURVEYS— The Ministry of 
Agriculture is responsible for Zoological Survep of IrAia which is 
mainly concerned with care, preservation and maintenance of natural 
-zoological collections in its custody. The Botanical Survey of India 
. at Calcutta is also under the Ministry of Agriculture. 

FOOD CROPS 

Rice — the staple food of the majority of the people, is the lead- 
ring crop of India and occupies about SO per cent of the total culti- 



AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 


255 


■vated area. As sufficiently high temperature, high rainfall and fer- 
tile alluvial plains are necessary for the growth of the crop, the 
••southern and north-eastern parts of India are the main regions of 
rice growing. In order of merit, Madras, Bihar, Bengal, U.P., M.P., 
Orissa, Assam and Bombay are the main rice growing areas. Rice 
is special crop in the monsoon tracts. In eastern and southern India 
it is the staple article of diet. The bulk of the rice is winter crop 
i.e. sown in June-July and harvested in November-December. There 
•are about 4,000 distinct varieties of rice in India. The average rice 
yield in India is low, being only 723 lbs. of cleaned rice per acre 
as compared to 2,350 lbs in Japan. 

Wheat — which is the staple food of central and northern India is 
■winter crop sown in India from October to December and 
harvested from March to May and stands next only to rice in im- 
portance. U.P. and Punjab form the principal wheat growing 
area supplying about three quarters of the total outturn in the coun- 
try. The two main species of wheat grown in India are the so-called 
* bread’ wheat of Europe and the so-called ‘marconi’ wheat and it is 
•estimated that about a third of the total acreage of wheat in India 
is under improved varieties. 

Barley — a subsidiary food to wheat-eaters is a rabi crop and is 
grown mainly in the U.P. and Bihar. Compared to her pre-war 
acreage and yield of about 6 million acres and about 1-9 million tons, 
India has now about 7 million acres under barley producing about 
2-4 million tons. 

Millets — viz., jowar (called cholam in Madras) and bajra, the 
two main varieties of millets ^own in India constitute the staple 
•food of the agricultural population of the south. Both of them are 
mainly grovm as kharif crops. While jowar is mainly grown in 
Bombay, Hyderabad, M.P., Madras, U.P., bajra is grown mainly 
in the Rajasthan, Bombay, the U.P., Madras and Punjab in order of 
importance. It is estimated that jowar is gro'wn in about 20 million 
acres yielding about 4 million tons while bajra is grown in about 16 
million acres yielding more than 2 million tons. Another such food- 
crop, gro'wn mainly in the south, is ragi which accounts for about 5 
million acres producing about 1-4 mUlion tons annually. Another 
food crop, uncommonly rich in its food value, is maize (commonly 
kno'wn as makai or bhutta). Although gro-cm more or less all over 
India, it is grown mainly in the U.P. and Bihar. 

Gram and the Pulses — ^These constitute an important and balanc- 
ing item of the popular diet in this country. Pulses form the pri- 
mary source of protein for the vegetarian population of the country. 
Some of them form a source of nutritious fodder, while others 
make excellent green manure crops. Gram, the most commonly grown 
pulse of India, is a rabi crop and accounts more or less for about 17 
million acres and 3’6 million tons. U.P., Punjab, Bihar, M.P., 
and Hyderabad are in order of merit the most important gram pro- 
ducing areas. Khesari, mung, masur, arhar, mattar and kalai are 
the other pulses, also gro'wn extensively throughout the country. 

Spices — of numerous varieties are gro'wn throughout India, 
some mainly in the south. Of the Indian spices pepper is confined 



256 


HmDUSTAN -seae-book; 


to the submountanic tracts of the Western Ghats and the total acreage 
is estimated to he over 20,000 acres producing about 31,000 tons in 
a normally good year. The major share of pepper is produced 
by a large number of small holdings, chillies in West Bengal, Madras, 
Ginger in Bombay, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Madias. Cardc- 
■mom is an important spice crop on the west coast of India. It 
grows wholly in the elevated and ever^een regions of the Western 
Ghats and is grown on a .plantation basis in Kerala and 
Malabar. Apart from being the principal exporter, India 
is the only source for true cardamoms in the world market. Among 
others betehnits are grown mainly in West Bengal and South 
India, arccanuts being also grown in the same areas. India is how- 
ever in short supply of many of the spices and has to import them. 
Other important spices of India are tumieric, cashew-rMts, and 
levwn grass. 

Other Food Crops — Among other food crops mention must be 
made of the overall shortage of fruits and vegetables which keeps 
the first almost totally out of the reach of the general mass of people 
and due to which the later is an insufficient unit of popular food con- 
sidering the dietary habits of the people. The present annual supply 
of fruits and vegetables amounts to only 1-5 and 1-3 ounces per adult 
per day against the diet at 3 ounces, and 10 ounces respectively. To 
make the position clear it may be mentioned that in potato for 
example, India’s production is so very low that the per capita con- 
sumption comes to about only 8 lbs. per annum as compared to 505 
lbs. in Belgium. 


PLAOT-4TI0N CROPS 

Plantation Crops — The great plantation areas of India are 
Assam in the north, the Nilgiri Hills and the West Coast area of 
Travancore-Cochin in the South. 

Tobacco — ^India stands third in the production of tobacco, the 
other countries being U.S.A. and China. There are five zones of con- 
centrated production in India — (a) North Bengal area, (6) North 
Bihar area, growing both Nicothia Tobacum and Nicotina Eustica : 
the former used for chewing as well as manufacture of cigarettes 
and latter mostly used for hookah, (c) Gujarat area growing Nico- 
tina Tobacum suited for bidi. hookah and snuff, (d) Nepani areas 
of Belgaum, Kolhapur and Miraj growing Nicotina Tobacum used 
for chewing and bi_di_; they are specially rnild and sweet, (c) Guntur 
area growing Virginia type tobacco which is excellent for cigarette 
manufacture. The chief Virginia variety cultivated in Indian soil is 
Harrison special. 

Poppy — which was an important narcotic crop before Inter- 
national Agreement led to the restriction of opium exports, is at pre- 
sent grown chiefly in UJP. and Central India and that mainlv as a 
Government monopoly. 

Cinchona — ^is mainly grown on Government plantations in the 
Nilgiri Hills and Darjeeling. Considering the overall need of the 
malaria-stricken country-side, production is still short and has to be 
supplemented by imports. 



AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 


257 


Tea — ^Indian Union is overwhelmingly the largest producer in the 
world. The yearly production is nearly 600 million lbs. About 82 
per cent of India’s tea comes from North India, mainly from Assam 
and the Dooars (West Bengal) ; this tea is exported through the 
port of Calcutta. Tea is, after jute and cotton, India's most im- 
portant exchange earner. 

Coffee — ^next to tea, coffee is considered the most important 
plantation crops in India. The Indian production though small, has 
consisted always of a large proportion of highest quality and is 
grown in about 224,000 acres yielding about 18,000 tons. India pro- 
duces less than one per cent of the world coffee output. There are 
about 10,851 coffee plantations in India. With the exception of small 
areas in Orissa, Assam and Madhya Pradesh, Indian coffee is grown 
in the low hills of South India. Mysore is the most important 
growing area followed by Madras, Coorg and Travancore-Cochin. 

Rubber — ^The cultivation of raw rubber on a plantation scale was 
undertaken in Travancore-Cochin, Malabar, Coorg and Mysore in 
early years of the present century. The production of rubber in the 
count^ at the present time is of the order of 16,000 to 17,000 tons. 
Of the total number of rubber estates and holdings, 72-85 p.c. are 
located in Travancore, 7.19 p.c. in Cochin, 16.55 p.c. in Madras 
(mainly Malabar) and remaining 2.41 p.c. are in Coorg, the Anda- 
mans and Assam. 

Pepper — ^India is suppling two-thirds of the estimated world 
demand. She is now producing, in and below the Western Ghats be- 
tween Karwar and Cape Comorin 31,000 tons of pepper grown over 
195,000 acres. 

Cardamom — In the recent years there has been a remarkable 
expansion in the cardamom growing industry. It is estimated that 
the present acreage amounts to over 120,000, about 50 per cent of 
which is situated in the Cardamom Hills in Travancore-Cochin and 
the remainder in the States of Coorg and Mysore and in the districts 
of Madura, Tinnevelly, Malabar and Coimbatore. The total produc- 
tion is estimated at about 1,350 tons. 

Ooves — are chiefly grown in the foot-hills of the Western Ghats 
in the State of Madras. The production is insufficient to meet 
demand. 


FIBRES 

Cotton — ^is the chief commercial crop of India. Bombay, Punjab, 
hladhya, Pradesh, Madras, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, 
Rajasthan, Saurashtra, are the important cotton producing tracts of 
the country. 

Jute — A monopoly of undivided India, it is at present 
grown in about 766,000 acres yielding about 2 million bales against 
a total requirement of about 6 mUlion bales. Endeavour is being 
made therefore to extend its cultivation. Reclamation of fallow 
land, diversion of arcs paddy land, double cropping of aman paddy 
land are some of the measures adopted to secure an increase in jute 
production and the result has been the progressive increase of jute 

17 



258 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


production in India. The heat and humidity and heavy downpour of 
rain — unpleasant features of the climate of Bengal are ideal for the 
gro'irth of jute. The outturn of dry fibre of jute generally varies 8 
to 25 mds. with an average of 11 mds. per acre, depending upon soil 
fertility and other factor. 

Hemp — ^is another fibre grown in India chiefly in the M.P., the 
U.P., Bombay and West Bengal. Small as the production is, it is 
used largely for the production of cordage and canvas. 

Silk — ^Two-thirds of the total output of this fibre comes from 
Mysore. Of the other varieties of silk, “mulbery” silk is grown in 
the districts of Murshidabad, Malda and Birbhum of West Bengal, 
Debra Dun and Parbatgarh of the U.P., Gurudaspur of Punjab 
and in Kashmir, where it is a state monopoly ; ‘tasar’ silk in the 
M.P., and the Chotanagpur division of Bihar ; ‘eri’ silk in the Jalpai- 
guri district of West Bengal and in Assam ; and ‘Mztga’ silk in 
Assam and Manipur. 


OTHER CASH CROPS 

Sugarcane — In the sugar map of the world, India occupies a 
leading place producing about 4i million tons even exceeding that of 
Cuba. Sugarcane growing is an important element in the agricultural 
economy, specially in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The average yield 
of cane per acre is now around 14 tons as compared with 56 tons in 
Java and 62 tons in Hawaii. 

Indian Central Sugarcane Committee is a Central Organisation 
for co-ordinating sugarcane research and development work. 

Lac — ^is a resinous material secreted by an insect which lives 
as a parasite on certain kinds of tropical tree. It can be marketed 
roughly in its natural form as sticklac or refined into seedlac or fur- 
ther refined into shellac or buttonlac. Lac is collected over almost 
all India, the most important producing states being Bihar and 
Madhya Pradesh. 

Myrobalans — ^is a small fruit produced on trees in mixed decidu- 
ous forests normally below 3,000 feet above sea level, but occasionally 
found up to 5,000 feet. When pulped it produces a substance used 
in the tanning industry. It is also used as a coimtry medicine. 
The fruit is collected in state forests in Madhya Pradesh, Madras, 
Bombay, Bihar and Orissa and also derived from private forests. 

Lemongrass Oil — Oil of lemongrass is an essential oil, a pro- 
duct distilled from the leaves of a special species of grass botanically 
known as cymbogon flexuosus. Lemongrass of the best variety which 
yields a superior oil is used for extracting aromatic chemicals, employ- 
ed in perfumery, soap, cosmatics and pharmaceutical preparations. 
The Travancore-Cochin Government Lemongrass Research Station has 
been established at Odakali near Perumbavoor, 14 miles from Ema- 
kulam on August 27, 1955. Lemongrass is a dollar-saving product. 
Nearly 75 per cent of the world’s supply of lemongrass oil is pro- 
duced in the State of Travancore-Cochin where the area under culti- 
vation is estimated at 40,000 acres. 

Cashew Nuts — are grown mostly in Madras, Bombay, Orissa, 



AGEICULTUKE IN INDIA 


259 


Bengal and Kerala. Madras State is by far the most 
important State as far as cashew nut production is concerned. 
India ranks as the most important producer of cashew nut in the 
world and holds almost a monopoly, accounting for more than 95 
per cent of the international trade in cashew nut kernels. 

OILSEEDS 

Oilseeds — India is one of the largest producers of oilseeds and 
holds a prominent position in the world trade of oilseeds being one 
of the principal exporting countries. Oilseeds in India are grown in 
an area of about 23 million acres representing 8 p.c. of the net culti- 
vated area. Oilseed crops are those, from the seeds of which oil, 
either edible or non-edible is extracted. The crops may either be 
perennial as coconut, neem, mahua or annual like groundnut, gin- 
gelly etc. Groundnut, gingelly, mustard, copra, castor and kusum are 
the most important edible oilseeds. The importance of oilseeds in the 
Indian economy is indicated by the fact that more than 25 million 
acres are devoted to their production, equivalent to about 10 per cent 
of the net area sown with crops in the whole of India. Indian Cen- 
tral Oilseeds Committee Act which was passed in 1946 was intended 
to promote the improvement and development in the cultivation and 
marketing of oilseeds and oilseeds products and in accordance with 
this Act the Indian Central Oilseeds Committee, was consti- 
tuted in May, 1947. This Committee is responsible for the 
development of all oilseeds excepting coconut for which a separate 
Committee, viz., Indian Central Coconut Committee at Emakulam 
(Cochin) has been constituted under the Indian Central Coconut 
Committee Act, 1944. 

Linseed — a rabi crop, producing a very important industrial oil, 
is at present gro^vn in about 3-3 million acres yielding more than 
350,000 tons annually. Cultivation of linseed is widespread through- 
out India, main centres being Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, 
Andhra, Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Rajasthan. 

Castor — another non-edible oilseed, is a virtual monopoly 
of India, the average acreage and yield in recent years being 1'4 
million acres and about 130,000 tons. It is grown almost throughout 
the length and breadth of India and Hyderabad is the most impor- 
tant producer with an area of 879,000 acres. About 70 per cent 
of the crop is available for export either as seed or as oil. India 
comes next to Brazil only in world production and trade of castor 
seed. 

Groundnut — ^India has the largest area under groundnuts in the 
world. The groundnut cultivation has become a major agri- 
cultural operation in India and the crop is now estimated to 
occupy nearly 42 p.c. of the area under all oilseeds and 4.4 p.c. of 
the total area sown under all main food crops in the Indian Union. 
Prom a mere 0-5 million acres at the beginning of the century, the 
groundnuts now account for nearly 11 m. acres with an annual yield 
of 3i million tons of nuts in shells and 4'10 m. tons of kernels. 
Nearly 80 p.c. of the groundnut area is concentrated in Madras, 
Andhra, Bombay, and the prominent varieties grown are the Coro- 



260 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


mandel and the Peanuts. Bold nuts grown in Saurashtra with a 
lower oil content are specially valued for eating. 

The oil is used for culinary purposes. The advent of vanaspati 
has set up a great demand and vanaspati industry is the single 
largest consumer of groundnut oil. 

Rape and Mustard — ^two other very important edible oOseeds 
are, imlike groundnut, rabi crops accounting for about 4-3 million 
acres and a little less than 800,000 tons in normal years. Uttar 
Pradesh grows well over half the rape and mustard in India.^ Other 
important producing areas are Bihar, Punjab, Assam and Rajasthan. 

Sesamum — or gingelly or til also an edible oilseed, is a kharif 
crop grown in a little less than 4 million acres_ with an 
yield of more than 340,000 tons in normal years. _ The chief growers 
of sesamum are U.P., and Madras foDowed by Rajasthan, Hyderabad 
and Madhya Bharat. 

Coconut — ^is an important oil- 3 ?ielding tropical fruit. It pro- 
vides many useful products to mankind. The kernel of the ripe 
nut in its raw state finds wide use in culinary preparations or is 
dried and converted into copra and crushed for oil. Coconut oil is 
greatly in demand for edible purposes as well as for the manufac- 
ture of soaps and toUet preparations. The tender nut affords a 
refreshing drink, while the unopened spathe on tapping yields a 
sweet-juice or neera. Its leaf and timber are extensively used for 
constructing houses. In India it grows luxuriantly in the coastal 
and deltaic tracts and also in the interior of Mysore. India’s share 
in the world acreage and production comes to 1*5 million acres and 
3,400 million nuts respectively. The bulk of this produce comes 
from the plantations located in the strip of land lying on the west 
coast of India between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats 
extending from the Konkan in the north to Cape Comorin in the 
south and falling vithin the territories of North Kanara of Bombay 
State, South Kanara and Malabar districts of Madras and Travan- 
core-Cochin. The districts of Tanjore, Godavari and Vizag in 
Madras, Andhra and Mysore, Orissa and Bengal also possess appre- 
ciable areas under the crop. To rehabilitate the industry and pro- 
mote research a statutory body, the Indian Central Coconut 
Committee representing various interests was constituted by an 
Act of 1944. 

Cotton-seed — also an edible oilseed, is naturally a by-product of 
cotton cultivation and is extensively grown in India, the average 
annual production being above 2 million tons. 


CEREALS 

Rice 

Wheat 

Jowar 

Bajra 


PRODUCTION OP FOOD GRAINS 


(Reporting and non-reporting areas) 
(Thousands of Tons) 


1951-52 

20,964 

6,085 

5.981 

2,309 


1952-53 

22,537 

7,382 

7,243 

3,142 


1953-54 

27,769 

7,890 

7,954 

4,475 


1954-55 

24,209 

8,539 

9,092 

3,555 



AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 261 


Maize 

2,043 

2,825 

2,991 

2,944 

Ragi 

1,291 

1,316 

1,846 

1,778 

Barley 

2,330 

2,882 

2,905 

2,786 

Small millets 

1,885 

1,895 

2,438 

2,424 

TOTAL CEREALS 

42,888 

49,222 

58,268 

55,327 

PULSES 

Gram 

. 3,334 

4,142 

4,756 

5,125 

Other pulses 

, 4,953 

4,902 

5,694 

5,349 

TOTAL PULSES 

8,287 

9,044 

10,450 

10,474 

GRAND TOTAL 
(Cereals and 

Pulses) 

. 51,175 

(Report 

58,266 

68,718 

65,801 

on Currency & Finance, 

1955-56). 


PRODUCTION OF AGRICLUTURAL COMMODITIES OTHER 
THAN FOOD GRAINS 


(000 omitted) 



Unit 

1951-52 

1952-53 

1953-54 

1954-55 

1. Sugar (raw) 

(tons) 

6,066 

5,019 

4,423 

5,546 

2. Oil seeds 

( » ) 

4,949 

4,659 

5,286 

5,877 

(a) Groundnut 

( ) 

3,142 

2,883 

3,391 

3,823 

(b) Rape & Mustard ( „ ) 

928 

844 

858 

962 

(c) Sesamum 

( „ ) 

445 

464 

554 

592 

(d) Linseed 

( ,, ) 

328 

366 

379 

388 

(e) Castorseed 

( ) 

106 

102 

103 

112 

3, Cotton (lint) (392 bls.each) 

3,133 

3,194 

3,944 

4,227 

4. Jute (400 Ibs.each) 

4,678 

4,592 

3,091 

2,928 

6. Mosta 

( ) 

, , 

8,682 

650 

1,106 

6. Silk (raw) 

( lbs. ) 

2,712 

2,558 

2,462 

3,208 

7. Tea 

( bis. ) 

6,41,079 

6,75,270 

5,88,733 

, , 

8, Coffee 

( tons ) 

24 

21 

25 

, , 

9. Rubber 

( tons ) 

14 

16 

20 

19 

10. Tobacco 

( .. ) 

206 

241 

268 

248 

11. Lac 

( mds. ) 

1,297 

1,153 

654 

1,023 


(Bcport on Currency & Finance, 1955-56). 


INDEX NUMBERS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 
(Base ; Agricultural year 1949-50=100) 

Commodities Group Weight 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 
Total sereals . - 58.3 90.3 91.2 101.4 119.3 112.1 

Total pulses .. 8.6 91.7 90.3 98.8 112.1 113.0 

Total food grains . . 66.9 90.5 91.1 101.1 118.4 112.2 

Total oilseeds .. 9.9 98.5 97.4 91.9 106.7 115.1 

Total fibres .. 4.5 108.6 128.3 128.4 133.5 146.4 

Total plantation crops 3.6 104.6 . 109.4 115.7 102.6 106.4 

Total miscellaneous . . 15.1 110.3 114.0 101.5 97.1 112.7 

Total Non-food grains 33.1 105.9 110.5 103.8 105.5 117.3 

All Commodifies . . 100.0 95.6 97.5 102.0 114.1 113.9 

(Report on Currency & Finance, 1955-56). 



FISHERY IN INDIA 


India, with a coast line of 3,500 miles, into which munerons large, 
perennial rivers discharge their silt-laden waters, innumerable gulfs, 
creeks, bays and oceanic islands, has a fishable area of about 110,000 
square miles. Similarly, the extensive backwaters, estuaries, 
lagoons and swamps, numerous rivers, streams and channels and a 
very large number of perennial and semi-perennial lakes, heels, reser- 
voirs, tanks, ponds and other stretches of water, a large_ proportion 
of which is culturable, are a rich potential of inland fisheries. So far 
as sea area is concerned, only a small portion is at present worked. 
This, it is stated, is because the methods used by Indian fishermen 
are not modem, most of them using country boats like catamarans 
and small nets which are not adequate for fishing in deep seas. The 
chief sources of supply of fish are the coastal margins of the sea, river 
estuaries and backwaters for marine and estuarine fish and rivers, 
canals, tanks, inundated tracts etc. for the fresh water fish. 

INLAND FISHERIES — Constitute fresh fish from rivers, canals, 
tanks, ponds, irrigation channels, inundated tracts etc. They are the 
mainstay of inland fisheries of India. The extensive areas of Ganges 
system, Brahmaputra in Assam, Mahanadi in Orissa, Narmada, 
Tapti, Godavari, Kistna and Cavery in the Lladhya Bharat and South 
India are the main area for inland fisheries. In this class of fish, 
West Bengal leads the rest of India. The three States of West 
Bengal, Bihar and Assam account for 72 per cent of the total fresh 
water fish in India. 

SEA FISHING — Sea fishing is mainly carried on in small craft 
having a displacement of under five tons, in coastal waters from 
five to seven miles from the shore and within a depth of 10 fathoms. 
With the exception of a few oflT-shore fishing boats operating in 
certain localities, very few fishermen make vojmges which would 
entail staying in the open sea longer than 12 hours at a time. 
There is, at present, practically no night fishing. This is largely 
because the equipment Tised for sea fishing consists mostly boats, 
canoes, cntamarans and of small nets and tackles which are not of a 
type which can stand the regorous and requirements of off-shore or 
deep-sea fishing. These fishing people, poor as they are, have acute 
problem of procuring nets, timber for boats, sailing cloth, fish hooks 
and coal tar etc. So the mechanization of fishing operation has 
become an absolute necessity. 

At present sea fishing is carried on within 10 fathoms in the sea. 
The sea fisheries are confined to the coastal waters from the shore 
of Gujarat, Canara, Malabar coast. Gulf of Manar, Madras coast and 
Coromondal coast. The principal sea fish around the coasts of India 
are herrings, mackerel, prawns, jew fish, cat fish, mullets, pomfrets, 
and Indian salmon, llackerel accounts for over one third of the 
total catch. Herrings account for over 15 p.c. of the total catch. 
Prawns account for 9 p.c. of the total catch. 



AGRICULTURE IN INDIA 


263 


ESTURINE AND BACKWATER FISHING— Chilka lake in 
Orissa, backwaters in Madras, Cochin and Travancore, deltaic areas 
of Sundarbans and Mahanadi are the principal sources of esturine 
and backwater fish. The esturies of Mahanadi and the Ganges 
stretching from Puri to Hooghly are extensive fishing grounds con- 
taining hilsa, pomfrets, prawns, catla, cat fish, rohu etc. 

REFRIGERATION — Another important item for the improvement 
for fish production in India is the refrigeration without which this 
problem can not be solved. At present, though large quantities of fish 
are being caught, but for the want of refrigeration facilities and 
transport, only a small portion of the catch can be used in a fresh 
condition. So for the better supply of fishes, two things are absolu- 
tely necessary — (1) quick transport of fresh fish from large assembly 
centres to some of the towns in fast motor vans, (2) provision of 
refrigerated rail transport. For the quick freezing and cold storage, 
erection of cold storage plants are the ideal solution for the proper 
preservation of fish and also erection of as many ice factories as 
possible, so that adequate quantities of ice may be available at all 
important fishing and consuming centres. 

FISHING INDUSTRY — (1) There is practically no fish-canning 
industry in India but fish curing is being carried on in various ways. 
In India fish is preserved by desiccation with or without salt and byi 
the use of antiseptic preservatives, such as brine, vinegar etc. The 
main process is the desiccation by drying fish in the sun. It is also 
done by salt. Canning is pi’acticed on a limited scale in Madras and 
Bombay, The cured fish has developed lucrative export trade with 
Ceylon and other countries. Fish curing yards have been established 
along the coasts of India. In order to develop fish industry in India 
on extensive scale refrigeration system has become absolutely neces- 
sary. Cold storage facilities are being developed in every part. 

VARIETIES OF FISHES — more than 1,800 distinct species of 
fish are known to exist in the seas around the country and the inland 
waters, but the varieties that are caught in appreciable quantities are 
limited in number. Pisciculture experts classify the commercially 
important varieties of sea fish into 15 groups and freshwater fish into 
eight. 

The sea fish groups include elasmobranchs, eels, cat fishes, silver- 
bar fish, herrings and anchovies, Bombay duck, mackerels and per- 
ches, silver-bellies, pomfrets, flat fishes, mullets, Indian salmon, 
which is stated to be not a true salmon, jew fish, crustaceans and 
minor shell-fishes. 

Fresh water fishes are grouped under cat-fishes, mullets, ca^s, 
prawns, murrels, feather backs, eels, herrings and anchovies. 
Though several kinds of edible fish are obtained from fresh water 
sources, only a fraction of the inland water area is devoted to planned 
pisciculture. , , . , , 

Regarding fresh water fishes, carps form the most highly estee- 
med variety, constituting about 34 per cent such as, Rohu, Catla, 
Mrigal and Calbans which are well-known throughout India. Other 
important varieties are cat fish, wallago, bagarious, clarius, silundia 



264 


HTNWSTAX YEAE-BOOK 


and macrones belonging to this class. Trout has been introduced into 
the hill streams in Kashmir, Kumaon and Nilgiri Hills. 

Eegarding river fishes, the foUordng may he specially mention- 
ed — masheer available in the upper reaches of most rivers in_ India. 
Chilwa is a flat-sided, thin-bodied fish with his stomach running an 
edge. It occurs freely both in the north as well as in south Indian 
rivers. Murrel varies from 2 to 3 ft. in length. Batchwa is small 
but excellent for eating. Barils have 14 species and they are widely 
distributed throughout India- Olive carp is available in Madras and 
is also found in the fresh waters all along the coast of India from 
Kutch to Bengal. Mtdlep has no scales. 

Regarding tank fishing we have rohu which is met within most 
large-sized tanks. 

FISH PRODUCTS — Besides articles of food, fish yields several 
byproducts, such as fish-oil, fish-meal, fish-manure, fish-mates and 
shark-fins. The most important is fish oil, such as, sardine oil and 
shark-liver oil which are now produced on commercial basis in India. 
The oil is used for the manufacture of paints, soft-soaps, for soften- 
ing hides, for temparing steel, batching jute and after hydrogenation 
for the preparation of edible fats. Fish liver oil produces vitamins A 
and B indispensable for wasting diseases. It is being manufactured 
by the Governments of Bombay, Madras and Itevancore, The 
Government shark-liver oil factory is situated at Koshikode, Madras 
wliich supplies shark-liver oil for use in hospitals and for sale to 
the public. _ Indian fishes such as salmons, jew fishes, cat-febes are 
yielding ‘Jsin-glass,’ a valuable article for the clarification of wines. 
Bombay, east coast of Madras and Snnderbans in Bengal are the 
centres of trade of this commodity. Fish-scraps are converted into 
fish-meal as additional protein food for poultry and livestock. Fish 
refuse is being dried as fish-manure. 

Fish-curing is also an important supplementary trade. The 
chief methods of curing fish in India are sun-drying and salt curing, 
either by dry or wet process. 

RATE OF CONSUSIPTION — The average per capita annual con- 
snmpHon of fish in India is estimated at 3.98 lbs. Travaneore has 
the highest consumption of 21 lbs. per capita a year, which comes to 
about one ounce per capita a day. Other States which consume con- 
siderable quantities of fish are West Bengal 13 lbs. per capita a year, 
Madras 12 lbs., Bombay seven lbs., Assam six lbs., and Orissa five lbs. 
Consumption is the lowest in the Punjab with O.OS lbs. 

In the FAO surveys India has been included in the category of 
low fish-consuming countries whose average per capita consumption 
falls below five kfiograms. India’s neighbour, Burma is among the 
fish-consuming countries with an average of 20 kilograms per capita- 

Nutrition experts estimate that for a balanced diet 1.3 ounces 
per day is required per adult, i.e., 20 lbs. per capita per annum. 

Approximately 92 per cent of the total production in India is used 
for edible purposes and eight per cent for the manufacture of indus- 
trial and other products. 



FISHERY IN INDIA 


265 


SECOND FIVE-YEAR PLAN — ^The main programmes of the 2nd 
Five-Year Plan are as follows — 

(1) Plans to catch the large schools of tuna for canning whose 
production is estimated to be around 250,000 metric tons a year 
which at present spawn and swim in the deep waters of the Bay of 
Bengal. 

(2) A dozen of additional powerful mechanised fishing vessels 
will augment the Central Governments present meagre fieet of 
four mechanised deep-sea fishing vessels during 2nd Five-Year Plan. 

(3) Establishment of 'fishing harbours’ in three or four places 
on the coast line v/here fishing vessels can berth and land their catch. 

(4) Cold storage for keeping the catch and provision of 
refrigerated transport for carrying it to cities. 

(5) Export of frozen prawns to U.S. where there is a big 
market. 

(6) Enlargement of the number of co-operative societies for 
fishermen. 

(7) Increasing the country’s wealth of ‘carp’ has a prominent 
place in the development of inland fisheries. 

(8) Controlled culture of ‘tilapia,’ much-publicised fast-growing 
fish, now popular in many eastern countries. For the present experi- 
mental work on this fish in three research stations. 

(9) Establishment of number of extension centres where fisher- 
men will receive training in handling small power boats. 

(10) Establishment of new technological stations for bringing 
home the results of research to fishermen and trade. 

RESEARCH — Tliere is Fisheries Research Committee of the 
Union Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Considerable research 
on fisheries and exploratory fishing have been done by the Central 
Inland Fisheries Research Station in Calcutta, the Central Marine 
Research Station at Mandapam and the Central Deep-Sea Fishing 
Station in Bombay. 

The Calcutta Station supplies fish seed and spawns not only to 
States, but also to foreign countries like Israel and Malaya. The 
Calcutta Station has to its credit valuable "work in developing suit- 
able fish-farming practices. A pilot deep-sea fishing station was 
established in 1948 to undertake exploratory fishing with the object 
of charting fishing grounds, determining fishing seasons and fishing 
intensities, assessing the suitability of different kinds of fishing 
craft and gear under Indian conditions and training of Indian per- 
sonnel in powered fishing methods. 

FOREIGN AID — ^Fairly generous assistance has been received 
from foreign assistance programmes. F.A.O. has been providing tech- 
nical assistance for the development of Indian fisheries. The Govern- 
ment of U.S.A. under their Technical Co-operation Programme have 
also given substantial assistance by providing equipment and techni- 
cal personnel. Under the Indo-Norwegian Project Co-operation Pro- 
gramme, a Fisheries Community Development Project has been esta- 
blished in Kerala and is functioning successfully in improving the 
economics, health and sanitary conditions of the fishermen community 
within the Project area by introducing motorised fishing, providing 



266 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


ice and marketing facilities and also by improving supplies of drink- 
ing water and facilities for medical relief. 

With this foreign assistance and with their own Tesources, 
the maritime States have been able to initiate programmes to help 
fishermen to equip their boats with engines to enable them to go fur- 
ther into the sea. The use of better fishing nets has also been 
demonstrated to impress on the fishermen the need to replace their 
old small nets. 

Progress in Travancore Cochin — ^The development of fishery in 
Kerala has been possible due to Norwegian Fisheries DeveJ 
lopment Project located in Guilon district. Norv/egian Aid Scheme 
has been started under U. N. Organisation with the Governments of 
Norway and India as the parties to an agi-eement in 1953. The 
Norwegian contribution to the project for the year 1956-57 was 
Rs. 41 lakhs. The Norwegian Fisheries Development Project was 
really a Community Project in action being worked by Norwegians. 

jVQUARIA and museums — ^T here are a small number of fish 
aquaria in India. The main aquariams are Taraporevala Aqnariiim, 
Blarine Drive, Bombay. Attached to this aquarium is the Marine 
Biological Research Station where facilities are available to research 
students for M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees. A fish farm is being esta- 
blished at Sasson Dock, Bombay for conducting research on problems 
relating to ancillary industries like shark liver oil, gelatine, glue, 
fish meal etc. These are a museum and an aquarium in JIadras, 
which preserves specimens of all important marine and fresh water 
fishes, many kinds of sharks, aquatic cureos etc. There is a small 
experimental aquarium of the Orissa Fisheries Department at Cuttack. 
A small museum exists in the Central Fisheries Research Labora- 
tories, Lucknow where an aquarium room in the Laboratory has been 
started, with all fish species of U.P. 

PEARL OYSTERS — One of the important developments in the 
fish industry is the revival of pearl fishing by the Madras (^vernment. 

Tuticorin in Madras is the centre of pearl industry in India. 
There are two types of oysters — (1) window-pane oyster shell used 
for decorative purposes and (2) real pearl oyster. The window-pane 
oysters are found in open sea off Coromondal coast. Madras coast and 
Cochin coast. The waters of the gulf between India and Ceylon and 
of the Arabian sea near the edge of the Kathiawar peninsula, as well 
as of the Gulf of Cutch are rich in oyster beds. 



ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

IMPORTANCE OF CATTLE IN INDIA— India possesses over 
150 million heads of cattle, more than one fourth of the •world’s total 
cattle population. In addition, she has 43 million buffaloes besides 
86 million sheep and goats and 3 million other animals like horses, 
mules and donkeys. India is mainly an agricultural country and 
more than 70 per cent of her population are tillers of the soil and 
from time immemorial, man and cow in India have became by long 
association inseperable entities. Cattle supply the necessary motive 
and tractive power so essential for all our agricultural operations 
and invigorate the fields by supplying manure. It is estimated that 
the annual direct contribution from our livestock by labour alone 
is over 1,000 crores of rupees and by manure another 1,000 crores. 

Indian cattle serve two main purposes ; one is the milk produc- 
tion and other is the supply of bullock power for agricultural opera- 
tion like ploughing, carting, and drawing of water for irrigation. 
But Indian cattle is of inferior quality because there is indiscrimi- 
nate breeding and a majority of them do not possess characteristics 
of any breed. The most important problem of animal husbandry 
in India is the breeding improvement of cattle. The old practice of 
distributing stud bulls have been found to be inadequate, because 
the supply of farm bulls is very small and the continuity of such 
supplies cannot be always steady. Even the very little improve- 
ment secured through pedigree animals is offset by the existence of 
a large number of unapproved bulls in the area. So the main points 
are (1) the passing of Livestock Improvement Acts which will secure 
the removal of scrub bulls by castration and other measures. Most 
States in India have nov/ passed such Acts. (2) The second notable 
instrument for the improvement of the breeding of animals is the 
introduction in 1946 of the pilot scheme for artificial insemination 
which has proved its value and has became the first item in the 
programme of cattle improvement, (3) Introduction of herd book 
system in which all the animals true to type are recorded. This will 
help the systematic recording of milk production and definitions 
of breed characteristics of the important type on more scientific 
lines. 

LIVESTOCK & THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION— Organisation 
of agriculture and animal husbandry finds a place in the Constitution 
of India. For in Article 48 included in the "Directive Principles of 
State Policy” it is directed that State shall endeavour to organise 
agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and 
shall, in particular, take steps for presem’ing and improving breeds, 
and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and 
draught cattle. 

KEY VILLAGE PLAN & OTHER PROJECTS— The most im- 
portant development of all is the project for the simultaneous attack 



268 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


on the problems of poor breeding, defective and inadequate feeding, in- 
cidence of disease etc., 'which is called All India Key VillcCge Scheme 
initiated in 1950-51. This scheme provides for the linking up of four 
or five villages having a population of 2,000 cows of breedable 
age to a central key village where breeding bulls are kept and semen 
is distributed for servicing in the outlying 'villages by artificial 
insemination. During the First Five-Year Plan 600 key villages 
and 150 artificial insemination centres were established and their 
work was very impressive and popular. During the Second Plan, 
these targets will lae doubled. These key villages 'will produce 3,00d 
improved bulls, 36,000 improved bullocks and 10,000 cows. Gosadhan 
scheme has also been started for the segregation of old and unpro- 
ductive stock. The Central Council of Gosamvardhan has been set 
up by the Central Government to deal ■with the various aspects of 
cattle development. 

Gosamvardhan Day is being observed on the ad'vice of the Central 
Council of Gosamvardhana in order to create the necessary enthu- 
siasm in the general public for cattle improvement. A centre for 
training of gaushala workers at Kamal and the establishment of a 
pilot project for development of poul'try at Izatnagar are among the 
new ventures undertaken in 1955. 

Central Stud Farm — ^All-India Central Stud Farm has been 
started in Bangalore in 1955 by the Government of India as a part 
of an intensive scheme for the improvement and development of 
cattle in the country. The farm consists of pedigree breeds from 
all parts of India as well as foreign breeds. The pedi^ee breeds 
of this All-India Central Farm 'will consist of the Sindhi, Tharpar, 
Gir, Murrah, Ongole and Kangayam types and the Jersy from 
America. The semen of these pedigree breeds will be available to 
the pilot unit centres which 'will be run on the model of the key 
■village scheme with a view to intensifying live-stock development 
by increasing the dairy qualities of the indigenous stock grading them 
up ■with foreign breeds. 

DIVISION OF LIVESTOCK — ^Livestock is generally dmded into 
three classes, namely — (a) Bovine, comprising oxen and buffaloes ; 
(6) Omne, comprising sheep and goats ; and (c) others, comprising 
horses, ponies, mules, donkeys, camels, and pigs. 

SPECIES OF CATTLE — ^There are at present forty recognised 
breeds of cattle and buffaloes in our. country. In India certain breeds 
of cattle are known for their high milk productions, while others 
for their high class powers. A third category of animals combine 
in themselves a moderate degree of efficiency for production of both 
milk and work. Some of the best varieties are mentioned here — 

(1) Some of the best Cows in India are Sahhval in Punjab and 
Gir in Saurashtra. Red Sindhi whose habitat is in Sind (Pakistan) 
has been developed in Coorg and at Government farms of Kamal, 
Hosur and Koila. It is a milch breed and cows are one of the ^st 
and economical producers of milk. 

(2) The important breeds of bullocks are Hissar and Hansi 
found in Punjab and Nellorc in Madras. Amrit Mahal is one of the 



ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 


269 


best draught breeds found chiefly in Mysore State. Bullocks of this 
breed are active and fast trotters. Ongole bullocks are powerful and 
suitable for any work. Home of this breed is Nellore and Guntur dis- 
tricts of Madras. Other breeds are Kanrej in Gujarat, Kangayam in 
Madras, Kherigarh in Uttar Pradesh, Dungi and Nitnar in Bombay 
and Harina in Punjab. The finest duel purpose animals, i.e., best 
for draught as well as milk purposes are Kanrej and Gir. The best 
breeds of buffaloes are Murrah in Punjab, Jafferbadi in Saurashtra 
and Mehasana, Surati and Pandharpuri in Bombay. These nine 
breeds of cattle from all parts of India are of first rate importance. — 

Sindhi — ^This breed hails from Sind, but several pedigree herds 
of it have been established in India, particularly in Kathiawar on the 
West Coast. It is a distinctive dairy animal. 

Sahiwal — ^Though originally belonged to central undivided 
Punjab, it is available in Kamal, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. 

Harina — ^The home of the breed is the area covered by the dis- 
tricts of Rohtak, Hissar, Gurgaon, part of Kamal and the Delhi State. 
This breed is also produced in more or less pure form in Jind, Nabha, 
Patiala, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Loharu, Alwar, Bharatpur and in East 
Uttar Pradesh. 

Murah — ^The cows of this breed is good milker and the bullocks 
are excellent for draught. It is available in Southern Punjab, Delhi 
and northern Uttar Pradesh. 

Gir — ^The home of this breed is Kathiawar. Pure specimen of 
this breed is available in Junagadh. 

Kankrej — The home of this breed is the country to the south- 
east of the Rann of Kutch, extending from the south-west comer of 
the Tharparkar district in Sind to Dholka in Ahmedabad district, 
also along the Banas and Saraswati rivers. It is one of the heaviest 
of Indian cattle. 

Tharparkar — Coming originally from the arid semi-desert tracts 
of south-east Sind, this breed is mostly bred in India today in the 
north-east portion of Bombay State as well as Marwar. 

Kangayam — ^The name of this breed is derived from the Kanga- 
yam division of Coimbatore district where it has been in existence 
for a long time. 

Ongole — The home of this breed is Ongole tract of the Madras 
Presidency comprising Ongole, Guntur, Narasaraopet, parts of 
Bapatla etc. 

It is a significant fact that good cattle are generally found in 
dry areas and inferior cattle in areas of heavy rainfall. The rainfall 
map of India more or less coincides with her cattle map. 

Thus Punjab, Rajasthan, Saurashtra, Mysore and drier parts of 
Bombay and Madras are homes of some of the best cattle in India, 
while non-descripts are found in areas of heavy rainfall, like Assam, 
Bengal, Orissa and Malabar Coast. 

Sheep — Another cattle wealth of India is sheep and goat. Their 
distribution is widely divergent mainly dependent upon the 
climatic conditions — the number being smaller in heavy rainfall 
areas and greater in light rainfall areas. There are in the country 
about 38 million sheep some of which are mutton variety and soma 



270 


HINDUSTAN TEAK-BOOK 


■of the woolly type. The annual clip of wool is about 38 milhon lbs 
valued about Ks. 9 crores. The wool which is one of the main pro- 
ducts of the sheep breeding industry, holds eighth position amongst 
the agricultural commodities in the country’s export trade and earns 
54 million rupees in foreign exchange. The sheep do not only provide 
wool, but also mutton, manure, pelts, hair, nnlk, butter and serve as 
pack animals to carry essential food grains from their owners, across 
the precipitous hiHs where other systems of transport would per- 
haps fail. 

There are about 14 breeds of sheep in India, which can be divided 
into two distinct types, namely, woolly and hairy. The wooUy tjyes 
produce wool fibres of fine or coarse quality, while the other just 
produce hair and are reared for manurial purposes and to provide 
mutton. 

The carpet wool produced in India is classified in the world 
markets as East Indian type of wool and is sold under well-known 
names of Joria and Vinanere. The Bikaneri breed haUing from the 
desert of Bikaner is the hardiest breed known in India._ This breed 
is becoming a cosmopolitan breed of India and is being introduced in 
different States. The fact that India is one of the main producem 
of carpet wool, need not leave an erroneous impression that In^a 
produces only this wool. This country also produces large qualities 
of fine wool, specially in the hills of the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and 
Kashmir. But this does not meet the requirements of our country, 
with the result, that we have to import about 9 million lbs. of fine 
wool every year. There are several types of hill-sheep along the 
Himalayan ranges which produces fine wool, such as Gurez, Kamah, 
Bhadaswah, and Rampur Busher. The story of Indian hill-sheep 
will remain incomplete without the mention of Pasbmina goat com- 
ing from Ladakh, Kashmir. This goat produces the finest wool_ in 
the world, knowui as Pasham. We have also Tibetan sheep coming 
to Indian Hills in summer. Marino sheep are being introduced in 
our hill areas to improve the local sheep so as to get more and fine 
wool from them. 

The wool-producing States are Punjab, U.P., Kajasthan. The 
average production of wool per sheep in Inia is 1.9 lb. 
There is an Wool Analysis Laboratory in Poona for the 
research of wool fibre and various other improvements. The annual 
production of wool of Indian sheep is very poor when compared to 
those of other countries. The wool produced in India is also of 
much inferior quality. .As an exception, the Ifrshmir goats are 
famous for fineness of their wool. There are some good sheep in 
parts of India like the Bikaner rams which are woolly types. 

Goat is also the principal source of meat supply in the country. 
The important varieties of goat are — Jamnapuri type of the Deccan 
Plateau, the Surti of West India and the black and white bearded 
variety of Bengal, Ganjam, and Telingani varieties. 

India’s goats number about 58 millions. Goats are prized for 
their meat and milk. Goat contributes only 3 p.c. of the total milk 
supply of India. 

India’s pigs belong to two principal species namely, Indian wild 



ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 


271 


boar found throughout India and pig^y hog in the forests at the 
base of the Himalayas in Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan. Pigs are use- 
ful for bristles, lard, meat (pork, ham, bacon) and skin. 

HorscB are mainly used for transport. The Kathiawar breed of 
horses known as kathi is famous for its great powers and endurance. 
The Marhatta pony, the little Gujarat and Dimthadi of the Deccan 
arc also famous. The ponies of Manipur are regarded as the best 
in India. Bhutia pony is also famous for powers of endurance and 
v/eight-carrying capacity. 

MILK PRODUCTION — Ill-bred, ill-fed and ill-maintained as our 
cattle are today, the return from them is less than the amount expect- 
ed. Promiscuous breeding and inadequate nourishment largely ac- 
count for the poor quality of the Indian cattle. The average yield 
of milk per cow per annum is 413 lbs. which is the lowest figure in the 
world. In a deteriorated condition, the milk production per cow in 
our country is the lowest in the whole world as the following statis- 
tics will show — 


Per cow 
per annum 


India 

.. 30 gallons 

Sweden 

Belgium 

. . 362 „ 

Switzerland 

Denmark 

.. 387 „ 

Finland 

Netherlands 

.. 373 „ 



Per cow 
per annum 
. . 326 gallons 


.. 380 
.. 344 


tf 


The Second Five-Year Plan contemplates the establishment of 
36 milk supply unions, 12 largo scale co-operative creameries 
and seven milk drying plants. Milk colonies have been coming 
into existence during past few years in various parts of the 
country. The most notable and spectacular arc the Aarey colony of 
Bombay and Haringhata Colony, Calcutta. The Second Plan con- 
templates doubling milk production in India over the next 10 years. 

POULTRY — India has about 6.7 million fowls and 6.3 million 
ducks. The important poultry-producing areas are Madras (25.2%), 
West Bengal (12.6%), Bihar (11.2%), Assam (8.9%), Bombay 
(8.5%), Madhya Pradesh (6%). The per capita consumption per 
year of poultry meat in India is as low as 0.29 lb. as against 29.32 
lbs in U.S.A., 20.94 lbs in Canada, and 13.23 lbs in Prance. 

The bulk of poultry population of India consists of the 
indigenous or ordinary country fowls dispersed in small units 
in the rural areas and maintained by poor people. India has a 
total fowl population of 116 million, of which 15 million are laying 
hens. The proportion of fowl population to human population in 
India is relatively low as it is only 15 hen per 100 of population 
Poultry is divided in India into tw'o groups — (1) Fowls comprising 
whereas in U.S.A. and Europe it is 300 hens per 100 of population, 
hens, cocks and chickens, (2) Ducks comprising ducks, drakes and 
ducklings. 

Poultry-keeping is an important subsidiary industry of the 
poorer classes. Indigenous poultry, of low grade, produce on an 
average 60 small-sized eggs per year. Steps are being taken to 



272 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


improve them by grading up with foreign breeds like Rhode Island 
Red, White Leghorn and Minorca. 

The exotic breeds such as Rhode Island Reds, White Leghorns, 
Black Minorcas, Orpingtons and Australorps which have been fully 
acclimatised to Indian conditions are now strong favourites of poultry 
farms in this county. 

It has been estimated that India has approximately 16 million 
ducks, representing 18 per cent of the domesticated duck population 
of the world. Madras and Bengal account for more than 75 per 
cent of ducks in India. The average annual egg production of the 
Indian duck is 90 to 100. Ducks are hardy and are free from con- 
tagious disease. The birds are largely reared in the eastern and 
southern parts of the country where there is abundant supply of 
water. 

Methods of Poultry Improvement — (1) Importation of large 
number of day-old chickens from abroad and rear them on Govern- 
ment farms. When these chickens come of age, they should be used 
as the basic stock for the poultry production centres. (2) _ Im- 
provement of the indegenons stock by selective breeding and distri- 
bution of pure-bred hens and cocks like white Leghorns, Rhode 
Island Reds and Minorcas for grading the desi birds. (3) Installa- 
tion of large scale hatchery in two and three centres for hatching 
chicks for the poultry keepers. (4) Marketing of eggs. 

Poultry Institutes — (1) Government Farm, Sultanpur Road. 
Lucknow imparts elementary, intermediate and high standard 
courses in poultry science. It also deals in all sorts of the poultry 
requisites. (2) Mission Poultry Farm. Katpadi, North Arcot deals 
with current scientific work in the field. (3) East Punjab Govern- 
ment Poultry Institute, Gurdaspur imparts short courses in poultry. 
(4) Rural uplift Department, Santineketan, Bolpnr also imparts 
instruction in the poultry keeping in India. (5) Asian Research Ins- 
titute of Poona is the only one institute of this nature throughout 
Bombay State. (6) Government Poultry Farm, Bhopal and Idlssion 
Poultry Farm, Etah are good poultry farms though they do not 
impart instruction on the subject. 

ANIMAL PRODUCTS — ^Besides animal products of milk and 
wool, the principal animal products of India are blood, bones, ivory, 
tallow, and hides and skins. Bones are used as manure and for 
manufacture of buttons, handles, toys, glue and as a source of 
superphosphates. Supply of horns comes from U.P., Punjab, Madras 
and Bengal. Buttons, toys, manure, glue, gelatine, etc., are made 
by horns. Ivory is used for the manufacture of ivory goods, bones 
and teeth. THs supply comes from Assam, Western Ghats and 
Mysore. Tallow is derived from the fat of beef, mutton and goats. 
Its printing uses are as an adulterant, lubricant, and illnminant and 
in the manufacture of soaps and candles. 

There is considerable export and trade in livestock products. 
While dairj' products, such as condensed milk and cream, milk foods 
for infants and invalids, butter and cheese comprise the main imports, 
bones and horns are exported. , At the same time, there is a two-way 
trade in hides, skins and wool. 



ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 


273 


PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTION — The largest number of oxen is 
found in the Uttar Pradesh which possesses 23-0 million heads or 
nearly 14 p.c. of the total for the country. This is closely followed 
by Bengal where there are nearly 22-6 million oxen or approximately 
13'6 p.c.; Madras 9’6 p.c. of the total. For Buffaloes : U.P. — 9-9 
mfflion or 29 p.c. ; Punjab — 6-92 million or 13-2 p.c.; Madras — 6’1 
million or 13 p.c.; Bengal — 1-1 million or 2-3 p.c. of total buffaloes in 
India. 

The densities of oxen per 10 acres of cultivated area, per 100 
persons and per square mile of the country as a whole are 4343 and 
106 heads respectively. The all-India average density of buffaloes 
works out to 12, 12 and 30 respectively. 

TRADE IN CATTLE — Bengal is the principal importer, follow- 
ed by Bombay, U.P. and Bihar. The main exporting province in 
order of merit are Punjab, Bihar and Orissa. 

ANIMAL DISEASES — Remarkable progress has been made in 
combating cattle diseases during the last few years. Nearly two 
lakhs of cattle are estimated to be affected every year by infectious 
diseases and the mortality is about one-fifth and loss is about Rs. 20 
crores annually on money value. There are ten veterinary colleges in 
India one each at Gauhati, Patna, Calcutta, Bombay, Mathura, Hy- 
derabad, Madras, Hisaar, Bikaner and Jabalpur. The chief research 
centre is the Indian Veterinary Research Institute at Mukteshwar 
(U.P.) and its branch at Izatnagar, near Barielly. This institute 
is maintained by the Central Government. The Indian Veterinary 
Research Institute also manufactures large quantities of sera and 
vaccines. Serum institutes have also been opened in various states, 
such as Bombay, Madras, Hyderabad and Uttar Pradesh. 

There is a Central Rinderpest Control Committee which has 
drawn up tentative scheme for eradicating rinderpset which kills 
400,000 animals a year. , 


LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY IN INDIA 
(In thousands) 


Livestock 

Cattle 

Buffaloes 

Sheep 

Goats 

Horses & 

1940 

. . 137,929 

40,125 

41,506 

60,263 

Ponies 

1,780 

1945 

. . 136,739 

40,732 

37,728 

46,302 

1,398 

1951 

. . 165,099 

43.351 

38,829 

47,077 

1,614 


Mides 

Donkeys 

Camels 

Pigs 

Total 

1940 

60 

1,186 

617 

2,702 

live-stock 

276,148 

1945 

45 

1,131 

666 

3,709 

268.440 

1951 

60 

1,239 

629 

4,420 

292,218 

Poultry 

1940 

Fowls 
. . 65,062 

Ducks 

2,346 1945 

Fowls 

54,666 

Dtteks 

3.681 

18 

1961 

67,136 

6,264 



FORESTS IN INDIA 

FOREST WEALTH OF INDIA— The forests in India play an 
important part in country’s agricultural and economic developments. 
The forests cover 280,348 sq. miles or about 22 per cent of the 
total geographical area of the country. This is a low proportion 
compared with most other countries of the world. According to 
experts, one-third of the area should be under forests to preserve 
climatic condition. Even the area is not evenly distributed oyer 
different parts of the country. The Forest Policy Resolution 
of May 12, 1952, therefore suggested that India as a whole 

should aim at maintaining one-third of its _ total land area 

under forests, proportion being 60 per cent in the Himalayas, 
Deccan and other mountainous tracts and 20 per cent in_ the 
plains. They provide employment for nearly a million 

people. The role of forests in conditioning the_ weather, in pre- 
venting the erosion of soil and in short in maintaining the phy- 
sical condition is not yet fully appreciated. India contains an infinite 
variety of types of forests vegetation, governed by the vari- 
ations in climate, soil elevation and other local factors. The 

forests of India are a source of considerable wealth. They yield valu- 
able timber. Our railway system leans heavily on Indian timber ; 
paper, plywood, bobbins, match industries depend on timber resources. 
The forests also yield large quantities of fuel. The variety and 
abundance of Indian economic forest products are perhaps unequalled 
in any other similar area in the world. Teak, sal, deodar, chir and 
sheesham and many varieties of useful timber come from forests. 
Besides providing timber, fuel and fodder, forests 3 neld medicinal 
herbs and raw materials for the manufacture of paper, matches, 
rubber, resin and terpentine. 

Full value of India’s forest wealth is not to be assessed merely 
in terms of money, timber output, fuel and innumerable by-products ; 
for forest land serves other ends, by mitigating the extremes of the 
fiercest climate in the world and breaking the force of the world’s 
heaviest rainfall. 

FOREST TYPES OF INDIA — is divided into five types — 
(1) Evergreen, (2) Deciduous, (3) Dry, (4) HUl, (6) rfdoZ or 
Lnttoral. _ Evergreen flourishes where rainfall is 80 to 120". 
Such regions are the West Coast of the Peninsula and the 
Eastern Sub-Himalayan _ tract. These forests include many 
species of great economic value such as ebony, teak, rosewood, 
ironwood, bamboos, neem and tamarind. Decidtwzts (rainful 60 
to 80”) occupies the larger part of the Deccan and is also 
known as monsoon forests. The trees are large-sized and form very 
remarkable timbers such as, teak, sal, paduk, redwood, sandal wood, 
anjan etc. The Dry forests (rainfall 30 to 40") are found in the 
desert regions of Rajasthan and the Punjab and the plants are charac- 



FORESTS IN IFTOIA 


275 


terised by thick and fleshy stems and leaves and mostly consist of 
thickets of shrubs and a few stunted trees ; many of them are 
leafless. The Hill forests are found in South India above 5,000 feet 
and in the Himalayas above 3,000 feet altitude. The trees are ever- 
green, of which the following are the most prominent — oak, picea, 
deodar, pines, firs, chestnut, walnut, maple, elm ash, birches, laurels, 
poplar, rhododendron and spices of abics. The lAttoral forests are 
found in the deltas of the Ganges, the Mahanadi, the Indus and also 
to some extent in the regions washed by the high tide and salt water. 
They are rich sources of fuel. These forests are known as Man- 
grove Forests. 

_ NATIONAL FOREST POLICY — The national forest policy of 
India known as Forest Policy Resolution was enunciated in 
1952. _ Among the landmarks of the new policy is the 

recognition to the intrinsic right of forests to a permanent 
and adequate share of land. So an indication has been pro- 

vided of the proportion of land which should be permanently main- 
tained under forests. This naturally varies with the configuration 
of the ground and rainfall. Thus, while in the flat Indo-Gangetic 
plain where slope is imperceptible and erosion is not a serious pro- 
blem, the average proportion of forest land to be reserved need not 
be more than 20 p.c. of the total land area ; in the mountainous tracts, 
with higher rainfall, a much greater area (about 60 p.c.) must be 
maintained under forest growth. This means that India as a whole 
should aim at maintaining one-third of its total land area under 
forests, the proportion being 60 p.c. in the Himalayan, Deccan and 

other mountainous tracts and 20 p.c. in the plains. The new policy 

directs pointed attention towards reconditioning of hills and dales, 
the immobilization of the Rajasthan desert, the prevention of the 
encroachment of sea-sands on coastal tracts, the rationalization of 
shifting cultivation and_ control of soil erosion in general. The policy 
legislates for the functional classification of forests such as "protec- 
tion,” “national” and ‘village’ forests. 

CLASSIFICATION OF FORESTS — Forests in India are classi- 
fied according to — (a) Ownership, (6) Legal status, (c) Composition. 
From the ownership point of view, forest area is divided into, 
(f) States, (ii) Communal and (Hi) Private. The forests owned by 
State Forest Departments comprise nearly 95.4 p.c. of the total 
forest area, viz., 269,915 sq. miles. The Communal and Private 
forests are now only 4.6 p.c. of the total forest area. 

From the administrative point of view, forests have been classi- 
fied into Reserved and Protected and Unclassified. The first cate- 
gory is reserved for Government use and no entry is allowed to any 
member of the public. The protected forests are under the control 
of the Department, but contracts for their exploitation are given and 
the public is allowed to make use of them within the terms of the 
contract. The Unclassified forests consist of the shrubs and trees in 
villages. They are not under the control of the Department. 

From the composition point of view, forests are classified into 
coniferous and non-coniferous. In India, forests are mostly non- 



(276 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


‘coniferous or broad leaves. This is natural in a tropical country. 
On the hilly parts of the country, however, coniferous and in the 
valleys and terai areas mixed types of forests grow. 

From the point view of the outturn, forests are classified into 
Merchantable and Inaccessible (unprofitable). The Merchantable 
.forests constitute 73.1 p.c. of the total forest areas, 55.1 p.c. being 
Heserved and Protected. Nearly 68,000 sq. miles or 26.9 p.c. are 
(inaccessible and therefore unprofitable. 

CENTRAL BOARD OF FORESTRY— The Government of India 
have constituted a Central Board of Forestry in 1950 for the purpose 
of evolving an all-India policy to increase the area under forests 
The functions of the Board are — (1) Co-ordination and integration 
,of the forest policy pursued by States in the management of their 
forests, (2) adoption of conservation measures affecting forests re- 
.Eources and soil, (3) integration of plans for land use and national 
•reconstruction in which forestry has come to play a progrressively 
important role, (4) promotion of legislation considered necessary 
for various States for the management of private forests, (5) ref- 
lation and development of forests in inter-state river valleys which 
are the concern of the Central Government, (6) Maintenance of ade- 
quate standards for training of officers, (7) co-ordination of forest 
research conducted in Central and State institutes and (8) any other 
matters affecting forestry, which are relevant to the objective of the 
Board. 

AFFORESTATION & SOIL CONSERVATION— Forests must 
be planted and reared continually so as to protect the land from the 
ravages of erosion, to refertilize the soil, to arrest aridity and modify 
the climate. Reafforestation is necessary to provide cheap fuel and 
fodder, new grazing lands, beautiful landscapes etc. Cultm-able Gov- 
ernment land should be afforested by the Forest IJepartment. 

Government can assist by supplying seeds or saplings and give 
expert advice. Over-grazing, field cultivation and deforestation 
are the main causes of denudation of thousands of acres of unculti- 
vated land. State Forest Department should take remedial measures, 
puch as, contour trenching of fields, silt catching, building dams and 
planting trees as well as rotational grazing schemes. In certain 
areas, steps should be taken for controlling pine tapping for resin 
extraction to ensure that trees are not killed and the ground is not 
exposed to heavy fellings. The work on the reclamation of waste 
lands and control of floods should be taken in hand at once. Canal 
plantation should be laid out by the Irrigation Department. Nur- 
series for growing and distributing saplings, fooder trees should be 
established. 

The Government have already undertaken the following measures 
for the progress of afforeation in India — (1) A scheme for checking 
the spread of the Rajasthan desert by means of planting trees on the 
present bounderies has already been drawn up (2) From July 1950 
a campaign for planting new trees, ya7ia Mahotsava has been 
launched. It has become an annual national festival and has given a 
great -fillip to afforestation. 



FORESTS IN INDIA 


27 . 7 > 


Soil Conservation Board was fofmed in 1953 to organise ‘ co-' 
ordinate and start soil conservation, to assist the States and River- 
Valley Authorities in drawing up schemes for soil conservation, to. 
arrange for the training of technical personnel and to recommend- 
financial help for schemes to the States and River Valley Authorities. 
The Board has taken over the Desert Afforestation Research Station 
at Jodhpur and established four new research-cum-demonstration 
centres. 

ADMINISTRATIVE SET-UP — Under the Constitution, the juris- 
diction over forests vests in the States (Item No 19, List II of the- 
Seventh Schedule). The revenue from these is derived from the sale 
of timber, fuel, bamboo, fodder grass and other minor products, such 
as lac, tanning materials, gums, resins, medicinal herbs, etc. It also’ 
includes fees for grazing and the proceeds of the sale of confiscated 
drift and -wind wood. Expenditure on the management and collection 
of forest revenue is debited to the expenditure head “Forest”; Foresfr 
Department is treated as a commercial department and the interest 
on capital outlay is debited to it. Most of the capital experditure is' 
however met out of current revenue. 

The forest administration of the Government of India is carried 
on in their Department of Agriculture. The Inspector-General of 
Forests is the technical adviser to the Government in forest matters. 
Forests are however, a provincial subject. For the purposes of admi- 
nistration, the States are divided into one or more Forest Circles, 
each in charge of a Conservator of Forests ; while in those States 
where three or more forest circles exist, there is also a Chief Conser- 
vator who is the head of the Department of his State. Circles arc 
de-vided into a number of Forest Devisions, in-charge of members of 
the Superior Forest Service. Each Devisions contains a number of 
Rangers in charge of Forest Rangers or Deputy Rangers ; heavy Di- 
visions are also sometimes divided into sub-divisions. The Ranges 
are sub-divided into a number of rounds and beats. 

FOREST EDUCATION AND RESEARCH— The scientific forest 
management in India owes its inception to Dr. Brandis, a professor 
of Bombay from the University of Bonn, who was engaged by the 
Govemment of India in 1856 as Superintendent of teak forests in 
Burma. Later in 1864 he was appointed first Inspector-General of 
Forests in India. It was a result of his initiative that Forest De- 
partments were organised throughout India. 

The nucleus of forest research and education in India is trace- 
able to a forest school started in 1878 in Dehra Dun under the aus- 
pices of the Survey of India. The school enjoys the distinction of 
being first of its kind in British Commonwealth. By 1906 this insti- 
tution became the nucleus around which the existing organisation of 
the Forest Research Institute and Colleges have been built up. 

Primarily the work of the Forest Research Institute is research 
into problems connected -with rearing and protecting India’s forests 
and enhancing their value and usefulness, and secondly the more effi- 
cient and profitable utilisation of timber and various other produce 
of these forests. Four excellent museums are maintained by the 



278 


HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


Institute. Of the four museums, one is knoum as_ the timbei 
museum -n-hich is devoted to a display of the great variety of India’s 
timbers in the form of polished and unpolished boards. It also con- 
tains demonstration models of wood seasoning, wood preserving and 
timber testing installations. The second museum is arranged to 
inicate the infinite range of India’s forest products and to indicate 
the methods of their extraction and utilisation. The third museum 
houses large scale models to demonstrate silvicultural practices and 
the evils of soil erosion. The fourth museum draws attention to the 
extent of insect damage to Indian trees and the timber. 

The following is the brief account of the activities of the Forest 
Eesearch Institute — (1) Silvieidture, (2) Botany, (3) Mycology, 
(4) Forest Entomology, (5) Wood. Anatomy, (6) Wood Seasoning, 
(7) Wood Preservation, (8) Coposite TFood, (9) Timber Mechanics', 
(10) Cellulose and paper, (11) Cheinistry of Forest and minor 
Forest Products, (12) Statistical, (13) Publicity and Liaison. 

The Indian Forest College at Dehia Dun was originally started in 
1926 for training I. F. S. officers, but was closed after 1932 and was 
restarted for training for Superior Forest Service officers in the Pro- 
vincial Forest Service. The College is housed in the Forest Research 
Institute buUding and well-equipped with lecture and common rooms 
and biological and chemical laboratories. Course covers two years 
only. Those students are admitted who are deputed by a State and 
are assured of employment on completion of the course. In view of 
the great demand for admission, the Government of India took over 
the Coimbatore Forest College in 1948 which has been greatly 
expanded. 

Indian Forest Rangers College, formerly known as the Forest 
School is also situated in Dehra Dun. The course lasts for two 
years. Another forest institute has been started at Bangalore, the 
first institution in India outside Dehra Dun. 

pfDIA’S FOREST PRODUCES AND USES— India has 2.50D 
species of wood of which about 450 are commercially valuable. 
Apart from timber for structural purposes and fuel, forests supply 
wood from which an increasing variety of thingrs are made today. 
Acetic acid, acetone, methyl alcohol, certain oils and creosote are 
some of the derivatives of wood. We may mention, also, valuable 
timber species such as conifers (pines, firs, deodars'), the principal 
species^ of the sub-tropical zone, and the well-lmowTi teak which is 
met with throughout the Deccan plateau. The chief among other 
species of commercial importance are dipterocarpus, acacias, sissoo, 
sandahoood and bamboos. The forests in addition, yield a bewilder- 
ing variety of minor forest products which are utilised in indigenous 
medicine and industry. The various plants and their derivatives ac- 
count for items such as essential oils, resin, gums, medicinal herbs, 
fatty oils, vegetable dyes, tans, soap-berries, fibres, flooses, edible 
wild plants, canes, grasses. This is not all. Animal products such 
as honey, beewax, lac, bones, hides and horns play an important part 
in the home market and abroad. Out-turn of produce of Indian 
forests is of two kinds : (1) Major produce consisting of timber and 



FORESTS IN INDIA 


279 


firewood and (2) minor produce consisting of all other products such 
as lac, tanning materials, essential oils, turpentine and resin. 

Minor Forest Products — The variety and abundance of minor 
forest products in India are remarkable. There are over 3,000 
species of plants, besides a large number of animal products. Medi- 
cinal and poisonous plants, essential oils, resins, fatty oils and fats, 
waxes, starches, gums, mucilages, tans, dyes, bamboos and canes, 
fibres, flosses and grasses, animal products, such as honey and lac, 
and materials for packing and wrapping can be exploited. 

Oil trees are Chandan or Sandalwood found in Southern India. 
(Mysore, Coorg, Western Ghats, Nilgiris). It is a hard, close grain- 
ed, yellowish brown wood, strongly scented by the oil. It makes 
beautifully carved boxes and small articles. The oil is also extracted 
from the seeds and nuts of various other trees, such as Chahnugra, 
Satinwood, Croton, Coconut, Oil Palm, Pine, Deodar, Kusum, Neem, 
Mahua, Garjan. 

The gum and resin yielding trees of India are Babul, Catechu, 
Sal, Pine, Mango and Banyan. Asofoedita or king is available in 
Kashmir only. 

Sal is one of the most important timber trees of India and very 
hard, heavy and tough wood with reddish brown colour. It is a large 
tree with glossy foliage and grows freely in the Northern and Central 
Indian regions. The wood is largely used for building construction 
and railway sleepers. 

Teak {Sagun) is a large deciduous tree grown mainly in the 
frost-free parts of India and is a strong wood of great durability. 
It is immune to attacks of white ants and insects for very long 
periods. It grows in the Deccan plateau in Madhya Pradesh, 
Orissa, Bihar, Bombay and Madras. As it does not corrode steel, it 
is mainly used for boat and ship-building, railway carriages and 
sleepers, tool handles and furniture, etc. 

Arjun is heavier and harder wood than teak. It grows all over 
the deciduous region. 

Kusum is a very heavy, hard and tough wood. It grows in the 
deciduous forests. ‘Lac’ insects are also reared on it. 

Ebony is a very dark green or greenish black wood of great 
strength. It is obtained all over the deciduous regions excepting 
N.E. parts. 

Siris is a fairly strong wood. It is obtained all over deciduous 
forests. 

Palas is important for its crop of ‘lac’ insects. It grows largely 
in Chotanagpur and also over the plains of northern India. 

Mahua is very common in Chotanagpur area. Its flowers are 
important articles of food. A course spirit is distilled from Mahua. 

Scmul is well-known for the cotton it yields. Its wood is very 
soft and perishable and is suitable for matchbox manufacture. 

Jarool is of medium strength and is employed for making cheap 
classes of furniture. It is found mainly in Assam, West Bengal, and 
is also found in Chotanagpur. 

Deodar or Himalayan cedar is the most important timber tree 
of the western Himalayas. It grows from 100 to 200 feet in height. 



280 


HINDUSTAN^ YEAR-BOOK 


The wood is moderately hard, scented, oily and very durable. It is 
used for building construction, particularly for doors and windows. 

Pine — ^The Blue Pine or Kail as it is popularly known is a large 
ever-green conifer with bluish feathery foliage. It often_ reaches 
120 ft. in height and is found throughout the temperate Himalayan 
regpon at altitudes ranging from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. The heart- 
wood is of good quality and frequently used in general carpentary 
and furniture. 

Shisham (Sissoo) is a large deciduous tree which gprows near 
river banks from Punjab to Assam. It is a favourite road-side tree 
and is easily grown. The sap-wood is perishable but the heart- 
wood is heavy, hard and durable. It is largely used for fumitiure. 
It also makes lasting carts, boats and v/heel spok^. 

Toon — is a large tree of rapid growth and thrives in moist loca- 
lities throughout India, often reaching a height of 80 feet. Its red 
timber is very durable, yet. not too heavy and is largely used for 
furniture. It takes a high polish. 

Oak is available in Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Mani- 
pur. It is used for buildings, agricultural implements, axe-handles. 

Rosewood is found in various places from Nepal to Travancore. 
It is used extensively for furniture, cabinet-work, keels of vessels, 
agricultural implements, combs, ornamental articles, finely carved 
chairs and tables. 

Satinwood is found in the dry forests of Circars, Konkan, 
Deccan and Kamatak and is common in Satpura range. It is large- 
ly used for cabinet work, picture frames, furniture, etc. 

Fir is grown in outer Himalayas, the Punjab and Kashmir and 
is used for packing cases, crates, shingles, boards and paper pulp. 

Babul tree grows in Western India and is used for all forms of 
agricultural implements. 

Sundri is available in the deltaic regions of Bengal, particularly 
in Sunderbans and in the coasts of Orissa. It is a very hard wood. 

Canes and Bamboos are extensively found in Eastern Nepal, 
Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh. Deccan, Konkan 
and Coromandal Coast. Bamboos grow everywhere in India. It 
has nurnerous varieties, from giant bamboo of Assam to dwarfs of 
dry region. It_ is used for paper making and for other various 
objects. Cane is used for basket works, mats, walking sticks, ropes 
and in the manufacture of paper. 

Grasses are generally used for fodder for the cattle. Sahai 
grass is used for paper_ making. Mtmjh grass growing in all parts 
of India and specially in the Punjab is used for thatching, paper- 
making, chairs, baskets, ropes and cordage. Rhea grass found in 
Assam and Bengal is used for belting, sheeting, lace, net, cordage 
sacking, etc. 


Lac is an important Indian forest product. It is produced from 
an insect which secretes its larvae on certain class of trees. These 
trees are palass, peepul and kusum. Lac is produced throughout the 
warm tropical areas of the whole of India. The principal places of 
production are M.P., Bihar, Bengal, Assam, and Gujarat. Chota- 
nagpur in Bihar raises 60 per cent of India’s total. Lac is extensively • 



FORESTS IN INDIA 


281 - 


■used in the manufacture of gramophone records, plastics, lacquer work, 
mouldings of ornaments, paint and varnishes, sealing wax etc. Only 
2 per cent of the production is consumed in India as rest is exported. 

Bee Wax and Honey are also important forest products. 
Bee wax is used in candles, foundry moulding, calico printing and 
medicine. It is largely used by the shoemakers of India. 

Gums and Resins — gum and resin yielding trees in India are 
Babul, Catechu, Sal, Pino, Mango and Banyan and are worked for- 
making resin and turpentine oil. Resin is used for shellac adultera- 
tion, in paper mills, soap factories etc., while turpentine has demand 
for medicine and varnish. 

Tanning materials — ^various tanning materials are found from 
Indian forests, most important of which are myrobalan. Myrobalans 
jrrow in abundance in Madras, Bombay, West Bengal, Chotanagpur, 
Orissa and other places. Myrobalan is a great tanning materiak 
The alkali of myrobalans is useful for preparing different dyes by 
mixing with various inprredients. 

Sandalwood is used for producing sandalwood oil and from oil 
soaps and scents arc made. It is mainly obtained in Mysore. 


Classification of Forest Areas 
(In thousand sq. miles) 



1949-50 

1962-53 

Geographical area of India 

. . 1,267 

266 

1,267 

280 

Forest area in the country 

A. By types of Forests 

1. Merchantable 

212 

216 

1. Unprofitable 

64 

64 

B. By legal Status 

1. Reserved 

124 

134 

2. Protected 

38 

63 

3. Unclassod 

104 

93 

C. By Composition 

1. Conifers 

14 

12 

2. Sal 

39 

43 

3. Teak 

17 

19 

4. Miscellaneous 

196 

206 


AREA 


1946- 47 

1947- 48 

1948- 49 

1949- 60 


OF FOREST LANDS AND OUTTURN OF FOREST 
PRODUCE 

Uvclassi- 


Area of 

Reserve 

Protected 

fied State 
Forest 

Total area 
under for- 

State 

Forests 

Forests 

etc. 

est dept. 

(Sq. m.) 

(Sq.m.) 

(Sq. m.) 

(Sq.m.) 

(Sq. m.) 

631,418 

65,773 

7,826 

16,421 

89,019 

1,080,919 

98,476 

14,613 

24,162 

138,161 

1,219,836 

101,638 

17,949 

27,735 

160,104 

1,266,812 

130,641 

24,088 

■ 27,399 

194,836 



282 


HINDUSTAN YBAK-BOOK 


OUTTURN OF FOREST PRODUCE 

Proportion of forests Timber & Fuel Minor Produce 
to area of State (ooo cu. ft.) (In ]akhs of Rs,) 


1946-47 

. . 14-1 

316.334 

235-54 

1947-48 

. . 12-8 

362,017 

302-76 

1948-49 

. . 13-1 

859,673 

367-77 

1949-60 

. . 16-4 

438,996 

479-84 


CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST AREA 


I. 

11 . 

III. 

IV. 


P.c. to the 
total area 

Total Population (millions) 320.2* 

Total general area 1,266^90 100 

Forest area 282,840 22'3 

Classification of area other than forest land — 


(i) land not available for cultivation 176,395 13‘8 

(a) land put to non-agricultural uses 47,909 3'8 

(b) barren and unculturable land 86,533 6'8 

(ii) other uncultivated land excluding fallow 

lands 176,439 13-9 

(a) parmanent pastures and grazing lands 32,611 2-6 

(b) miss, tree crops & groves not included 

in the net area sown 52,398 4-1 

(c) culturable waste 90,558 7-1 

(iii) Fallow lands 108,170 8*5 

(a) fallow lands other than current fallows 44,602 3’5 

(b) current fallows 49,802 3'9 

(iv) Net area sown 463,106 36-6 


•Including Jammu & Kashmir. 



DAIRY FARMING 


Dairying like ag^riculture is one of the basic industries of India 
and milk and milk products contributed to no less than Es. 620 
crores to the national dividend — almost as much as all the factory 
establishments put together. The huge quantity of about 1,500,000 
maunds of milk produced per day in the country is obtained from 
about 67,000,000 cows and buffaloes maintained in nearly 40,000,000 
small fragmented holdings throughout the country. 

The Planning Commission correctly holds that despite the fact 
that milk is a very important food for a country like India with a 
very large vegetarian population and the existence of a large number 
of milch cattle in the country, dairying which can provide ample scope 
of fruitful whole-time and part-time employment to the unemployed 
and under-employed millions thronging the countryside has been in a 
backward condition simply for the fact that it has not received the 
attention it deserves. Poor quality cattle, insufficiency of feed and 
fodder, high incidence of disease and lack of organised production, 
improper handling of milk and milk products are problems that re- 
quire urgent solution. The Planning Commission opined “the im- 
provement of cattle depends primarily upon proper policy and pro- 
gramme for breeding and feeding” and suggested the introduction 
of schemes for key villages. Gosadan, artificial insemination centres 
and the use of oil cakes, bone dust and fish meal as cattle food. 

MILK ADULTERATION — ^The Agricultural Marketing Adviser to 
the Government of India says in his report of 1950 that “adulteration 
of foodstuffs, including milk is not uncommon in Western countries, 
but the position is nowhere as bad as in our country. Adulteration 
is so widespread that consumers have became almost indifferent to 
quality.” 

Legal standards prescribed under State Food Adulteration Acts 
are lower than the constants for locally produced pure milk and 
therefore leave room for 'legalized' adulteration with water or skim- 
med milk. There is a strong feeling in the country that official con- 
trol of the quality of market milk has been very lax. 

The enforcement of the Food Adulteration Acts which rests 
entirely in the hands of the municipal authorities has been most un- 
satisfactory. The municipal authorities have therefore been urged 
to be more vigilant in the matter of quality control of milk and dairy 
products. 

POOR YIELD — The average annual yield of milk per cow in 
India is 413 lbs. which is about the lowest in the world, as com- 
pared with 8,000 lbs. in the Netherlands, 7,000 in Australia, 6,000 
in Sweden and over 6,000 in the U.S.A. The following table gives the 
maximum annual yields of world’s finest dairybreeds : — 



284 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Breed 

Holstein Friesian 
Milking Shorthorr 
Ayrshire 
Brown Swiss 


Milk Butterfat 
(000 lbs) 


Breed Milk Butterfat 

(000 lbs) (000 lbs) 


38.6 

1.4 

Guernsey 

24.0 

1.0 

32.5 

1.6 


19.7 

1.1 

31.2 

1.4 

Jersey 

23.7 

1.2 

27.5 

1.1 

If 

17.9 

1.2 


According to the livestock census of 1961, India had 165.09* 
million cows and 43.35 million buffaloes. The daily average quantity 
of milk available per head in India is about 5.8 oz ; quite a few do not 
get any milk at ail or even any milk products. In some cities the 
average quantity of milk consumed per person is not even one ounce 
a day. 

As compared to this situation, the daily average production per 
head in New Zealand is 244 oz., 148 in Denmark, 37 in U.S.A. and 
140 oz. in Britain. The consumption figures are 35 oz in U.S.A., 30 in 
Britain, 56 in New Zealand and 61 in Sweden. In other countries the 
yield of cows per lactation averages from 3,000 to 4,000 lb, but the 
better Indian breeds yield only 1,500 lbs. 

LOW MILK CONSUMPTION— -According to the 1951 cattle- 
census, the average per capita consumption of milk and milk-products 
works out at 5.5 ounces per day. The consumption varies consider- 
ably in different parts of the country and among the various classes 
of population. It is as high as 16.89 oz. in the Punjab and 15.72 oz. 
in Rajasthan, while in Orissa, it is as low as 2.64 oz. Except Punjab 
and Rajasthan, the major States of the country are deficient in milk- 
consumption by the standard of ten ounces per day recommended by 
nutrition experts. 

The gross annual milk production in India was 481.66 million 
maunds in 1945 and 620.43 million maunds in 1951, out of which the 
quantum used as fluid milk came to 174.09 m. mds. (36.1 p.c.) and 
195.28 m. mds (37.53 p.c.) respectively ; about 66 p.c. of the total 
yield is marketable, the balance being fed to the calves or retained 
for home consumption. Excepting some ‘Milk Pockets’ or areas of 
concentrated milk production in Bombay, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, 
Madhya Pradesh and Saurashtra, where a large quantity of surplus 
mUk is available during the flush season, milk is produced in the 
Indian villages on a small scale — ^the average daily output amounting 
to a mere 2.5 mds. 


RESEARCH ASSOCIATIONS — Indian Dairy Science Associa- 
tion was formed in 1948 with the object of advancing the cause of the 
science of dairying in India by co-ordinating and unifying the acti- 
vities of dairy scientists in the country towards rapid advancement 
of nation’s dairy industry. 

Indian Dairy Council has been_ inaugurated in 1948 with 
the object of promotion and safeguarding the interests of the dairy 
indust^ in India. It is a common platform on which representatives 
of various interests of the milk industry, such as producers, consu- 
mers. traders and technicians could meet together for developing it on 
sound and economic footing. 

LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION OF MILK— Steps are being taken 



DIAEY FIRMING 


285 


by several States to organise the supply of milk on the Governmental 
basis. Government of Bombay has established a very large milk 
colony at Aarey near Bombay where about 15,000 animals are housed 
under the most modem conditions and the milk is supplied to Bombay 
city after pasteurisation. Similar big milk colony has been establi- 
shed by the_ Government of the West Bengal at Haringhata near 
Calcutta which supplies milk to Calcutta through numerous milk 
depots. Milk supply schemes are operating in various States. 

DAIRY EDUCATION — There is an Indian Dairy Research Ins- 
titute at Bangalore. The Institute is a central organisation for dairy 
research and education under the direct control of the Ministry 
of Food and Agriculture. Apart from its administrative ofBce and 
dairy, there are four research sections, namely. Dairy Husban- 
dry, Dairy Chemistry, Dairy Technology and Dairy Bacteriology. 
T^e most important work carried out by the Dairy Husbandry sec- 
tion relates to scientific breeding, feeding and management of dairy 
cattle in order to increase their milk yield. The institute also forms 
the centre for artificial insemination of dairy cattle. The Institute 
offers training for the Indian Dairy diploma course for two years to 
students and a short course of three months’ duration to men in the 
trade deputed by the Government. Besides these, the Institute 
entertains a limited number of science graduates as honorary 
research workers and it also offers a post-graduate course for 16 
months leading to the Associateship of Indian Dairy ' Research Insti- 
tute. The Veterinary Research Institute at Izzatnagar, the Dairy 
Research Institute at Bangalore and Cattle Breeding Station at 
Jabalpur carry out research on animal husbandry. The Veterinary 
Research Institute, besides teaching and advisory work, manufac- 
tures biological products. The Dairy Institute carries on development 
work in respect of pedigree herds of Red Sindhi, Gir and Tarparkar 
cows and Murrah buffaloes. The Cattle Breeding Station carries 
out cross-breeding of cattle under controlled conditions. The foun- 
dation stone for the National Dairy Research Institute, Kamal was 
laid on August 7, 1955. The institute will have seven divisions— dairy 
husbandry, dairy technology, dairy machinery (Engineering), dairy 
chemistry, dairy bacteriology, nutrition and dairy extension. In 
addition to this, the institute will have a degree college in dairy 
science and an economic and statistics section to plan surveys of cost 
of milk production and distribution. 

GHEE PRODUCTION IN INDIA — The annual production ot 
ghee in Indian Union is estimated at one crore and fifteen lakh 
maunds i.c., half of what it was in undivided India ten years ago. 
In order of importance, the main ghee-producing areas are Punjab, 
U.P., ^ladras and Bihar which account for 15-7, 13-8, 9-8 and 6'4 of 
the total production respectively. Thus three-fifths of the ghee 
production is concentrated in Northern and Western India and the 
remaining two-fifths is scattered in the rest of the country. Taking 
the country as a whole, India produces 8-9 maunds of ghee per 
square mile, 21-4 maunds per village and 3-6 maunds for 100 persons. 
The annual per capita consumption of ghee in India is highest in 



286 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Gvralior and Sind 'witli 15-5 and 11‘2 seers respectively and the lowest 
in Hyderabad and Bengal with 1-1 and 1-3 seers respectively. Of 
the total ghee production nearly 30 p.c. is retained by the producers 
for domestic consumption and 70 p.c. is marketed. 

India imports about 66,000 maunds of ghee mostly by land 
frontier routes from Nepal. India also exports about 66,000 maunds 
of ghee to the Straits Settlements, Burma, Federated Malaya States 
and Africa. {Ghee Marketing Report of the Government of India, 
1948). 

GHEE ADULTERATION — ^With a view to distinguish genuine 
from adulterated ghee, the Government of India have been develop- 
ing an organisation for grading and marking of genuine ghee. The 
grading organisation started its work in 1938 and its mark is now 
known as Agamark. In 1947 the amount of agamarked ghee was 
about 2h lakh maunds. The inadequacy will be clear when we see 
that this 2i- lakh maunds of certified agamarked ghee constitutes 
only 2-2 per cent, of the ghee produced in the coimtry. On an average 
only one sample is collected and examined for every 550 maunds of 
ghee consumed in the country. Experience has shown, generally 
speaking, 50 per cent of the sample tested are found to be 
adulterated. 

At present the grading under Agamark is voluntary. The ghee 
adulteration by mixing Vanaspati (hydrogenated oil) has become so 
widespread that the Government of India have been compelled to 
put the matter in the hands of an expert committee, known as Ghee 
Adulteration Committee which has recommended that every lot of 
Vanspati produced in a factory should be accompanied by a certifi- 
cate that it gives Baudouin test ; that the Vanaspati should be colour- 
ed orange by using carotine oil concentrate as colouring medium, in 
addition to sesame oil ; and that the Vanaspati should be fortified by 
synthetic vitamin ‘A’ so that its nutritive value may be increased. 
The Government have accepted the first and the last recommenda- 
tions. As regards second, further experiments are to be conducted, 
for the colour suggested was unstable and involved expenditure in 
dollars. 


INCREASE OF WORLD POPULATION 

The world population reached a record 2,652 million in mid-1954. 
well over half live in Asia. Following are the details — of the 2652 
million people in 1954, 1451 million lived in non-Soviet Asia, 
404 million in Europe, 357 million in the Americas, 214 million in the 
Soviet Union, 210 million in Africa and 14.4 million in Oceania. 

National Populations — China had the world’s largest population 
of 582 million, followed by India with 377 million, Soviet Union 
214 million, the United States 162 million, Japan 88 million, Indonesia 
81 million and Pakistan 80 million. 

Population growth — ^Asia’s population increased by 21 million a 
year, _ Latin ^ America by four million and those of North 
America, Soviet Union, Europe and Africa by three million each. 

(UJV. Demographic Year-Book, 1955). 




WILD LIFE IN INDIA 


India has a rich and varied fauna comprising fish, birds and 
mammals. The diversity which manifests itself in the variations in 
rainfall, temperature and climate, determine the distribution of its 
wild life. India has all the types of forests with the result that 
practically all types of birds and animals are found in India, i.e. from 
animals like the Himalayan red bear, the snow leopard, musk-deer 
etc. living near the perpetual snow line to tigers, elephants, rhino- 
ceros, wild buffalo etc. living in the hot tropical forests. More than 
600 different species of mammals are found in India. Our forests 
perhaps have some of the rarest and most magnificent animals. 
Among the cats, we have lions and tigers, besides panthers, cheetah, 
wild cats etc. Then we have the elephant, lion, wild buffalo, rhino- 
ceros etc which can he classed as rare species. The Indian bison is 
the largest of the existing bovines and the Indian rhinoceros, the 
greatest of all rhinoceroses now inhabiting the world. The Indian 
elephant is much more handsome compared to its African cousin. 
The deer family is still richer and some of the most beautiful species, 
e.g. cheetal, black buck etc are found in India. Cheetal is considered 
to be the most beautiful of all species of deer. Among the reptiles, 
the most dreaded species like king cobra, cobra, krait, viper etc are 
all present. 

PHYSICAL REGIONS OF ANIMALS— For the purpose of 
distinguishing the wild life in India, we can divide the country into 
three broad physical regions — (1) Himalayas, (2) Indo-gangetio 
Plain and (3) Deccan. 

Himalayas — The Great Himalayan arc occupies the region bet- 
ween the gorges of the Indus and the Brahmaputra covering a length 
of about 1,500 miles. The Himalayas can again be divided into three 
regions — Western Himalayas, Central Himalayas and Eastern 
Himalayas. 

Western Himalayas — supports rich and varied wild life — such 
as markhor, ibex, wild yak, choral, Tibetan antelope, brown and 
black bear, tahr, Kashmir stag or hangul, barking deer, snow 
leopard, serow, goral, sambar and ammon. The markhor, wild sheep, 
snow leopard and brown bear occur nearer the snow line above 
10,000 feet on Tibetan border and in Ladakh in particular, one 
comes up against ammon, Tibetan antelope, wild yak, bharal, ibex 
and Tibetan gazelle. 

Central Himalayas — ^While most of the Western Himalayan 
wild life persists in this region, ibex and markhor disappear and 
brown bear are seldom met with to the east of the Ganges. 
Panther is plentiful. The main sports of the Central Himalayas 
are Jaunsar-Bawar and Tehri-Garhwal and Kumann. 

Eastern Himalayas — Both panther and tiger are common 
along the foothills. Occasionally the great one-homed rhinoceros is 
also met with. 



288 


HIIJDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Indo-Gangetic Plain — ^lies like a moat skirting round the Hinm- 
layas from the Bay of Bengal upto the ^vestem boundaries of India. 
The representative animals met -with in this region are — ^black buck, 
nilgai and pigs in the centre, tiger, panther, sambar, barking deer, 
elephant and rhinoceros. So in the foot of Himalayas vre have tiger, 
panther, sambar, bear, barking deer, elephant, buffalo, and rhinoceros 
(Assam and Bengal), chital, hog deer, swamp deer and _ four- 
homed antelope. In central plain, we have black buck, nilgai, pig, 
porcupine, in the Thar desert we find desert cat, desert fox, desert 
hare and species of desert gerbilles. The moist eastern _ tracts 
have rhinoceros, buffalo, swamp deer. In the Aravallis and 
Southern Highlands, we have tiger, panther, sambar and barking deer. 

Ueccan — Ihe JJeccan plateau have three distinct regions — 
West Coast, East Coast and Central Plateau. In the open savannah 
lands of the Deccan, we have gazelle, antelope, jungle cat, common 
fox, mongoose, hyaenas, jackal, wolf, palm squirrel, hares and 
rodents. In the deciduous forests, we have bison, sambhar, spotted 
deer, sloth bear and wild dog. In more humid zone, we have swamp 
deer, buffalo and elephant. In Nflgiris, Palnis and Anamalais and 
evergreen forests of the Western Ghats, we have wild elephant, 
bison. Nilgiri langur, lion-taUed macaque, Nilgiri brown mongoose 
and Malabar civet. It may be noted that the exclusive feature of 
the Deccan animal life is constituted by the spotted deer, nilgai, 
black buck, four homed antelope and sloth bear — species winch do 
not occur anywhere else outside India. 

WTLD LIFE PRESERVATIONS— The revival of interest in the 
conservation of wild life in India is a part of general renaissance which 
has transformed the country since Independence. In the past, spas- 
modic efforts were made to preserve the wild life such as, the short- 
lived 1934 All-India Conference for the preservation of Wild Life etc. 
But the real attempt in this line has been the formation of Indian 
Board of Wild Life at Mysore in 1952. This Wild Life Board has pin- 
pointed the need to preser\'e completely certain vanishing species. It 
•has urged the States to create wild life board of their own and sanc- 
tuaries and national parks and to introduce new methods and to im- 
prove existing legislation. It has imposed export restrictions on 
certain animals and birds, it has endeavoured to find an alternative 
home for the Indian lion which is the nation’s emblem. It has sug- 
gested that wild life week be celebrated in the first week of October 
each year. But it is to be remembered that the work of the Board is 
purely advisory and the States which control wild life along with 
forests are free to accept or reject such advice. 

Wild life protection is provided for throughout India in the reserv- 
ed forests under the sporting rules of the State forest departments 
and generally through the implementation of the Arms Act and in 
some States, the provisions of special acts for the protection of 
animals and birds. Some States not content with the protection 
afforded under these various types of legislation has created, like 
Bombay and Hyderabad, Wild Life Department. 

Sanctuaries and National Parks are being created though very 
slowly for the protection of the vanishing animals of India. 



WILD LIFE IN INDIA 


289 


VANISHING ANIMALS — ^The animals which are gradually 
vanishing from Indian forests are lions, rhinos, Nilgiri langur, lion- 
taUed monkey, Indian wild ass, Kashmiri stag, musk deer, brown 
antlered deer, pigmy hog, clouded and snow leopards and the like. 

VARIETIES & DESCRIPTION OF ANIMALS 

(a) Himalayan Species — (1) Sheep — shapu of Ladakh, Bhoral ; 

(2) Goat — Asiatic Ibex, markhor, Himalayan tahr, serow, goral, 
takin ; (3) Deer — ^Kashmir stag, musk deer ; (4) Bears — ^Hima- 

layan brown bear, Himalayan black bear ; (6) Carnivora — snow 
leopard, clouded leopard. 

(b) Tibetan Species — (1) Yak, Tibetan wild ass, Tibetan ante- 
lope, Tibetan gazelle. Great Tibetan sheep. 

(c) Indo-Gangetic Plain and the Deccan — (1) General — Indian 
rhinoceros, Indian elephant, (b) Deer — Sambhar, spotted deer or 
chital, hog deer, swamp deer, barking deer, mouse deer ; (3) Ante- 
lopes — ^Nilgiri, black buck, Indian gazelle, four-homed antelope ; 
(4) Bovines — ^Indian wild buffalo, gour or Indian bison (B) Bears — 
sloth bear, malayan bear ; (6) Carnivora — Asiatic lion, tiger, panther, 
hunting leopard or cheetah ; (7) Hyaena — striped hyaena ; (8) Dog 
— Indian wild dog ; (9) Goats — Nilgiri tahr. 

Description of Animals — Indian rhinoceros is probably the 
largest of living rhinoceroses. It may reach 6 ft. at the shoulder 
with girth behind the shoulder of 11 ft. or more. This creature 
is in fair number in the Chitawan forests of the Nepal Terai of the 
Gandak river and it is also found in Bengal and Assam. Assam’s 
rhinos are concentrated in the Kaziranga Sanctuary in Sibsagur dis- 
trict. The population of rhinos in this sanctuary is roughly estima- 
ted to be 250 to 300. Bengal rhinos are found in the Jalpaiguri district. 
Elephants are at present found in the forests of the Western Ghats, 
in the forests of Mysore, parts of the districts of Coimbatore, Nilgpri 
and Madura and Palni hills (South India), occasionally in the eastern 
parts of Visakhapatnam and in considerable number in the Orissa 
State, east of Mahanadi river. They also occur in the Terai of U.P., 
in the forests of Assam and Bengal and in some parts of Orissa, 
cast of Sambalpur. Sambar of India is the largest of forest deers 
in South-East Asia. Chital or spotted deer is found only in India 
and Ceylon and is widely distributed in India. Nilgai or blue bull— 
a kind of antelope so named on account of the colour of the fully 
matured animal. Black buck is exclusively Indian animal. Indian 
buffalo is becoming scarce and can be seen on Mahanadi river in the 
north-west comer of Orissa and in Assam. Indian bison is found 
in Peninsular India and in Assam. Asiatic lion — ^is now to be met 
with only in the Gir Forest of Saurashtra. Tiger is available in 
Chanda District (M. P.), Eastern Kumaun, Sunderban forests. 
Panther — ^there is but one species of panther in India. Hyaena 
occurs freely all over India. Indian loild dog is found from Ladakh, 
Tibet down to the plains and the Deccan plateau. Indian gazelle is 
found in many parts of India from Indus to the South. Mouse deer 
is a tiny creature. It is quite plentiful in some areas of . Central 

19 


290 


HINDUSTAN YEAB-BOOK 


India and Madras State. Hog deer is some Trhat pig-like appear- 
ance and has hog-like movement. This deer is common in snh- 
Himalayan tracts and in Assam. Clouded leopard has dark and rich 
colouring. It is found only m the dense evergreen forests of 
Sikkim, Bhutan, and Assam. Himalayan hlaeh hear is fairly common 
in Kashmir and in other parts of Himalayas and occasionally in the 
Terai forests. 

PROBLEM OF VtTLD LIFE IN INDIA— DisaSorestanon in 
India during last two thousand years have totally changed the 
face of many parts of India, Sportsman’s vrhip had butchered vrild 
Die and certain rare animals are nearing esrinction. Indiscriminate 
cultivation in the interior of forests brings about needless interference 
with “nature’s reserves.” The importance of forests, where alone 
genuine wild life can be preserved is coming to be realised more and 
more. Realising the need of preserving the wild life of the country, 
the Government of India set up in April, 1952, an Indian Board of 
Wild Life to assist those in this line. 

Desperate efforts are being made in India to save the wild life in 
India which are fast disappearing. We now find only last surviving 
lions in the Gir forest in ^thiawar and Indian rhinoceros in .Assam, 
Bengal and Nepal. There are 225 lions and 350 rhinos in India. 
There are other wild animals which are dwingling in numbers in all 
states. Several of the State Governme nts have set up their State 
WDd Life Boards. Game Reserves and WRd lafe Sanctuaries have 
been established. 

A good amount of planning and scientific attention are necessary 
in settSig up parks, reserves and _ sanctuaries. The following pro- 
posals have been made by the I n dia n Board of Wild Life — (1) Ser- 
ting up sanctuaries, (2) legislation for the protection of wild animals 
and birds, (3) appointment of observer for wild lif^ (4) adoption of 
stringent measures against destruction of wild life by employing 
poisoned weapons, nets, snares and explosives, (5) setting up of per- 
manent machinery to keep constant vigil and for management of 
wild life throughout the country, (6) creation of buffer belts round 
the sanctuaries where the shooting of animals was to be prohibited, 
(7) periodical inoculation of domestic cattle in the neighbourhood of 
aD national parks and sanctuaries against cattie-horne disease, (8) 
prohibition of the e^ort of trophies except under certificate of 
ownership, (9) prohibition of nettmg of birds and animals during 
close periods and their sale, (10) fixation of annual limits reganfing 
export and import of animal for the purpose of zoos, circuses and 
scientific institutions, (11) wild life day on the 7th July each year. 

BIRD PROTECTION — National Committee for Bird Preserva- 
tion has been formed in India in 1952 for the protection of some of 
the species of wild life which are now in danger of extinction. There 
are in India about 1,500 main species of wild birds. These are again 
sub-divided into several smaller snb-^edes. An important factor 
contributing to the extinction of certain species was the indiscrimi- 
nate killing of rare birds for their feathers. There is urgent neces- 
sity of proper care of certain areas in the country which are alr^dv 



WILD LIFE IN INDIA 


2&1 


being used as sanctuaries such as Herona^ at Bharatpur in Eajas- 
than and the Flamingo breeding grounds in Cutch. 

NATIONAL PARKS AND SANCTUARIES IN INDIA 

(National Parks are created and modified only by an Act of 
legislature, luhereas a Sanctuary can he declared by Government). 
Jammu & Kashmir — Three game sanctuaries in Jammu and three 
game sanctuaries in Kashmir. 

Punjab — Eleven game sanctuaries. 

Pepsu — Game sanctuaries in the District of Kandaghat and all the 
other reserve forests. 

West Bengal — Wild life sanctuary at Gorumara (Jalpaiguri) measur- 
ing 3.33 miles under Jalpaiguri Forest Division situated in Lower 
Tandu range, (2) Chapramari sanctuary measuring 3.40 sq, miles 
in upper Tandu range. These two sanctuaries are mainly meant 
for the preservation of the rapidly vanishing Indian rhinoceros ; 
(3) the biggest of Bengal sanctuaries is Jaldapara measuring 
about 36 sq. miles about 50 miles away to the east of Gorumara’. 
Jaldapara sanctuary is under Coach Bihar Forest Division. The 
other two sanctuaries of Bengal are Senchal in Darjeeling and 
Lothian Island in 24 Praganas. It is estimated that the present 
strength of rhinoceros population in West Bengal, is 60 to 70. 
Elephants are found in Gorumara and Chapramari and Jaldapara. 
Assam — ^Assam has at present four very attractive game 
sancturies and four game reserves which ate meant for the 
protection of rare animals of the State. There are 464 
sq. miles of such sanctuaries and reserves in the State. 
(1) Monas Game Sanctuary, spreads over 105 sq. miles on 
the north bank of the . Brahmaputra and is in the Kamrup dis- 
trict. The sanctuary contains elephants, buffaloes; bisons, rhino, 
bears, tigers, pigs and several kinds of deer including barking 
variety. The nearest railway station is Barpeta Itoad from which 
there is a cold-weather _ motorable road to the sanctuary 
entrance. (2) Sonai-Rupai _ Game Sanctaary, Balipara in the 
Darrang district. It contains a few rhinos, elephants, bisons 
in addition to other animals. It can be reached from Rangapara 
railway station and Tezpur Aerodrome by all-weather motorable 
road. (3) Pabha Buffalo sanctuary, 19 sq. miles, is situated in 
North Lakhimpur. This is exclusively mfeant for the protection 
of the magnificent species of wild buffalo in 'Assam. (4) Kazi- 
ranga sanctuary is in Sibsagar . district. . , Bounded by Mikir 
Hills in the south and Brahmaputra in the north, it is 166 sq. 
miles and is easily accessible from Calcutta by air. A five-room 
bunglow has recently been constructed at Kahara near the 
entrance of the sanctuary. The population of the rhinos in this 
sanctuary is 250 to 300. Other animals include about 300 ele- 
phants, 500 wild buffaloes in a number of herds, 4 types of deer 
including hog deer and swamp deer, . (5) Orang Game Reserve, 
Mangalilai to Tezpur. (6) Reserve, for rhino, Laokhowa game 



292 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


reserve. Out of the above, the State is converting soon E^zi- 
rang and Monas into two National Parks. 

Bihar — ^Hazaribagh National Park. 

Madhya Bharat — Shivapuri National Park. 

M. P. — (1) Tairoba Game Reserve, North Chanda Division, (2) 
Bori Game Reserve, Hosangahad Dn., (3) Sanctuary in Mandla 
division, ICanha wild game sanctuary. 

Bombay — (1) Kanheri National Park, Kanheri valley, (2)_ Wild Life 
Sanctuary & National Park, Kulgi & Vimoli, North Kinara Disk, 
(3) Elephant Island. 

Madras — Mudumalai Game Sanctuary, Nilgiri District. 

Mysore — (1) Venugopala Wild Life Sanctuary, (2) Sanctuary for 
birds. Near Seringapatam, (3) Fish Sanctuary, Ramnathpur, (4) 
Miniature National Park, Mysore Zoo, (5) Bandipur Game Sanc- 
tuary. (6) Nagarhol game Sanctuary at Coorg. 

Travancore-Cochin — (1) Periyar Catchment area Sanctuary, (2) 
Peermade Game Association Area, (3) A Reserved forest serv- 
ing Sanctuary and National Park. 

Andhra — ^Wild Life Sanctuary to be opened shortly in Cuddapah and 
Chittur districts on a patch of nearly 190 square miles of forest. 

Uttar Pradesh — In U.P. the most important and perhaps the largest 
in India is the Ramganga National Park covering an area of 
125 sq. miles. Besides this important Park, there is the Nando 
Devi Sanctuary at an altitude of 14,000 to 16,000 feet surrounded 
on all sides by the mighty peaks of the Nanda Devi group. The 
Kansani Sanctuary in Dehra Dun division covers 28 miles. 

Orissa — ^There are at present four sanctuaries as detailed below — (1) 
Debigarh Game Sanctuary was. established prior to 1931. It ex- 
tends over an area of about 51. sq. miles. The important \vild 
life to be seen here is tiger, leopard, sambar, antelope, bison and 
nilgai. (2) Raigoda Game Sanctuary established during 1938-39, 
lies 23 miles south of Angul town. It is about 17 sq. miles in 
area, (3) Ghandika Game Sancttiary established in 1935, covers an 
ai'ea of about 12 sq. miles and is situated about 12 miles towards 
west of new capital, Bhubaneswar, (4) Balukhand _ Sanctuary 
was established during 1935. (5) A National Park in Simlipal 

Hills of Mayurbhanj and other game sanctuaries are to be opened 
during 2nd Five-Year Plan. 



ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

IN INDIA 

Calcutta 

Bombay 

Gwalior 

Hyderabad 

Baroda 

Lucknow 

Madras 

Junagadh 

Jaipur 

Mysore ’ 

Ahmedabad 

Jodhpur 

Trichur . 

Nagpur 

Bikaner 

Trivandrum 

Udaipur 

Delhi 

Poona 

Kotah 




INDEX NUMBERS ON VARIOUS 
SUBJECTS 


INDEX NUMBERS OP WHOLESALE PRICES & COST OP LIVING 
IN SELECTED COUNTRIES 


(Base : 1953= 

;100) : P 

= Wholesale 

Prices : 

C=Cost of Living 


Australia 

Canada 

France 

India 

U. K. 

U. 

s. 


P. C. 

P. C. 

P. C. 

P. 

C. 

P. G, 

P. 

c. 

1951 

86 82 

109 98 

100 91 

112 

99 

97 89 

104 

97 

1952 

97 96 

102 101 

105 101 

98 

97 

100 97 

101 

99 

1963 

100 100 

100 100 

100 100 

100 

100 

100 100 

100 

100 

1954 

98 101 

98 101 

98 100 

98 

95 

101 102 

100 

100 

1955 

102 104 

99 101 

98 101 

90 

90 

104 106 

100 100 


(.Report on Currency & Finance, 1955-56) . 


CONSUMER PRICE INDEX NUMBERS (Working Class) 
(Base : 1949=100) 



.B 












d 


§ 

O 

•o 

o 

K 





Ss 

B 


is 


•§ 

o 

»«•» 





"2 

c 

*5 

Q 

B 

o 

v>> 


“1 

§• 


'n 

o 

o 




5 

5 




ca 




< 

CQ 

S 


1951-62 

.. 104 

108 

106 

108 

104 

104 

116 

116 

94 

1952-53 

.. 104 

112 

100 

107 

103 

107 

116 

111 

93 

1953-54 

.. 106 

118 

99 

107 

109 

111 

113 

110 

94 

1954-65 

.. 99 

117 

94 

103 

104 

93 

104 

101 

83 

1955-56 

.. 96 

110 

93 

100 

100 

89 

104 

99 

79 


(Report on Currency & Finance, 1955-56). 


ALL INDIA INDEX NUMBERS OF SECURITY PRICES 


Group Indices 




.a 


CS 



Base : IHO-SO 

1952- 53 

1953- 54 


90-1 

90-4 


101-1 


87-3 

87-3 


94- 0 

95- 6 


294 


HlfTOUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


1954- 55 

1955- 56 


90-5 100-7 88-4 112-9 

90-9 100-8 87-3 121-6 


INDEX NUMBERS OE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 
(Base; 1951=100) 


General Index Mining 

Food 

Textiles 

Cotton 

Jute 

1952 103 

105.6 

112.4 

103.7 

102.3 

107.6 

1953 105.6 

104.2 

105.7 

107.1 

109.1 

101.1 

1954 112.9 

107.2 

101.7 

110.0 

110.9 

107.3 

1955 122.1 

111.7 

121.4 

113.6 

111.9 

118.9 



Q n 2 

Si 5 

1 o u 

it 

1 

2e> 

A S'® 


£ 

o 

® V* 

to-Ss 


2 ® 

s 

1952 

. . 117.9 

106.2 

100.1 

92.8 

104.5 

1953- 

. . 130.0 

108.9 

94.5 

108.9 

113.1 

1954 

. . 141.1 

125.5 

114.4 

115.9 

127.0 

1955 

. . 159.0 

134.8 

112.6 

183.3 

131.2 


{Monthly Abstract of Statistics, Sept., 1956). 


INDEX NUMBERS OF EXPORTS AND BIPORTS 
Quantity Index 

(Reserre Bank of India series) 


Exports Imports 



.S w 
r* o 

'-'.O 

03 

'5-S.S 

e 

o 

O 

t* o 

03 

sl 

ta 05 

c 

'c 

S'® 
s. c 

o ^ 


Food, 
& Ti 


£ S? 

V 

o 

^ e 

s s ^ 

O 

rs^ 

S 

o 

c*.» 

■S’S- 

1953-54 

.. 98 

74 

114 

99 

64 

100 

1X4 

105 

122 

1954-55 

.. 104 

82 

115 

102 

72 

104 

130 

114 

122 

1955-56 

.. 102 

: 124 

117 

115 

89 

95 

183 

95 

91 




Price Index 





1953-54 

.. 107 

99 

84 

94 

92 

93 

98 

93 

101 

1954-55 

.. 130 

•98 

84 

100 

78 

94 

101 

91 

110 

1955-56 

.. 114 

'92 

81 

93 

84 

98 

98 

94 

99 


*Ratio of Export Price Index to Import Price Index. 



INDEX NUMBER ON VARIOUS SUBJECTS 


295 


INDEX NUMBERS OP WHOLESALE PRICES IN INDIA* 
{Annual & Monthly) 

(Base : Year endeS August 1939=100) 

Indus- 

trial 




raw 

Semi- 

Manu- 



Average of 

Food 

mate- 

manu- 

factured 


General 

-iveeks 

articles rials 

factures 

articles 

Mis. 

Index 

1951-62 

(31) 

(18) 

(17) 

(30) 

(4) 

(100) 

398-6 

691-9 

374-4 

401-6 

721-6 

434-6 

1952-53 

357-8 

436-9 

343-8 

371-2 

614-1 

380-6 

1963-54 

384-4 

467-7 

359-2 

367-4 

686-6 

397-6 

1954-55 

339-8 

436-2 

360-3 

377-3 

612-4 

377-4 

1955-56 

313.2 

419.7 

338.2 

372.9 

646.4 

360.3 


{Report on Currency & Finance, 1955-56). 

^Figures in brackets 

refer to weightage. 





INDEX NUMBER OF FOOD 

PRICES 




(Base : Year ended August 

1939=100) 


Groups 


1953-54 

1954-56 

1955-56 percentage 


(1) 

(2) 

(3) 

change of (3) 




‘ 


over (2) 

All commodities 

397.5 

377.5 

360.3 


- 4.6 

Pood Articles 


384.4 

339.8 

313.2 


- 7.8 

Industrial raw materials 

467.7 

436.2 

419.7 


- 3.8 

Semi-Manufactures 

359.2 

350.3 

338.2 


- 3.6 

Manufactures 


367.4 

377.4 

372.9 

. 

— 1.2 

Miscellaneous 


686.6 

612.4 

646.4 

- 

-10.8 


{Report on Currency & Finance, 1955-56). 


INDEX NUMBERS OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 
1951=100 



1952 

1954 

1956 


1962 

1954 

1965 

General Index 103.6 

112.9 

122.1 

Jute 




Coal 

105.6 

107.2 

111.4 

textiles 

107.6 

107.3 

118.9 

Iron ore 

106.3 

107.8 

116.7 

Footwear 




Sugar 

134.0 

97.4 

143.0 

(leather) 

90.6 

93.3 

97.1 

Tea 

98.6 

102.6 

106.2 

Paper 

104.2 

117.7 

140.2 

Salt 

103.3 

99.4 

109.0 

Footwear 




Vegetable oil 



(rubber) 

98.9 

136.4 

151.4 

products 

110.7 

133.9 

161.3 

Iron & 




Cigarettes 

93.8 

92.4 

106.4 

Steel 

102.2 

113.2 

113.3 

Cotton 




Non-ferrous 




textiles 

102.3 

110.9 

111.9 

metal 

80.7 

126.6 

123.7 


•Ministry of Commerce & Industry {Reserve Bank Bulletin Nov., 1956), 



296 HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 

Industrial Profits 
(1939=100) 


55 





-j 


, 







5; 

S 

s 

§, 




g 




6 





O 

O 

1950 

246.6 

456.9 

356.6 

271.2 

262.4 

479.0 

134.2 

209JI 

333.4 

1951 

310.5 

679.1 

551.1 

103.9 

420.8 

60A1 

157.7 

178.4 

419.7 

1952 

190.6 

183.4 

262.8 

-88.8 

409.1 

566.8 

162.6 

220.4 

293.4 

1953 

261.2 

326.2 

379.4 

391.4 

419.8 

512.7 

179.4 

145.5 

279.0 

1954 

314.2 

356.4 

387.2 

712.3 

334.9 

666.1 

222.9 

153.0 

341.4 



{Monthly 

Abstract of Statistics, Sept. 

1956) 

1. 


ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF INDLA 


1. Production & Prices 

1953 

1954 

1955 

(Index numbers 1953=100) 

Industrial Production 

100 

108 

119 

Wholesale Prices — General 

100 

98 

90 

Share Prices — Industrial 

100 

119 

131 

Cost of Living 

100 

95 

90 

2. Money, Banking & Capital 3Iarkets 

National Income . . 104.90 

99.10 


Money supply — end of year 

17.09 

18.32 

20.47 

(i_) Currency do 

11.66 

12.25 

13E6 

(ii) Deposit money do 

5.43 

6.08 

6.61 

Time deposits do 

3.59 

3.95 

4.46 

Govt, deposits do 

1.16 

0.60 

0.39 

Domestic loans & Investments of 
Commercial Banks 

8.77 

9.63 

10.86 

Foreign Assets of Central Banks 

7.63 

7.71 

7.75 

Discount rate of Central Banks (p.c.) 3.50 

3.50 

3.50 

Treasury Bill Rate (p.c.) 

2.42 

2.57 

2.52 

Long-term Govt, bond yield (p.c.) 

3.64 

3.65 

3.72 

3. Government Finances 

Revenue 

4J2 

4.6 

5.0 

Expenditure 

4.1 

4.2 

4.9 

Public Debt 

26.4 

29.8 

32.9 

4. Trade CVaiae) 

Exports if.o.b.) 

5,)1 

5,94 

5,97 

Imports (c.i.f.) 

5,72 

—0.41 

6,56 

6,79 

Net Balance of Trade 

-0.63 

—0.82 

{Report on 

Cnrrency & Finance, 

1955-56). 



SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS IN 
INDIA 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN INDIA— India has a long tradi- 
tion of scientific research. It took pride of place in ancient India. Old 
Sanskrit texts bear witness to the high quality of research in medi- 
cine, astronomy and mathematics. But science was in eclipse in the 
middle ages and India began to lose her pre-eminence among the na- 
tions of the world. Science received little encouragement under Bri- 
tish rule in India. In consequence, the country has remained backward 
in many respects. Official patronage was denied to science but it 
found devotees among the people. Proposals for industrial research 
were shelved on some pretext or other. Circumstances compelled 
the British to reverse their policy. With the advent of World War, 
India became the supply base for the Allied forces in the Middle and 
Far East. So Government of India sought the aid of science to make 
the most of the resources available within the country. Accordingly 
The Board of Scientific and Industrial Research was set up in 1940. 
With the experience gained in the working of the Board, the Cotmcil 
of Scientific and Industrial Research came into being in April 1942. 
The activities of the Council is financed mainly by the Central Govern- 
ment. With the advent of independence on August 15, 1947, a 
separate portfolio was created for scientific research under the direct 
charge of the Prime Minister Nehru. This was followed by the 
creation of the Department of Scientific Research on June 1, 1948 fol- 
lowed by the institution of a Ministry of Natural Resources and 
Scientific Research in 1951. 

Scientific and technological research in India is at present being 
carried out in — 

1. 33 Universities. 

2. Institutes like Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Bose 
Research Institute, Calcutta, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeo-Botany, 
etc., maintained by non-official organisations with liberal financial 
support from Government. 

3. 14 National Laboratoiies of Council of Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research. 

4. Establishments of the Government of India like Atomic Energy 
Commission, Surveys of Botany, Zoology, and Geology, Indian Bureau 
of Llines, Survey of India, National Atlas of India Enterprise, Indian 
Meteorological Department and the Central Statistical Organisation. 

5. A few specialised research institutes maintained by private in- 
dustries in the field of cotton, textiles, jute, silk and art silk. 

ROLE OF INDIAN SCIENTISTS — The modern scientific re- 
search in India started only at the beginning of the century through 
the pioneering work of Sir P. C. Roy and Sir J. C. Bose. This was 



298 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


followed later by the brilliant investigations of Sir C. V. Eaman, 

M. N. Saha, Birbal Sahni, S. N. Bose and Sir J. C. Ghosh. _ 

India can boast of Nobel Prize winner in Physics in Sir C. "V. 
Raman, the famous discover of “Raman effect”-, significant work 
has been done by Sir C. V. Raman and his collaborators at Bangalore 
on the dynamics of crystals like diamond, rock salt and quartz. 
Work on optics has recently been initiated in the newly CTeated 
Raman Research Institute at Bangalore, of which he is the director. 
Other famous scientists are Sir J. G. Bose who won renown by his 
work in plant physiology, S, Ramanujam, the mathematical prodigy 
of India whose early death ended a career of great promise. Dr. M. 

N. Saha for thermal ionization and radiation, late Dr. Birbal Sahni, 
an authority in paleobotany, who carried interesting work on the 
age of salt ranges of the Punjab. Dr. K. S. Krishnan, famous for 
his work on magnetism, H. J. Bhaba whose work on the cascade 
theory and ionisation of showers has won for him international 
reputation, P. C. Mahalanobis of statistics fame, late Sir P. C. Roy 
for mercurious nitrate, late Dr. S. S. Bhatnagar, well-kno'vra 
for his work on mercury nitrates, S. N. Bose of Bose-Einstein 
statistics fame, T. S. Venkataraman, the sugarcane expert, Sir J. C. 
Ghose, J. N. Jlukherjee on coUoid chemistry and soil research. Dr. 
Ghaniusekharis contribution to astronomy and astrophysics, K- 
Venkataraman’s researches on dyestafiTs, D. M. Bose famed for 
research work in magnetism and Dr. N. R. Dhar for scientific 
researches. 

In the field of medical science, India was the first country to dis- 
cover that micro-organisms which are responsible for malaria and 
transmitted by mosquitoes. The diagnosis, prevention and cure of 
kala-azar have been made possible by the work of the late Dr. U. N. 
Brahmachari ; Dr. R, N. Chopra has investigated the cictine principle 
of Indian medicinal plants and their pharmacolcgical action. 

INDIA’S INTERNATIONAL CONTACTS IN SCIENCE— India 
is a member of the International Council of Scientific Unions and of 
eleven individual Scientific Unions. The works of the Indian scientists 
have been recognised and many of them have been appointed to vari- 
ous organisations under the International Scientific Unions. India’s 
views on the various scientific bodies are thus fully represented. Indi- 
an scientific delegation are regularly sent to a number of International 
Conferences, through which Indian scientists receive regular infor- 
mation from abroad on the latest developments in specialized sub- 
jects. Several International Conferences are also being held in India 
at regular intervals. 

The Indian Scientific Liaison Officer with the Indian High 
Commissioner , in . London obtains information from Britain and 
European countries on technical subjects required by our research 
laboratories, universities and scientific institutions. In most cases, 
this kind of information can not be, obtained through the ordinary 
channels. The Scientific Liaison Office helps the movement of scien- 
rists within the Commonwealth and provides adequate facilities for 
Indian scientists and others visiting U.K. and European countries. 



SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS IN INDIA 


299 


MINISTRY OP NATURAL RESOURCES AND SCIENTIFIC 
RESEARCH — On June 1, 1948 a separate Department of Scientific 
and Industrial Research was set lip under the direct control of the 
Prime Minister. The functions of this department include the co-ordi- 
nation of the scientific activities of other ministries, advice to Govern- 
ment Departments, maintenance of scientific liaison with other coun- 
tries and institutes, research scholarships in applied scientific sub- 
jects, carrying out of all work in connection with the International 
Council of Scientific Unions and International Scientific Com- 
missions. On the 1st February, 1951 the Ministry of Natural Re- 
sources and Scientific Research was created and the former Depart- 
ment of Scientific and Industrial Research became a part of this new 
Ministry. This Ministry is concerned with scientific and industrial 
research, undertakes scientific surveys and deals with mining enter- 
prises. Atomic Research is also one of its responsibilities. The Coun- 
cil of Scientific and Industrial Research comes under this Ministry 
for administrative purposes but still retains its separate entity. 

Department of Atomic Energy — The work of the atomic energy 
was so long under the charge of the Ministry of Natural Resources, 
but from 1954 Government of India created a separate Department 
of Atomic Energy under the direct charge of the Prime Minister. 
This department is located at Bombay and has taken over from the 
Ministry of Natural Resources and Scientific Research all business 
connected with atomic energy. 

Oil & Natural Gas Directorate — The latest Industrial Policy 
Resolution of the Government of India, April 30, 1956 have decided 
that the future development of mineral oil should be the responsibi- 
lity of the State. An organisation called “Oil and Natural Gas Di- 
rectorate” has already been set up under the Ministry of Natural Re- 
sources and Scientific Research. This is soon to be reconstituted as 
an Oil and Natural Gas Commission. 

COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH— 
At the time of the Second World War, the British Government 
was compelled to accelerate the scientific research in India, because 
at that time maximum utilization of resources available in India 
became an absolute necessity. India at that time was the principal 
supply base of the Allies in the East. So in 1940 the Government 
of India established a Board of Scientific Research which was con- 
verted into the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Plan- 
ning and co-ordination were made possible in an increasing 
degree by the establishment of the Council of Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research. In 1942 the Council of Scientific and Industrial Re- 
search Was constituted as an autonomous body with the object of 
establishing, maintaining and managing laboratories and institutions 
devoted to scientific and industrial research. In addition to its other 
functions, it awards research studentships and fellowships and utilizes 
the results of research for the development' of industries. It also 
publishes scientific papers and journals to disseminate information 
regarding scientific and industrial matters. ' 

The Council is administered by a governing body with the Prime 
Minister for its President and the Minister for Natural Resources and 



300 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Scientific Research as Vice-President. Non-officials representing 
science, business and industry as well as the representatives of the 
Minist^ of Finance is included in the Governing Body. In technical 
matters, the Governing Body is advised by a Board of Scientific and 
Industrial Research consisting of 19 members. The Government De- 
partments interested in the industrial research are also represented. 
The Board advises the Government on (a) proposals for the 
initiation of research concerning specific problems, (b) proposal from 
scientific institutions, including universities for the study of problems 
relating to particular trades and industries and (c) proposals for the 
study and survey of indigenous resources as an essential preliminary 
to systematic investigations. 

Following are some of the important works of the Council of 
Industrial and Scientific Research -. — 

1. It helps in the formation of industrial research associations. 

2. It encourages fundamental and applied research in the uni- 
versities and other research institutions through grants-in-aid. 

3. Biological Research Committee has been set up by the Council 
for research in biology. 

4. Experiments to produce artificial rain has been carried out in 
India under the auspices of the Council. 

5. An Indian National Committee has been constituted under 
the auspices of the Council to organise investigations in connection 
with the International Geophysical year 1957-58. 

6. Radio Research Committee of the Council is functioning as 
the National Committee in India for the International Scientific Radio 
Union. 

7. Vigyan Mandirs — For the revival of popular interest in 
science which will widen the base of research in the country is the 
plan to spread a net work of rural scientific laboratories known as 
Vigyan hlandirs. Analysis of the soil and water, dissemination of 
scientific information, nature of human diseases, plant diseases, soil 
defect, water defect, will be their main activities. These centres will 
also have a pathological laboratory to help the public health autho- 
rities in fighting diseases. The first Vigyan Mandir was opened by 
the Prime Minister on August IG, 1953 near the village Kopasera 
near Delhi and the second, called Kidwai Vigyan Mandir was started 
at Masauli on Dec. 12, 1954 and a third was started at Kalupapatti 
in Madras. These rural scientific centres will be associated with 
Community Projects Administration and will be located in Commu- 
nity Project areas. 

8. Scientific Publications — Dissemination of scientific infor- 
mation is one of the important functions of the Council of Scien- 
tific and Industrial Research. An important development in the field 
of ■ scientific research is the publication of Wealth of India as the 
dictionary of economic products and industrial resources of India. A 
comprehensive National Register of Scientific and Technical Per- 
sonnel has been compiled by the Council. Information concerning 
over 22,000 technicians and scientists has already been published 
in this book. 

The Council also brings out a monthly publication Journal of 



SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS IN INDIA 


301 


Scientific and Industrial Research from 1942. The joumal publishes 
research papers, reviews, scientific and technical articles, etc. The 
Council also publishes Vigyan Pragati in Hindi. 

An Indian Science News-letter containing current news on scien- 
tific and technical work in India is issued fortnightly. 

Funds have been provided for the translation into English of a 
Bharatiya Jyotish Shastra by the late Shankar Balkrishna Dixit 
which is a source box of ancient and mediaeval Indian astronomy. 

The publications relating to the activities of the 23 research 
committees under the Council of Scientific & Agricultural Research 
are brought out from time to time in the form of reports, mono- 
graphs and bulletins. 

FIVE-YEAR PLANS — under the first Five-Year Plan, a sum 
of Rs. 5 crores was spent in building and equiping national 
laboratories. The total expenditure on the activities of the Council 
of Scientific and Industrial Research, during the period amounted to 
more than 7 crores. A distinctive achievement of the 1st Five-Year 
Plan was the setting up of a chain of national research laboratories, 
research institutions such as electronics at PUani and for salt 
at Bhavnagar, a national botanical garden in Lucknow. In addi- 
tion to research department in 33 universities, there are 88 research 
institutions and research centres and 54 associations in the field of 
technological research. 

Snd Five-Year Plan — provides for an outlay of Rs. 20 crores for 
the development programme of the Council of Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research. In addition, the University Grants Commission is 
expected to provide a sum of Rs. 17 crores to the universities for 
building up research facilities and for higher technological education. 

NATIONAL LABORATORIES — ^The establishment of a chain of 
national laboratories ranks as one of the major achievements of In- 
dia since Independence. These National Laboratories seek to 
supplement the work of other research institutions of the country. 
The description of these laboratories are given here — 

1. National Physical Laboratory, Ncio Delhi — It has nine 
divisions dealing with weights and measures, applied mechanics, 
heat and power, optics, electricity, electronics, acoustics, _ analytical 
chemistry and industrial physics. It has special laboratories for the 
study of semiconductors, ultrasonics, luminescence, low tempera- 
tures, etc. One main line of research is the practical utilization of 
solar energy which a country like India has great prospects. It was 
opened on January 21, 1950, 

2. National Chemical Laboratory, Poona — ^Tlie laboratory' 
was opened in 1950 and has eight main divisions devoted to in- 
organic chemistry, physical chemistry, chemistry of high polymers, 
organic chemistry, bio-chemisti-y, chemical engineering etc. The 
lalwratory has been working on the industrial utilisation of the 
natural resources of the country, notably on phosphates, ilmenites 
and monazites and containing thorium and rare earths. 

3. National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur — ^was 
opened on 2Gth November, 1950. Besides metallurgical research, it 



302 


lUNDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


undertakes xesearch on ores, minerals and refractories as applied to 
metallurgy. A .noteworthy feature is the laboratory’s collaboration 
with the Tatas. ' 

■ 4. ■ Central Fuel Research histitute, Digivadih, Dhanoad — 

was opened on April 22, 1950. The institute conducts research on 
major problems concerning fuel — ^solid, liquid and gaseous — and 
operates a physical and chemical survey of Indian coals, the object 
being to provide a reliable assessment of the quality and quantity of 
the various coal resources of the country in order to ensure that 
they are utilised to the best advantage. In addition to problems of 
fundamental and applied research, sampling and analysis of coal will 
be undertaken and phot-plants are to be developed for various 
processes. 

5. Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Calcutta — 

was opened on 25th August, 1950. The Institute conducts^ funda- 
mental research bearing on different branches of glass ceramics. Its 
other fimctions will be testing and standardization, technical assist- 
ance to the glass and ceramic industry ; dissemination of information 
and training of technologists for special work. It has carried out 
research on coloured glass, sintered glass and foam glass. A survey 
of glass sands has been conducted in the States and more than 120 
samples have been analysed and graded. ' " . 

6. Central Road Research Institute, Nero Delhi — was opened 
on July 16, 1952. It includes the following works — study of the 
technique of construction and maintenance of roads with due regard 
to the use of indigenous materials, survey of Indian soils with the 
object of evolving chief rural roads, investigation of problems of 
road safety, development of an improved type of rural vehicle which 
would be less destructive to rural roads. 

7. Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore City 
— It was opened on 21st October, 1950. The Institute studies the 
storage, conservation and processing of foodsriiffs, refrigeration, new 
sources of food materials, and the production of food concentration, 
ritamins and dietetic products. An important branch of the insti- 
tute’s work is the economics of food production, also technical propa- 
ganda and information. 

8. Central Drug Research Institute, ‘Chattar Mansil,’ 
Lucknorc — ^was opened on Februri^ 17, 1951. This Research Insti- 
tute has been set up with five main divisions with chemistry, botany, 
pharmacology, biochemistry and microbiology and clinical science. 
The Institute is conducting research on drugs which has been used 
by indigenous systems of medicine for hundreds of years. Medicinal 
plants and herbs are also being tested. The Institute will also work 
on synthetic drugs and anti-biotics. 

9. Central Leather Research Institute, Madras — was opened 
m January 16, 1953. Hides and skins constitute an important item 
in Indian export trade. To provide proper facilities for research, a 
fullfledged Central Leather Research Institute has been set up in 
Madras. Its various sections vrill deal with leather testing, chemis- 
try, bacteriology, microscopy and physics. The Institute will have 
a model tannery, a pilot plant and a workshop. Work here is devo- 



SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS IN INDIA 


303 


ted to the improvement and modernization of the leather industry in 
this country. 

10. Central Electro-Chemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 
(Madras) — ^was opened in January 15, 1953. Several ‘key" chemical 
industries depend on electro-chemical processes. In fact, some 
chemicals can not be manufactured economically by other means. 
This Central Research Institute will thus help the development of 
the chemical industry. The Institute will have two main divisions — 
electrolytic and electrothermic. The main object is to foster new 
chemical industries, to expand the existing ones and also to improve 
their efficiency. 

11. Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee — ^was opened 
on April 13, 1953. The institute deals with four principal groups of 
problems, namely (i) building material, (ii) methods of construction, 
(iii) performance of buildings and Uv) survey and information. 
This completes the eleven laboratories first conceived by the Govern- 
ment. 

12. Central Salt Research Institute, Bkavnagar — ^was opened 
on the 10th April, 1954 by Jawaharlal Nehru.- The main func- 
tion of the Institute is to work out methods for improving the 
quality and to increase salt production for domestic as well as indus- 
trial uses. The sources of salt, such as sea and lake brines, contain, 
besides salt, other important chemicals. It is the object of the 
Institute to conduct research on the economic recovery of the by-pro- 
ducts as such or to utilize them for the manufacture of other industri- 
ally useful chemicals. Attached to this Institute there is a Central 
Model Salt Farm and Field Experimental Station. 

13. Central Electronic Engineering Institute, Pilani, Raj- 
asthan — was opened in Rajasthan in 1954. The Govt, of India has 
allocated a Rs. 25-lakh gprant for the First Five-Year Plan period. 
Seth G. D. Birla has donated Rs. 21 lakhs and a recurring annual 
grant of Rs. 50,000. The object of the Institute is to undertake 
research and development on aU aspects of electronic engineering. 
Special attention is devoted to the utilization of indigenous raw 
materials for the manufacture of components, the development and 
use of electronic circuits for industry, the building of standard elec- 
tronic instruments, for test purposes, the electronotic tools for 
medical profession, such as electro-cardiographs. It will also con- 
duct investigations on radio techniques for civilian uses and on the 
application of electronotics in metallurgy. 

14. National Botanical Gardens, Lnicknow — Sikandar Bagh of 
Lucknow has been taken over by the Council of Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research for the establishment of the National Botanical 
Gardens. So far, a nucleus herbarium and horticulture laboratory 
has been set up. Research work on various horticultural problems 
is being done and more than 500 species of medicinal plants have been 
selected for cultivation in nursery plots. 

Engineering Research — ^With a view to initiating and co-ordina- 
ting research on different engineering subjects, the Board of Engi- 
neering Research was inaugurated in 1950. The Board is assisted 
by .five expert committees — (1) Civil Engineering Committee, (2) 



304 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Blechanical Engineering Committee, (3) Electrical and Radio Engi- 
neering Committee, (4) Hydraulics Committee and (5) Aeronautical 
Engineering Committee. 

3Iedical Research — ^Medical Research is conducted chiefly under 
the auspices of the Indian Council of Medical Research, New DeRii. 
This Council also grants research fellowships. There is a Scientific 
Advisory Board which deals with technical questions, etc. Indian 
Research Ftind Association was brought into being with the object 
of sponsoring research in subjects relating to medicine and public 
health. Among the specialised institutes catering to research and 
public health, the following may be mentioned ; — 

(1) Central Research Institute, Kasauli ; (2) School of Tropical 
Sledicine, Calcutta ; (3) Haffkine Institute, Bombay ; (4) King Ins- 
titute, Guindy, Madras ; (5) All-India Institute of Hygiene and 
Public Health, Calcutta ; (6) Malaria Institute, Delhi ; (7) Nutrition 
Research Institute, Coonoor ; (8) Pasteur Institutes at Kasauli, 
Shillong and Coonoor. 

Agricultural Research — ^It had its beginning in 1929 with the 
starting of Indian Council of Agrieidtnral Research. The primary 
function of the Council is to promote, guide and co-ordinate agri- 
cultural including veterinary research. The Council’s work has been 
enlarged to include the work coimected with the application of the 
results of research to field practice and to undertake, aid, promote 
and co-ordinate agncultaral and animal husbandry education, 
research and its application in practice, development and marketing 
by all means calculated to increase scientific Imowledge of the sub- 
jects and to secure its adoption in every day practice. 

The Council is divided into two parts — governing body which 
examines all proposals in connection with the scientific subjects. 
Government contribute financial grants every year and a cess of 
5 p.c. ad valorem is levied under the Agricultural Produce Cess Act 
of 1940 to provide funds for agricultural research programme. 

The following are the main agricultural Institutes of India — 
(1) Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun; (2) Indian Agricultural 
Research Institute, Delhi ; (3) Indian Veterinary Research Institute, 
Mnkteswar and Izzatnagar ; (4) Indian Dairy Research Institute, 
Bangalore; (5) Sugar Research Institute, Coimbatore; (6) Central 
Rice Research Station, Cuttack ; (7) Cotton Technological Research 
Laboratory, Matunga, Bombay and its sub-station at Indore ; (8) 
Central Jute Technological Research Laboratory, Calcutta ; (9) Jute 
Agricultural Research Institute, Hooghly ; (10) Indian Lao Research 
Institute, Ranchi ; (11) Central Tobacco Research Institute, Raja- 
mundry ; (12) Bidi Tobacco Research Station, Anand ; (13) Central 
Inland Fisheries Research Station, Barrackpur ; (14 ) Central Marine 
Research Station, Madras ; (15) Deep Sea Fishing Research Station, 
Bombay ; (16) Central Coconut Research Station, Kayamkulain, 
Travancore ; (17) Central Potato Research Institute, Patna ; (18) 
Central Vegetable Breeding Station, Kulu, Punjab ; (19) Phuit 

Resrarch Institute, Sabonr, Bhagalpnr ; (20) Sugarcane Research. 
Station, Poona ; (21) Sugarcane Research Station, Shahjehanpur. 



SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS IN INDIA 


305 - 


Statistical Research — An important agency of the scientific 
research is the Indian Statistical Research Institute of Calcutta ori- 
ginally founded as a small statistical laboratory. The Institute has 
developed into a big research centre with roughly 800 scientific and 
auxiliary workers. It maintains small branches and agencies in other 
cities and runs international courses in statistics for undergraduate 
and graduate students from south-east Asian countries. 

Central Statistical Organisation of the Government of India has 
carried out valuable national sample surveys of manufacturing indus- 
tries, land holdings, crops, employment & unemployment and also 
research on national income statistics. 

Meteorological Research — ^Indian Meteorological Department 
maintains research stations at Delhi and Poona and sub-stations all 
over the country for upper air investigations. 

National Research Development Corporation of India — ^has been 
established in December 1953. The Corporation will bridge the gap 
between research and its development to the production stage by 
financing practical trials of promising researches at existing factories 
or by installation of pilot or prototype plants. Its scope covers inven- 
tions whether patentable or otherwise of national laboratories, other 
State-sponsored research institutions, universities and private indivi- 
duals also where public interest so demands. Private enterprise is 
not always ready to take the risk of utilising new techniques and 
processes invented in the National Laboratories and other research 
institutions. For evaluating the commercial feasibility of new in- 
ventions and processes, the Government of India has established this 
Research Corporation. The Corporation is constituted as a State- 
owned private company under the provisions of the Indian 
Companies Act. 

Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre — This centre 
provides documentation services to the national laboratories, scienti- 
fic institutions, universities and industrial concerns for (1) the 
receipt of all scientific periodicals, (2) for supply of photostats and 
translation of articles for research workers, (3) for preparation and 
maintenance of an index of all scientific journals received, (4) for 
answering questions on scientific problems, (5) for supplying to the 
other parts of the world information about scientific work done in 
India and neighbouring countries. This Centre is the national 
repository for reports of the scientific work carried out in this coun- 
try and is located at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi. 

Research Associations by Industries — ^It is a very good sign that 
industries should organise research independently. So the Council 
is promoting research on a co-operative basis and research associa- 
tions are being set up — (1) The Silk and Art Silk Mills Association 
collected Rs. 35 lakhs to establish a research institute for the in- 
dustry. (2) The textile industry of Ahmedabad has also formed • 
a research association and earmarked Rs. 62 lakhs for establishing 
a research institute. (3) South Indian Textile Research Associa- 
tion is planning a textile research laboratory at Coimbatore. (4) 
Ahmedabad Textile Industry’s Research Association is sustained by 
the co-operative effort of the industry and the Government of India. 

20 



306 HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 

(5) Indian Central Cotton Technological Lahorato^ at Bombay is 
the only laboratory of its land in India and is being conducted by 
the Indian Central Cotton Committee. 

Nuclear Research — ^India has taken in earnest the Nuclear 
Research. The first in the field is the Tata Institute of. Funda- 
mental Research in Bombay established in 1954. In addition to the 
training of students, it undertakes research in nuclear physics. 
Another research institute has been established in Calcutta in 1950 
known as Institute of Nuclear Physics. 

Atomic Research — ^A field of research in which India has made 
significant strides and ranks among the first half dozen nations is 
the nuclear science. A swimming pool reactor, designed and built by 
the personnel of the Atomic Energy Department at Trombay 
went into operation on August 4, 1956. The reactor will nro- 
duce isotopes for biological, medical and industrial research. This 
swimming pool type reactor has cost between Rs. 25 lakhs to 30 lakhs. 
The energy produced by this reactor would be equwalent to 1,000 
kilowatts. An agreement has been signed with Canada under Colombo 
Plan for the construction of a high-power NRX reactor. The Cana- 
dian reactor would cost about Rs. 7 crores and would produce 
30,000 k.w. This Canadian reactor is expected to be ready in 
1958. The Atomic Ener^- Commission is handling projects for heavy 
water production in conjunction with fertilizers at Nangal and at 
other suitable places and has carried out geophysical surveys and 
launched upon drilling, mining and extraction activities in regard to 
thorium and uranium. Every advanced country now is using atomic 
energy for the development of defence and industry. India is well- 
endowed with atomic minerals. In order to use the atomic energy, 
a Board of Research in Atomic Energy was set up in June 1947. 
The Board was set up to develop the use of atomic energy for peace- 
ful purposes. 

Department of Atomic Energy vras created by the Government 
of India in 1954 under the direct control of the Prime Minister 
to take charge of development work. This Department is located in 
Bombay. 

An Atomic Energy Establishment has been set up. An area 
of about 1,10 acres is under acquisition in Trombay, 13 miles off 
Bombay. The Establishment at Trombay will consist three main- 
groups — ^the Physics, the Chemistry and the Engineering groups. A 
unit of hledical & Health Section will also be located at the Estab- 
lishment. The Metallurgy Division was set up in 1955 for the produc- 
tion of uranium and thorium metals, powder, alloj’s etc. and on design- 
ing equipments. 

The Commission has been responsible for the setting up of the 
Indian Rare Earths Ltd-, in Kerala. This enterprise is owned 
, jointly by the Governments of India and Kerala. The factory 
was set up at Alwaye in 1952 for producing rare earth pro- 
ducts and trisodium _ phosphate out of monazite sands and the’ 
thorium cake, A pilot plant for the extraction of uranium 
ore from copper tailings of the Indian Copper Corporation has been 
set up at Ghatsila. It is proposed to set up a pUot plant for the 



INDIAN MINERALS 


307 


production of tintanium sponge metal from rutile and ilmenite sands 
available in India. 

Heavy water is an essential material for the comprehensive 
atomic energy programme. It has now been decided that one of the 
new fertilizer factories to be set-up at Nangal in Punjab should be 
•closely associated with the production of heavy water. 

Survey of India — is a specialised organisation which produces 
up-to-date maps of various kinds. It has its own printing presses 
at Dehra Dun and Calcutta where maps, both for civil administration 
and for defence serrvices are prepared. Officers of the Department 
are trained at the Survey Training School at Dehra Dun. In 1951 
Survey Priorities Committee has drawn up programme of expansion 
which has been approved by the Planning Commission. 

Anthropology in India — India was one of the earliest countries 
to start an ethnographical sui'vey which it did in the year 1905 
during the time of Lord Curzon. But the work was prematurely 
•closed down. A Department of Anthropology was started in the 
■Calcutta University in 1921. In 1946 a scheme for the reorganisa- 
tion of anthropological research was prepared by Dr. B. S. Guha 
and Dr. Seymour Sewell at the invitation of the Government of 
India and at the end of that year the nucleus of the Anthropological 
Survey of India was formed. In 1946 the Survey was definitely 
■established with a five-year programme. It is now located at the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta. The Anthropology Department has well- 
equipped laboratories both for physical and cultural research. 
Besides these, it has a big Ethnographical Museum and a well- 
stocked library of representative titles and research papers for 
reference. For convenience of work and due to the vastness of the 
•country, the Anthropology Department has opened some sub-stations, 
■one in the Andamans, another at Shillong and another centre at 
Nagpur. 

The anthropological department of the Delhi University started 
functioning from August 1947. Lucknow University started the 
Department of Anthropology in 1950. During 1953 and 1954 several 
other universities of India, such as Saugar, Bihar, Baroda and 
•Gauhati have introduced this subject in their curricula for teaching 
and research. 

LEARNED SOCIETIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTES 
— Besides the research institutes and laboratories founded in the past 
six years, India has a number of older scientific and research organi- 
sations originally established in connection with universities 
or by private donation, but now considerably enlarged and 
mainly financed by grants from the Central or State Govern- 
ments. The earliest research society established in India is 
the Royal Asiatic Soccity of Bengal in the year 1784. 
Survey of India was established in 1800, Geological 
Survey in 1851, Botanical Survey in 1889 and the Zoological SuTmey 
in 1916. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science was 
established in Calcutta in the year 1876. There are many learned 
Scientific Societies scattered throughout the country. These institu- 
■tions try to further knowledge in their respective spheres. Indian 


308 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


Science Congress Association, started in 1914, provides _ a common 
forum for the scientists of the country. Under its auspices, Indian 
and foreign scientists meet every year to discuss common problerns 
and exchange ideas. National Institute of Sciences established _ in 
1935 has been recognised by the Government as the premier scientific 
organisation engaged in co-ordination between scientific academies, 
societies, institutions and Government scientific department and 
services. Other learned societies in various parts of India are — (1) 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India, Calcutta, (2) Na- 
tional Institute of Sciences of India, Delhi, (3) Indian Research 
Fund Association, (4) National Academy of Sciences, Allahabad, 
(5) Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, (6) Mining and 
Geological Survey of India, (7) Mining and Metallurgical Society, 
(8) Indian Society of Social Sciences, (9) Entomological Society of 
India, (10) Horticultural Society of India, (11) Indian Dairy Asso- 
ciation, Bangalore, (12) Birbal Sahni Institute of Palseobotany, 
Lucknow, (13) Central Research Institute, Kasauli, (14) Central 
Road Research Institute, Okhla, New Delhi, (15) Central Water and 
Power Station, Poona, (16) Drug Research Laboratory, Jammu, 
(17) Hydraulic Research Laboratories, Poona, (18) Indian Associa- 
tion for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta, (19) Indian Central 
Cotton Committee Technological Laboratory, Bombay, (20) Indian 
Tea Association Research Institute, Tookla, Assam, (21) Ionos- 
pheric Research Station, Haringhatta, Calcutta, (22) Oil Techno- 
logical Institute, Anantapur, Madras, (23) Bose Research Insti- 
tute, Calcutta, (24) Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Institute, 
Bombay, (25) Engineers’ Association of India, Calcutta. 



INDIAN MINERALS 


Nearly a hundred ores and minerals occur in India and are being 
produced in quantities large and small, though the production 
of only about fifteen to twenty of them is common knowledge. 
There are some minerals being extracted of which the general public 
has not even heard. Bentonite, Fuller’s earth, felspar, rutile, sillima- 
nite, steatite and vermiculite are examples of such obscure mineral 
assets. India’s present place in the world of mineral producing 
countries rests very largely on her position as the second largest pro- 
ducer of manganese and of ilmenite, on her reserves and quality of 
mica and, to a lesser extent, on her reserves of mangnetite and bauxite. 



The supply of these minerals are more than sufficient, now and in the 
foreseeable future, for the country’s requirements and together with 
chormite and gypsum form the basis of the country’s foreign 
exchange earnings through mineral trading. 




310 


HmoUSTAN TEAE-BOOK 


Apart from these major mineral prodncts India’s reserves of the 
non-ferrous metallic ores, copper, lead and zine^ are inadequate. _ A 
small quantity of copper and a negligible quantitj' of lead are being" 
produced. India is also deficient in some other vital minerals such 
as nickel, cobalt and sulphur. Large reserves, horvever, are knotvn 
to exist (which is the ore of aluminium) and magnesite. 

A small quantity of petroleum is being produced at Dighoi in 
Assam for a long time. Plans for striking more oil in the region 
have recently been finalised. When the oil resources of the north- 
eastern region, are fully exploited, it is estimated that about 50 per’ 
cent of India’s requirements would be met from internal production, 
as compared with the present S per cent. 

In relation to the needs of her industrialisation, India may be 
said to be well-endowed with the basic minerals but deficient in the 
auxiliapf minerals. Coal and iron ore are the chief minerals for basic 
industrialisation, and it is for these that fairly accurate and detailed 
estimates of reserves exists. For most of the others, the estimates 
are largely, and admittedly, guess work. Fifty years of the industry 
have not helped to enlarge technical efficiency in operating the mines 
beyond a small number of them to which it is still largely confined. 
While there is no effective conservation on the one hand, working 
methods are wasteful on the other. Marginal grades of ores are 
either abandoned or thrown away on mine dumps. These have now 
to be carefidly recovered. Ores, which it is not possible to work 
economically under normal conditions, should be left in the mines 
so that they may be extracted at a future date without serious loss. 
The short-sighted policy of selective mining of only the high-grade- 
ores should be discouraged. .AB grades should be worked and, 
wherever possible, blended to produce marketable grades. 

The industrialisation that India has embarked upon needs Jn- 
tensive development of the auxilary minerals and their processing 
with a view to using them within the country. Under the Indus- 
trial Policy Resolution of 1956, the exploitation of minerals is the 
exclusive responsibility of the State. 

New mineral projects that have already been taken in hand in 
the public sector are the mining of lignite in South Arcot district of 
Madras State and extraction of coal from the Korha coal-field in 
Madhya Pradesh. It is estimated that at the end of Second Plan 
period, the four steel works in the public sector (Rourekela. Bhilai. 
Durgapur and Mysore) and the two in the private sector (TTSCO and 
nSCO) win together require about 11 million tons of iron ore a year. 
The present annual production of iron ore is less than 5 million tons. 
For the production target set for the aluminium industry, the bauxite 
required is estimated at about 113,000 tons, whereas the present pro- 
duction is about “75,000 tons. 

India’s geologists and geophysicists have been active and over 
last two years a number of important discoveries hare been made, 
white sand suitable for cement has been found in Sladras. PuRer’s 
earth in Hyderabad, pyrite deposists in Bihar, calcite in Saurashtra, 
■galena in Mysore, iron ore in Orissa and coal in JIadbya Pradesh are 
among the many notable mineral deposits located. 



INDIAN MINERALS 


311 


Minerals of Strategic Importance — ^Minerals of strategic and 
defence importance can be regarded as adequate in India although 
in parts only ; there is a serious deficiency in munition metals like 
tungsten, tin, lead, zinc, mercury and also in graphite and liquid 
fuels. But in the basic metals, iron, manganese, aluminium, magne- 
sium and chromium, the country is well supplied, in the first three 
in large excess. 

FOUR CATEGORIES OF INDIA’S MINERAL RESOURCES— 
The mineral resources of India can be divided into four categories — 
(1) minerals of which India’s exportable surplus can 
dominate world market, (2) minerals of which the 
exportable surplus forms an important factor, (3) minerals 
in which it appears that the country is at present self-sustaining 
and (4) minerals for which India has to depend largely or 
entirely on foreign imports. To the first category belong iron ore, 
titanium ore and mica, while the exportable surplus under the second 
head includes manganese ores, bauxite, magnesite, refractory 
minerals, natural abrasives, steatite, silica, gypsum, monumental 
granites, monazite, coumdum and cement materials. In the number 
of minerals including coal, aluminium ore, mineral pigments, sodium 
salts and alkalies, rare earths, berylium, glass sand, nitrates, zircon 
and phosphates, the country is known to be self-sufficient. And 
lastly, the following are the minerals for which it has to depend 
solely on imports : copper, silver, nickel, petroleum, sulphur, lead, 
zinc, tin, flourides, mercury, tungsten, molybdenum, platinum, 
graphite, asphalt and potash. 

MINES AND MINERALS CONSERVATION— With the achieve- 
ment of independence. Government of India felt the great need of sta- 
tutory rules for the conservation of mineral wealth and for the regula- 
tion and grant of mineral concessions. Thus the Mines and Minerals 
(Regulation and Development) Act was passed in September 1948. 
The Central Government assumed the responsibility to co-ordinate 
the policy of States for mineral development and the issue of leases. 
Tlie Central Government is also following an active mineral policy 
to control mining and the consumption of minerals of fundamental 
and strategic importance. 

The Industrial Policy Resolutions of the Government of India 
in April G, 1948 and also of 1956 explicitly recognised minerals 
amongst the industries whose location must be governed by economic 
factors of all-India import or which require considerable investment 
or a high degree of technical skill and must consequently be the 
subject of Central regulation and control. 

GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS— The Ministry of Natural Re- 
sources and Scientific Research deals with (1) mines. (2) geological 
sun^ey among other subjects. The Geological Survey Department was 
founded in 1851 primarily with the object of geological mapping. 
This department helps to increase India’s mineral resources. It has 
been publishing various technical records and bulletins giving geolo- 
gical information on commercial and other minerals. Enquiries from 
industrialists are being answered by its information section. 



312 HINDUSTAN YEAK-BOOK 


The activity of the department is also directed to the compila- 
Hon of geological map of India and to the collection and dissemi- 
nation of information regarding the mineral resources of the coun^. 
The department is responsible for the up-keep and administra- 
tion of the geological section of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. _ , 

The following are’ also the important departments concerning 
mining in India — , . • 

Mineral Information Bureau has been set up in 1948 to give 
information and advice to industries. The main function of’ the 
Bureau is the dissemination in non-technical language of facts rela- 
ting to Indian minerals, fuels, iron ore, ferro-alloy minerals, light 
and base metal minerals, precious metals, gems, minerals for 
chemical industries, industrial clays, sands and miscellaneous 
minerals. 

Indian Bureau of Mines was created in 1948 to function as a 
body of expert advisers to the Government of India on all matters 
relating to mineral development. The Bureau is today_ the chief 
national agency for discharging the various duties devolving on the 
Central Government under the Mines and Minerals (Regulation and 
Development) Act, 1948. Bureau of Mines will have to inspect mines 
to effect general improvements in mining methods, plan for the 
recovery of the largest possible quantity, to conserve mineral wealth, 
eliminate waste in mining, processing and utilization ; use modem 
methods of prospecting to locate mineral deposits ; advise Central 
and Provincial Governments on questions relating to mineral con- 
cessions, royalty rents, taxation, tariff and export policies, pro'vide 
analytical and testing facilities for producers of, and traders in 
minerals, etc. 

This Bureau consists of follo'wing three sections — (1) Mining 
Engineering Branch, (2) Mines Inspection Branch, (3) Mineral 
Treatment Branch, 

Department of Mines — ^This department came into existence in 
1902 and is mainly responsible for the Indian Mines Act. Head- 
quarters of the department is at Dhanbad. This department is con- 
cerned 'with the inspecting of mines, safety of underground workers, 
wages, ete., and mining education of the country. 

A Mineral Adimory Board was set up during 1953. The Board 
•will inter alia re-view the production, distribution, consumption and 
export of minerals. It will also advise the Government on the export 
and import tariffs on minerals and mineral products. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARTH ON MINES & MINERALS— T/m 
Geological Surveg of India, the department that looks after minerals 
of India celebrated its first hundred years in 1951. During all these 
years, it has not only added materially to our knowledge of minerals 
of economic value, and so to the potential and actual w’ealth of the 
country, but extended the bounds of research into the science of the 
earth. 

; During its long history, the Geological Survey has been devoting 
its energy in the scientific geological survey of mineral deposits for 
the detailed knowledge, of the geology of the different areas with the 
estimation of their quantity and quality. Further, geological survey 



INDIAN MINERALS 


313 


has had as one of its main objectives the preparation of a Geological 
map of India and except for a few unmapped areas in Orissa, Bastar, 
Assam and parts of Himalayas, the geological map of India has now 
been completed on one scale to another. 

The Department’s work is now organized in three main divisions. 
The first consists of the Field Circles, which are responsible for 
detailed mapping and for all preliminary investigations of mineral 
deposits, water supply and engineering problems. The second con- 
sists of the Technical Sections maintained at Calcutta headquarters : 
the chemical Petrological, Palaeontological and Palaeobotanical 
laboratories, the Geophysical Workshop, the Drawing Ofiice, the 
Mineral Information Bureau, the Statistical Section and the sections 
responsible for general administration. The third consists of the 
Specialist Sections, which are available for work in any part 
of India. These sections are responsible for advanced studies in 
engineering geology and water supply and Tor detailed testing of 
mineral deposits by geophysical methods, drilling or exploratory 
mining. These three divisions naturally work in close collaboration. 

MINING EDUCATION — The Indian School of Mines and 
Applied Geology opened in 1926 at Dhanbad imparts high grade tech- 
nical training in Mineral En^neering and_ Applied Geology and offers 
a four-year diploma course in these subjects. The school has been 
thoroughly reorganised on the recommendations of the Reorganisa- 
tion Committee. The new curriculum lays special emphasis on sub- 
jects like metallurgy, fuel technology, refractories and ceramics. 
A new Faculty of Mining and Applied Geology has been established 
at the Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad which will be linked to Bihar 
University and will be knov/n as the National School of Mines. 

The Dhanbad School of Mines and Applied Geology has been 
reorganised to turn out a larger number of technicians every year. 
Mining education is also imparted at the Banaras Hindu University 
which has a College of Mining and Metallurgy. 

GOVERNJIENTS ROLE AND MINERAL POLICY— The Indus- 
trial Policy Resolutions of the Government of India published on April 
6, 1948 and in 1956 explicity recognised minerals amongst industries 
whose location must be governed by economic factors of all-India 
import or which require considerable investment or a high degree of 
technical skill and must consequently be the subject of central regu- 
lation and control. 

The Governments’ role in the future development of India’s 
mineral wealth was clearly laid down when the Second Five-Year Plan 
was begun in April, 1956 and future mineral development will be the 
exclusive responsibility of the State in so far as it concerns atomic! 
energy minerals, iron and steel, coal and lignite, mineral oils, mining 
of iron, manganese, chrome, gypsum, sulphur, gold, diamonds, copper, 
lead, tin, zinc, molybdenum and wolfram. All other minerals, 
except minor minerals, almunium and other non-ferrous metals not 
included in the first category will be progressively ovmed by the State. 

In September 1948, Indian Parliament passed the historic 
measure — Mines and Minerals {Regulation and Development) Act, 



314 HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 

1948. The Act applies to all inmerals_, including oil. It extends 
to all States, including Centrally-administered areas. It gives powers 
to Central Government to frame rules for the regulation of the terms 
and conditions of prospecting licences and grant of leases,' for the 
conservation and development of minerals, and for the modification 
of existing licences and leases on payment of compensation. The 
ownership of mines and minerals continued to vest in the States, and 
State Governments will continue to grant concession and collect 
royalties and rents as hitherto. But this will now be done 'within 
the framework of the general control exercised by the centre and 
the rules framed by the Central Government. 

DESCRIPTION OF MINERALS 

COAL — is the most valuable mineral product and India stands 
seventh in the world. The bulk of Indian coal is concentrated in one 
enormous series of deposits known as “Gondawana system.’ A little 
over 98 p.c. of Indian coal is raised from Gondawana' coal beds and 
about 2 p.c. from tertiary beds. This system stretches across 
Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Central India, Madhya Pradesh and Hyderabad. 
The tertiary beds are found in Assam and Rajasthan. A little coal 
is produced in Andhra Pradesh. Bengal and Bihar- coalfields 
are the sources of the best varieties of coal and it is also the only 
source of varieties of coal which can be used directly for metallur- 
gical purposes. The coal found, broadly speaking, is of four types, 
peat, lignite, bvtu'UiTOov.s, and anthracite. The coal-fields of Bihar 
and West Bengal account for about nine-tenths of India’s output. 
Jharia and Raniganj are the principal coal-fields and from them 
about 70 p.c, of total output is obtained. Jharia coal-fields produce 
the best Indian coal. The greater portion of the coal deposits are to 
be found in Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih and Karanpura. The 
other deposits are to be found in Lakhimpur and Makum in Assam, 
Talcher in Orissa, Belarpur, Pench, Mohapani and Korea in Madhya 
Pradesh, Singarani in Hyderabad, Bikaner in ^jasthan, Umna in 
Madhya Bharat. Large deposits of lignite have recently been re- 
ported in the Madras coastal plain. 

_ India’s total reserves are estimated at 60,000 million tons of 
which about 6,000 million tons are high grade metallurgical coal. 

Following important points are to be noted with regard to coal 
enterprise in India : (1) The Central Government have declared 

the coal industry a public utility service. (2) Per capita production 
in India is far lower than in some western countries. (3) Indian 
Railways consume the largest amount of coal in India. 

India has now nearly 1,000 coal mines. The total output of coal 
at present is in the neighbourhood of 34 million tons. Of the total 
production Bihar accounts for 55 per cent., Bengal 28 per cent., M.P. 
6 per cent., Hyderabad 4 per cent., etc. 

A Fuel Research Institute at Diprwadih, near Jharia has been 
started in 1949. The function of the Institute is to make survey of 
Indian coals and to carry out researches on processing "with, a idew 
to manufacturing metallurgical coke and investigation on low- 



INDIAN MINERALS 


315 


temperature carbonisation and tar distillation for dyes, drugs, 
plastics, explosive and synthetic liquid fuels. 

Stowing in Mines — Stowing is a process in mining operation 
particularly in coal mining in which any of the void created by the 
extraction of coal is filled with stowing material. The purpose of 
such operation is safety to the men working in the mine which pre- 
vents premature collapse, surface subsidence, underground fires, 
expulsion of inflammable gas from open graves, which might result 
in an explosion. In 1941 Coal Mines Stowing Board was formed. It 
undertook to supress the fire both in Jharia and Eaniganj coal-fields. 

Government of India have appointed a Coal Board to deal with 
all problems relating to coal from a comprehensive points of view. 
It has enforced the stowing, blending and washing of coking coal. 
Coal Board is also taking steps to bring about mechanisation of in- 
dustry. Under the Coal Mines (Conservation and Safety) Act, 1952, 
the Central Government is empowered (1) to adopt measures for the 
safety of coal mines or for conserving coal, (2) to authorise the Coal 
Board to deal with problems of the indusfc^, (3) to levy excise duty 
on coaband coke, (4) to frame rules for regulating the industry. 

MANGANESE — India ranks third in the world in the output 
of this mineral. Its chief use is the manufacture of steel. It is also 
extensively used in the chemical industry and in making of dry cell 
batteries. The manganese mines of Madhya Pradesh contain some 
of the best known manganese ore deposits of the world. Deposits 
now being worked are in Singhbhum (Bihar), Panchmahal (Bombay), 
Balaghat, Bhandara, Chhindwara, Nagpur (Madhya Pradesh), Indore 
(Madhya Bharat), Visakhapatnam, Sandur (Madras), Shimoga 
(Mysore), Bonai, Keonjhar, Koraput, Patna State (Orissa) and 
Banswara (Rajasthan). Madhya Pradesh produces two-thirds of 
all-India production. Principal customers of manganese are United 
Kingdom, France, U.S.A., Nonvay, Canada and Belgium. 

The figures of manganese reserves stand os under : Madhya 
Pradesh 100,000,000 tons, Madras/Mysore 2,500,000 tons, Orissa 
100,000 tons, Bombay 5,000,000 tons. At present it is being sent 
away in foreign countries in its raw state, but now it is being pro- 
posed to process and turn it into ferromanganese in India itself. 

LIGNITE — is a soft brown type of coal retaining the texture of 
wood from which it originated. From it arc obtained a number of 
valuable products, among them being petroleum and diesel oils, 
waxes and hydrocarbon gases. Lignite quarry is situated at Neiveli 
in South Arcot district. It is 24 miles from Cuddolore and about 
135 miles south-west of Madras. Lignite, though a member of the 
coal family, is different from commonly-used bituminous coal, in that 
it contains a relatively high proportion of moisture. In the S. Indian 
lignite, the proportion is computed at 30 p.c. to 35 p.c. The success 
of this newly-found mineral means much to India as the absence of 
coal deposits in the south of India retrads its indusrialisation. 

GOLD — stakes the third place which in India, is mined in the State 
of Mysore in Kolar where 95 per cent, of India’s output of gold comes. 



316 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


India’s production of gold is only about two per cent, of the total 
world production (excluding U.S.S.R.). The only other working 
mine, Hutti in Hyderabad produces small quantities of gold. Gold- 
bearing veins are also known to exist in Dharwar district of Bombay, 
Wynaad and Anantpur districts of Madras and at Lowa in the 
Manfahum district of Bihar. Alluvial gold is found widely distribu- 
ted in many parts of the country — Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya 
Pradesh, Bast Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Kashmir and West Bengal, 
but the only sources of gold of any type worked are at Kolar and 
Hutti. 

Kolar Gold Mines Acquisition Act, 1956 has been passed to na- 
tionalise the mines. The Act empowers the State Government of 
Mysore to acquire the companies, namely, Mysore Gold Mining po., 
(KGF) Ltd., Champion Reef Gold Mines of India, Nandidrug Mines 
Ltd., and Kolar Mines Power Station Private Ltd. A total amount 
of Rs. 164 lakhs is to be paid as compensation. The gold mines have 
been taken over from 29th November, 1956. 

MICA — India is the largest producer of muscovite block mica 
and mica splittings. She supplies about 80 per cent of the_ world's, 
requirements of good quality mica. Over 90 per cent of mica used 
in the manufacture of micanite, made from the mica of inferior 
quality is also supplied by India. The United States takes nearly 
60 to 70 per cent of the total mica e.xperts from India, the second 
biggest importer of Indian mica is the United Kingdom. Bihar belt 
is the oldest and the most important of the areas produc- 
ing mica in India. The best variety of mica, viz., Bengal Ruby mica 
comes mostly from the Bihar mines which are scattered over Hazari- 
bagh and Gaya districts of Bihar. The second mica belt_ is the 
Nellore district of Madras and third belt is Rajasthan, chiefly in 
Jaipur and Udaipur. The main use of mica is for the electrical and 
technical industries. The next important use of mica is in the shape 
of micanite by electrical engineers, colliery companies, manufactures 
of iron, steel and electrical apparatus. Waste and scarp mica is 
ground and used for wall-paper industry, manufacture of paints, 
rubber industry etc. 

PETROLEUM — is the last of five important minerals of India. 
India contributes only 1.10 per cent, of the world’s production. 
India’s consumption of all mineral oil requires annual production of 
about 60 lakhs tons of crude oil. Of the requirements only four lakh 
tons of crude oil is produced from Digboi, the only oilfield in 
India. The rest of India’s oil need is met by importing crude oil and 
refining it_ at the refineries recently started near Bombay. 

Realising the importance of mineral oil in India’s developing 
economy, the Government of India in the last Industrial Policy Reso- 
lution of April 30, 1956 have decided that the future developments of 
mineral oil will be the responsibility of the State. 

Geologists and mining engineers of U.S.S.R. and other European 
countries brought out by the Government of India have suggested the 
following places for oil exploration — Jwalamukhi and neighbouring 
areas in the Punjab, Rajasthan, Ganga Valley, West Bengal and 



INDIAN MINERALS 


317 


Orissa, Cambay, Kutch and some other areas in Madras, Andhra and 
Kerala. Recently oil field has been found in Naharhatia, Assam, 
where oil is being dug at 10,000 ft, below. 

The Government of India signed an agreement with the Standrad 
Vacuum Oil Co, Ltd. for joint exploration for petrolium in West 
Bengal basin. In addition, departmental exploration for oil was 
initiated in 1955-56 in the Jaisalmer area of &jasthan, and a sepa- 
rate Directorate of Oil and Natural Gas has been set up to undertake 
intensive exploration. 

About 74 p.c. of India’s requirements of petrol comes from Persia, 
while the indigenous production amounts to 8 per cent. The other 
countries from which India gets her petrol are Bahrein Islands, Saudi 
Arabia and the Far East. Though there is shortage of petrol pro- 
duction in India, Government of India have started oil refiniries in 
conjunction %vith the Standard Vacuum Oil Company and with Burma 
Shell Group at Trombay, Bombay. Another oil refinery has been 
started by Caltex Oil Company at Visakhapatnam. 

The Government of India have set up a high power Oil and 
’Natural Gas Commission to undertake exploration, exploitation and 
refining of mineral oil in the country. The Commission is located at 
Debra Dun. 

IRON — India possesses some of the world’s largest reserves of 
iron ore, mainly haematites and magnetites with iron content ranging 
behveen 60 and 70 per cent. Extensive deposits of iron ore occur in 
several parts of India, namely, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, My- 
sore and in the adjacent areas of Bonai, Keonjhar and Jlayurbhanj, 
which have extent as well as richest in iron content. The e.stimated iron 
reserves are as follows ■.—Singhhum and Orissa — 8,000 million tons : 
iron Content 60-68 p.c. Drug Dist. (Madhya Pradesh) — 176 million 
tons : iron content 60-68 p.c. Chanda District (Madhya Pradesh) — 
30 million tons ; iron content 60-68 p.c. Mysore — 150 million tons : 
iron contents 55-66 p.c. Madras (Salem District) — 396 million tons ; 
iron content 35-40 p.c.=total 9,270 million tons. So it will be seen 
that iron content in Indian ore is about 68-7. Few, even amongst 
the greatest production countries of the world, can claim a higher 
percentage. 

SALT — With a coast line of about 3,600 miles, inland sources in 
Rajasthan and Little Rann of Kutch and the rock salt mines in Mandi, 
India has possiblities of attaining a high position among the salt-pro- 
ducing countries of the world. India now claims to be self-sufficient 
in all qualities of salt, with the exception of rock variety. In addi- 
tion to meeting domestic demands, India now exports salt. Salt is 
produced by solar evaporation on almost all the coasts of India, but 
particularly on the south-west and near Bombay. The principal salt 
producing areas are located in Saurashtra, Madras, Bombay, Rajas- 
than, Kutch, Travancore-Cochin and Orissa. Partition left the 
Indian -Union with only one source of rock salt — at Mandi in Himachal 
Pradesh. Besides the existing model farm and Salt Research Station 
at Wadala in Bombay, Central Salt Research Institute was estab- 
lished in 1954 at Bhavnagar in Saurashtra under the control ,of the 
(iouncil of Scientific and Industrial Research. The principal centres 



S18 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


of salt mamafacture are as follows — (1) Marine Salt Works — (a) 
Saurasbtra and Kutch (Bhavnagar, Jaffrabad, Jamnagar, Lavanpur, 
Porbandar, Bharai and Kandla), (b) Bombay (Dharasana, Bhoyandar, 
Bhandup, Uran and Mithapur), (c) Madras (Nanpada, Pennuguduru, 
Madras, Cuddalore, Adirampatnam and Tuticorin), (d) Orissa_ (Puri,- 
Huma, Gokhurkuda and Sumadi), (e) West Bengal (Contai), (f) 
Travancore-Cochin — along the coast, (2) Salt Mines — Salt mines in 
Mandi (Himachal Pradesh), (3) Inland Sources — (a) Rajasthan 
(Sambhar, Didwana and Pachbadra), (b) Bombay & Saurasbtra 
(Kharaghoda and Kuda) and Rann of Kutch. 

ILhlENITE — One of the most striking features of India’s mineral 
industry is the rapid rise in the production of ilmenite. India has 
now become the world’s leading producer of this metal. It is the 
•whitest of all substances and wiU replace lead more and more in the 
manufacture of white pigment. The mineral occurs along the beach- 
sands of 'Travancore and the east and west coasts. 

MONAZITE — is available on the beach sands of Kerala State 
and also on the beach sands on the Coromondal Coast existing in the 
form of beach sands in association with ilmenite and is perhaps the 
largest and the richest in thorium in the world and also contains a 
small quantity of uranium. In order to conserve supplies for atomic 
energy development, exports are now prohibited under see. 3 of the 
Atomic Energy Act XXIX of 1948. A factory for processing over 
1,500 tons a year of monazite beach sands has been recently set upi 
by the Government of India at Always (Kerala). 

ORCHES — are well-known as mineral earth pigments. Occur- 
ances are fairly widespread in India, chief producing areas being 
Madhya Pradesh, Vindhya Pradesh and Saurasbtra. The entire 
production is retained for internal consumption. 

SALTPETRE — occurs as natural efflorescence in extensive areas 
in Bihar, U.P. and East Punjab. Crude saltpetre is used as 
manure, while refined saltpetre is consumed in the manufacture of 
fire works, blasting-powder, soap and matches and in glass, ceramic 
and tanning industries. 

ZIRCON — ^is also available on the beach sands of Travancore and 
-Cape Comorin. Zircon yields zinconia, a high grade refractory and 
also an alloy material. 

ZINC — ^Zawar mines in Jodhpur are the only important source of 
zinc ore in India and there are sufficient indications to show that 
large resources of workable ore may be found here. India’s resources 

- are however poor. 

BERYL — ^is found in small ^antities in certain rocks which con- 
■ tain generally mica mines. India has been a large producer of beryl, 

- chiefly from Rajasthan, Madras, Kashmir and Bihar. 

CHROMITE — India has only moderate resources of chromite ore. 
It is both an alloy and a refractory. According to available data, 
India’s known reserves of chromite are approximately 200,000 tons 

- of high grade ore, while low grade ore reserves are estimated to be 



INDIAN MINERALS 


319 


several times more. The more important deposits are distributed 
as follows — Singhbhum & Bhagalpur (Bihar), Ratnagiri (Bombay), 
Salem and Kistna (Madras), Mysore, Hassan, Kadur and Chitaldrug 
(Mysore), Keonjhar (Orissa), Ladakh (Kashmir). The deposits are 
heing worked at present only in Singhbhum, Keonjhar, Kistna, My- 
sore and Hassan districts. 

MAGNESITE — is valuable to cement, glass, paper, rubber, cos- 
metics, refactories and aircraft industries. India’s magnesite deposits 
are in the States of Bihar (Singhbhum), Kashmir, Madras (Salem), 
Mysore, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, Almora. By far the largest 
and the best magnesite deposits in India occur in the Salem district 
of Madras. 

B.A.UXITE — India has vast deposits of good bauxite scattered all 
over the country, major occurrences are in the Ranchi and Palamau 
districts of Bihar ; Belgaum, Kharia and Thana districts of Bombay ; 
State of Kolhapur ; Jabalpur, Balaghat, Mandia and Bilaspur dis- 
tricts of Madhya Pradesh ; the States of _Rewa and Bhopal ; Raisi 
and Poonch districts of Kashmir ; Salem in Madras and the Balu- 
budan hills of Mysore. India’s total bauxite reserves are estimated 
at about 250 million tons, but the workable deposits containing over 
50 per cent alumina are estimated only at 28 million tons. It is 
largely used as filtering material in petroleum refineries and for the 
manufacture of alum. High grade bauxite is also used for producing 
aluminium. 

CEMENT — ^The ingredients of cement are all available in abun- 
dance in India. The principal cement producing centres are Por- 
bandar in Kathiawar, Katni in M. P., Lakheri in Rajasthan, Jabal- 
pur in M.P., Guntur in Madras, etc. 

KYANITE — India is the principal producer of Kyanite, the most 
important of the minerals used in the refractory and ceramic indus- 
tries. Good workable deposits of kyanite occur in Seraikella and 
Kharswan in Singhbhum district, Bihar. Smaller deposits are also 
known to occur in the Majnirbhanj district of Orissa, in the Nellore 
district of Madras and in the Hassan district of Mysore. The 
Lapsa Bum deposit of Kharswan is the largest of its kind in the 
world and is the principal centre of production. 

FELDSPAR — workable occurances of feldspar are located in the 
States of Ajmer, Bombay, Bengal, Bihar, M. P., Madras, Mysore, 
Rajasthan and Vindhya Pradesh. The entire output is utilised in the 
country mainly in the ceramic industry. 

COPPER — The principal copper deposits of India, in order of im- 
portance, are in the Singhbhum district of Bihar, at Khetri and 
Singhana in Jaipur, at Daribo and Kho in Ahvar (Rajasthan), at 
Bhotang and Dikehu in Sikkim and in the Guntur, Kurnool and Nellore 
districts of Andhra. The only deposits now being worked are those of 
Singhbhum. Here the mine is worked by Indian Copper Corporation. 
The Company at present mines at Mosaboni and Badia and works 
at Moubhandar and is the only _ copper smelter in India. About 
370,000 tons of copper ores are being mined annudlly in Singhbhum, 
Bihar, but the production meets only a fraction of India’s demands. 


320 HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 

LIMESTONE — ^used principally for the manufacture • of cement 
and for constructional purposes and also as a flax in melting of iron 
and lead ores, is found in Rhotasgarh in Sahabad district of Bihar, at 
Katni in M.P., in Bundi, Jodhpur, Sirohi in Rajasthan, in Rewah and 
Mahiar State of Madhya Bharat. 

TUNGSTEN (WOLFRAM) — ^is known to occur in a few localities 
in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Madras and Rajasthan. Of 
these only the deposits at Degana in Rajasthan are promising. 

BENTONITE — is a valuable clay similar in its properties to 
fuller’s earth. It occurs in limited quantities in Rajasthan, Bihar 
and Kashmir. 

GYPSUM — Gypsum sources in India have been estimated at 85-5 
million tons, lying in Bikaner and Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Trichinopoly 
(Madras), Saurashtra and Himachal Pradesh. Large quantities of 
gypsum have recently been discovered in Jamsar (Rajasthan) and 
Ran (Saurashtra), Gypsum is extensively used in cements and 
plasters, as paints and filters and as “top-dressing” in agriculture. 

SULPHUR — There are no knowm deposits of elemental sulphur 
in India. Reports of occurrences in Assam and Ladakh (Kashmir) 
require geological investigation. Assam coal is said to have a high 
sulphur content. It was reported recently that the Fuel Research 
Institute at Digwadih has found Rewa coal also rich in sulphur. 

STEATITE — is also known as soap-stone, pot-stone, talc and in 
its powdered from as ‘fresh chalk.’ It is one of the most variously 
used industrial minerals. It is available in Rajasthan and Madras. 

VANADIUM — Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj hold unexploited 
reserves of 2-3 million tons of Vanadium. 

SILLIMANITE — is a mineral of rare occurrence which is used in 
the manufacture of furnace lining in the iron and steel and glass and 
ceramic _ industry. It is almost a monopoly of India. Deposits of 
sillimanite are known to occur in Assam, Madhya Pradesh and Rewa. 
The largest concentration of sillimanite being in the Khasi hills where 
the known reserves exceed lakh tons. 

CLAYS — India has abundant sources of clays which are dis- 
tributed in almost every state of the country. Besides the deposits 
of China clay, those of fire clay and other clays- are also widespread. 
Deposits of China clay occur and are worked in Bihar, Assam, Bom- 
bay, Hyderabad, Madras, Mysore and Travancore. The Travancore 
deposits are most important. The cotton ■ textile industry is the 
principal user of China clay in India. The entire production of clays 
in India is used for internal consumption in the manufacture of 
pottery, building bricks, cement, soap and for colour washing. 

PYRITES — the deposits of pyrites from which sulphur could be 
obtained exists at Amjor (Bihar), Wynaad (Madras), Ingladhal 
(Mysore) and Tara Devi (Simla. Hills). But no detailed estimates 
are available of the quantities of pyrites in the deposits. 

CORUNDUM — ^In addition to the working ' mines in Hassan and 
Mysore districts (Mysore) and Rewa (Vindhya Pradesh), Corundum 



INDIAN MINERALS 


321 


deposits are also known to occur in Khasi Hills (Assam) and South 
Kanara and Salem districts of Madras. The mineral is chiefly used 
as an abrasive. 

FULLER’S EARTH — ^is chiefly obtained from Bikaner and 
Jodhpur in Rajasthan and a little is also obtained in M. P. Entire 
production is used for internal consumption. 

GRAPHITE — occurs in small quantities in various parts of India, 
namely Ajmer, Hyderabad, Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Mysore, Orissa 
and Travancore. During recent years deposits have been worked in 
Madhya Pradesh, Mysore and Orissa only. The quantity produced 
falls short of the total requirements by about 25 p.c. which is met 
by imports. The mineral is mainly used in foundry, pencil and 
paint industry in India. 

ANTIMONY — ^There are small deposits of antimony in Lahalul 
(Kangra district. East Punjab) and at Shagor in Chitral State. The 
production is confined to one plant — Star Metal Refinery, Bombay. 

LEAD — ^Lead deposits now being exploited in India are located at 
Zawar in Udaipur and at the Banjavi mines in Jaipur. These are 
now under lease to the Metal Corporation of India. 

TITANIUM — The most important deposits of titanium minerals 
worked in India lies in Travancore on the south-west coast, in five 
stretches along the coast — ^Nindakara (north of Quilon), Anjengo- 
Varkala (south of Quilon), Kovilam (south of Trivandrum), Muttam- 
pudur (near Colachel) and Cape Comorin-Liparum (on the eastern 
coast of Tinnevelly district). Recentl^r titanium has attained per- 
haps the highest importance as strategic material because the metal 
and its alloys have been found to have better qualities than the 
strongest steels and yet are lighter in weight than those steels. 

APATITE — only a small output of apatite is obtained from 
Singhbhum in Bihar and Trichinopoly in Madras. The entire pro- 
duction of the country is used for manures which is estimated to 
meet only 5 per cent of the country’s requirements of phosphatic 
manures, the balance being imported. 

ASBESTOS — ^India has a limited resources of asbestos mainly 
in Andhra, Bihar, Mysore and ifejasthan. Of the two chief varieties 
found in India, the chrysolite asbestos which is the flexible variety 
amenable to spinning and hence more valuable, is found in Cuddapah 
(Andhra), while other deposits :^eld_the tremolite type which is less 
flexible. India is deficient in this mineral. 

BARYTES — ^The mineral is used mainly in the paint and petro- 
leum industry in India. The production is only reported from 
Andhra. The mineral is also reported to occur in Alway (Rajas- 
than), Manbhum and Singhbhum (Bihar) and Gangapur (Orissa). 

PRECIOUS STONES — Actual diamons mines are in Panna in 
Vindhya Pradesh over an area of 760 sq. miles. Geologically, 
the rock formation i-escmbles that Kimberly, South Africa and 
Russian experts who visited the mining area recently reported that 
a daily output of 1,895 corats could be expected when the mines 

21 



322 


HINDUSTAN TEAK-BOOK 


are fully mechamsed. Sapphires of a very clear blue colour are 
obtained in Kasbmir at an altitude of 14,000 ft. Garnets of a rich 
deep purplish red are found in Barwar District in Kishengarh State 
and the adjoining tracks of Jaipur State. Emeralds are chiefiy 
obtained from Udaipur • (Rajasthan) and from Ajmer. 

SIINERAL PRODUCTION OF INDIA 



Cl 


O 

c 

o§ 


2 S 

** c 

o 

Mam 
nose 
(000 tc 

® s 

o 

o 

o 

ZS 

MS 

c5 • 

s'-'« 

1948 

180,430 

526 

322,282 

229,416 

3,16,28 

1949 

164,204 

646 

329,304 

308,180 

3,00,31 

1950 

196,925 

883 

360,308 

212,663 

4,14,79 

1951 

226,364 

1,292 

369,057 

224,084 

3,90,65 

1952 

253,264 

1,462 

324,634 

224,895 

3,44,45 

1953 

223,375 

1,902 

238,010 

215,259 

3,89,50 

1954 

239,168 

1,414 

342,750 

240,513 

4,00,00 



151^73 

151,709 

162,447 

200,439 

152,204 

128,492 

103,381 


(MoTithlv Abstract of Statistics, Sept. 1956). 



Coal 

Alumifiium 

Copper 

Leed 


(000 tons) 

(tons) 

(tons) 

(tons) 

1950 

31,992 

2,696.4 

6,614.4 

627.6 

1951 

34,308 

3,848.4 

7,083.6 

859.2 

1952 

36,228 

3,566.4 

6,079.2 

1,131.6 

1953 

35,844 

3,758.4 

4,920.0 

1,694.4 

1954 

36,768 

4,886.4 

7.171.2 

1,788.0 

1955 

38,208 • 

7,225.2 

2,281.6 

2,234.4 


{Jonrnal of Industry & Trade, 1956). 



UNITED NATIONS 


ORIGIN — ^The necessity for forming an United Nations Orga- 
nization was first discussed at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D. C. 
August 21 — Oct. 7, 1944. It was finally put to concrete shape by 
the delegates of 50 Allied Nations assembled at San Francisco from 
April 25 to June 26, 1945 where representatives of 50 nations signed 
the United Nations Charter. The U. N. officially came into exis- 
tence on October 24, 1945. 

PURPOSES OP U. N. — ^Four purposes of the U. N. are — (1) 
to maintain international peace and security, (2) to develop friendly 
relations among nations, (3) to co-operate internationally in solving 
international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems 
and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms 
and (4) to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in 
attaining these common ends. 

FINANCE — ^The United Nations is financed by the contribu- 
tions from member States. Member States contribute to the expen- 
ses of the budget and Working Capital Fund on a scale determined 
by the General Assembly each year on the recommendation of its 
Committee on Contributions. 

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES — ^The official languages of the U. N, 
are Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. Its working 
languages are English and French. Spanish is also the working 
language of the General Assembly. 

Mc 7 nbcrfi/up— Membership of the United Nations is open to all 
peace-loving nations which accept the obligations of the U.N. Charter 
and, in the judgement of the Organisation, are able and willing to carry 
out these obligations. The original members of the United Nations 
are those countries which signed the Declaration of the United Nations 
on Jan. 1, 1942 or took part in the San Francisco Conference and 
which signed and ratified .the Charter. Other countries can be 
admitted by the General Assembly upon the recommendation by the 
Security Council. 


Afganistan 

Albania 

Argentina 

Australia 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 


Members Of The United Nations 


Burma 

Byelorussian SSR 

Cambodia 

Canada 

Ceylon 

Chile 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 

China 


Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Dominician Republic 

Denmark 

Equador 

Egypt 

El Salvador 

Etheopia 

Finland 



326 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


must abstain from voting in any decision in a dispute to •which it is 
a party. On question of procedure, a decision is by the affirma- 
tive vote of any seven members. 

The Security Council has “primary responsibility for the main- 
tenance of international peace and security.” 

Permanent Members — China, France, USSR, United Kingdom, 
United States. 

Non-Permanent Member's — Australia (Until 1958), Iraq, Cuba 
(until 1958), Sweden, Columbia, Yugoslavia (until 1958). 

SuBsiDiAEY Organs of the Security Council 

1. Military Staff Committee — Consists of the Chiefs of Staff of 
the permanent members of the Security Council or their representa- 
tives. It advises and assists the Security Council on its military 
requirements for maintaining international peace and security, the 
employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regu- 
lation of armaments and possible disarmament. 

2. Disarmament Commission •was directed to prepare proposals 
to be embodied in a draft treaty for the regulation, limitation and 
balanced reduction of all armaments and armed forces. 

3. ECONOBIIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL— Consists of eighteen 
members of the U.N. elected by the General Assembly, six of which 
are elected each year for a term of three years. The Economic and 
Social Council is directed to work for higher standards of Imng 
and full employment ; the solution of international, economic, social 
and health problems ; international cultural and educational co-opera- 
tion ; and universal respect for, and observance of, human rights 
and fundamental freedoms. 

Tlie Council works through Corhmissions and Committees — (1) 
Transport and Communications Commission ; (2) Statistical Commis- 
sion ; (3) Popidation Commission ; (4) Social Commission (6) Com- 
mission on Hivman Rights ; (6) Commission on the status of women ; 
(7) Commission on Narcotic Drugs ; (8) Commission ori International 
Commodity Trade. 

There is also a Sub-Commission, that on Prevention of Discrimi- 
nation and Protection of Minorities. 

Three Regional Commission have also been established — ^Eco- 
nomic Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for Asia and 
the Far East and Economic Commission for Latin America. 

4. TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM — An ’ International Trusteeship 
System has been set up by the' members of the U. N. for the adminis- 
tration of territories placed under U.N. supervision through indm-- 
dual Trusteeship Agreements. 

The Trusteeship System, can apply to territories formally held 
under the League of Nations mandate ; taken from enemy States as 
an outcome of the Second World War ; and others voluntarily placed 
under the Trusteeship ' System. 

The present membership consists of (a) Administering coun- 
tries — ^Australia, Belgium, Prance, New Zealand, United Kingdom, 


UNITED NATIONS 


327 


U.S.A. and Italy ; (b) other countries — China, El Salvador, Haiti 
India, U.S.S.R. Burma, Syria and Guatemala. 

Trusteeship territories — (1) New Guinea {Australia), (2) Ru- 
anda-Urundi {Belgium), (3) French Cameroons and French Togo- 
land {France), (4) "Western Samoa {New Zealand), (5) British 
Cameroons, British Togoland, Tangan 3 dka {United Kingdom), Nauru 
{Australia), (6) Somaliland {Italy), (7) The Territory of the 
Pacific Islands composed of the former Japanese-mandated islands of 
Marshalls, Marianas (with the exception of Guam) and Carolines is 
a strategic Trust Territory administered by the United States of 
America under the agreement approved by the Security Council in 
April, 1947. 

5. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE— It is the prin- 
cipal judicial body of the United Nations. It is a Court of Law and 
deals with legal questions only, not with political disputes. AH 
countries which are parties to the Statute of the Court can refer to 
it any case they wish. In addition. Security Council may refer a 
legal dispute to the Court and all organs of the U.N. can ask the 
Court for an advisory opinion on any legal question. 

The Court consists of fifteen Judges elected by the General 
Assembly and the Security Council voting independently. The 
Judges are chosen on the basis of their qualifications, not on the basis 
of their nationality. Care is taken, however to see that the principal 
legal systems of the world are represented in the Court. No two 
judges can bo nationals .of the same State. 

The seat of the International Court of Justice is'Tit the Hague, 
the Netherlands. 

6. SECRETARIAT — is composed of the Secretary-General, who 
is the chief administrative officer of the Organisation and an inter- 
national staff appointed by him under regulation established by the 
General Assembly. The Secretary-General is appointed for a term 
of five years. 


SPECIALISED AGENCIES OF THE U. N. 

The Specialised Agencies are organisations established by 
inter-govemmental agreements and having wide responsibilities in 
economic, social, cultural, educational, health and related fields. 
Agreements brining them into relationship with the United Nations 
are negotiated with the agencies by a standing committee of the 
Economic and Social Council, the Committee on Negotiations with 
Inter-Govemmental Agencies and are approved by the Council and 
General Assembly and by the appropriate organ of the agency con- 
cerned. The agreements with the following agencies are in force — 
International Labour Organisation (ILO). 2. Food and Agriculture 
Organisation of the U.N. (FAO). 3. United Nations Educational; 
Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). 4. International 
Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). 6. International Bank of Re- 
construction and Development (“Bank”). 6. Inter natio nal Monetary 
Fund (“Fund”). 7. World Health Organisation (WHO). 8. Uni- 



HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


328 


versal Postal Union (UPU). 9. International Telecoramimication 
Union (ITU). 10. World Meteorolo^cal Organisation (WMO). 

Agreements •with above ten specialised agencies are novr in force. 
It is proposed to bring the Intemational Trade Organisation (ITO) 
and the Inter-Gov emmental Maritime Consultive Organisation 
(IMCO) into relationship when they are fully constituted and in 
operation. 

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION— I. L. 0. was 
established in 1919 as an autonomous institution associated -with 
the League of Nations. It is a tripartite organisation, in wHch Gov- 
ernment, employees and workers are directly represented. It seeks 
through international action to improve labour conditions, raise living 
standards, and promote economic and social stability. In 1946 U. N. 
and I. L. 0. concluded an agreement imder which I. L. 0. was recog- 
nised as specialised body of U. N. 

I.L.O.’s machinery consists of (1) A General Conference 
which is I.L.O.’s highest authority. It is the policy making autho- 
rity of the organisation. It meets annuaUy and is composed 
of national delegations comprising two government delegates and one 
deleg:ate each representing management and labour. The chief func- 
tion of the Conference is to formulate intmational social standards 
in the form of conventions. (2) Governing body composed of 40 
members ; 20 representing Governments, ten representing manage- 
ment and ten representing labour. Governing Body supervises the 
work of the International Labour Office and the Organisations various 
Committee and Commissions. (3) International Labour Office is the 
secretariat of the I.L.O. Head Office : Geneva, Switzerland. 

FOOD AND -\GRICULTURE ORGANISATION OF THE UNI- 
TED NATIONS (FAO.) — ^The chief aims of F-A.O. are (1) to help 
nations raise the standard of living, (2) to improve nutrition of the 
peoples of all countries, (3) to increase the efficiency of farming, 
forestry and fisheries, (4) to better the condition of rural people and, 
through all these means, to widen the opportunity of aU people for 
productive work. F-A.O. was founded in October 16, 1945. Head- 
quarters : Wale deUe Terme Di Caracalla, Rome, Italy. 

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL. SCIENTIFIC .\ND CUL- 
TURAL ORGANISATION (UNESCO) — ^‘The purpose of the orga- 
nisation” declares Article I of the UNESCO constitution, “is to contri- 
bute to peace and security by promoting coUaboration among the 
nations through education, science and culture in order to fmrther 
universal respect for justice, for rule of law and for the human 
rights and fundamental freedoms, which are affirmed for the peoples 
of the world without distinction of race, sex, language or religion by 
the Charter of the United Nations.’' It was established on 4th Nov., 
1946. Office : Unesco House, 19, Avenue Kleber, Paris 16, France. 

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION 
(ICAO) — ^is designed to solve the problem of international civil 
aviation and establishment of international standards and regulations 
for civil aviation. It encourages the use of safety measures, uniform 


UNITED NATIONS 


329 


regulations for operation, and simpler procedures at international 
borders. It promotes the use of new technical methods and equip- 
ment. It was established on 4th April, 1947. Headquarters ; 
International Aviation Building, Montreal, Canada. 

INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND 
DEVELOPMENT (BANK) — ^was established in Dec. 27, 1945 when 
28 nations signed Articles of Agreement drawn up at Bretton Woods 
Conference in July 1944, The purpose of the Bank is to assist in 
reconstruction and development of territories of members by facili- 
tating the investment of capital for productive purposes ; to promote 
private foreign investment ; to promote the balanced growth of 
international trade. 

INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (FUND)— was estab- 
lished in Dec. 27, 1945 when nations whose quatas amounted to 80 
p.c. of Fund’s resources had signed Articles of Agreement drawn up 
at Bretton Woods. The purpose of the Fund is to promote inter- 
national monetary co-operation and expansion of international trade ; 
to promote exchange stability, to assist in establishment of multi- 
lateral system of payments in respect of current transactions between 
members. Headquarters : 1818 H. Street, Washington 25, D.C. 

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)— The constitution 
of the WHO defines health as a “state of complete physical, mental 
and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or in- 
firmity,” It sets down as the objective of this Organisation “the 
attainment of all peoples of the highest possible level of health.” Its 
services are of two kinds — advisory and technical. It came into 
being on April 7, 1948. Headquarters : Palais des Nations, Geneva, 
Switzerland. 

UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION (UPU)— Its purpose is to 
alleviate the uncertainty, confusion and excessive cost of interna- 
tional postal communications by uniting its member-countries in a 
single postal territory for the reciprocal exchange of mail. Its aim 
is to insure the organisation and improvement of postal services 
throughout the world through international collaboration. 

Thus every member agrees to transmit the mail of all other 
members by the best means used for its own mail. 

It was established in 1874 by Universal Postal Convention of 
Berne, Switzerland. Headquarters ; Berne, Switzerland. 

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)— 
Its purposes are to set up international regulations for telegraph, 
telephone and radio services to further their development and extend 
their utilization by the public at the lowest possible rates. 

It was established on Jan. 1934 by the Intemational Telecommu- 
nication Convention adopted by the Madrid Conference on Dec. 9, 
1932 which amalgamated the International Telegraph Union (founded 
1866) and the group of countries signatory or adherent to the vari- 
ous radio telegraph conventions beginning with that of Berlin (1906). 

Hcadqtiarfers : Palais Wilson, Geneva, Switzerland. 



330 


HINDUSTAN YEAR-BOOK 


WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANISATION (WMO)— 
organisation as stated in the preamble to its convention, is establish- 
ed -with a view to co-ordinating, standardising and improving world 
meteorological activities and to encouraging an efficient^ exchange of 
meteorological information between coimtries in the aid of human 
activities. 

The WMO came into existence on March 23, 1950. 

Headquarters : 14 Avenue de la Paix, Geneva, Switzerland. 

. INTER-GOITERNMENTAL MARITIME CONSULTIVE ORGA- 
NISATION (IMCO ) — {Not yet in existanee) This organisation when 
it comes into being — ^wdll provide inter-governmental co-operation 
concerning all matters related to international shipping ; to encour- 
age the highest standards of maritime safety and efficiency of navi- 
gation ; to promote the availability of shipping services to the com- 
merce of the world without discrimination ; to consider unfair res- 
trictive protection by shipping concerns, not come into being when 21 
nations, of which 7 must each have a total tonnage of at least one 
million gross tons of shipping have become parties to convention 
drawn up by U.N. Maritime Conference at Geneva 1948. 

INTERNATIONAL ‘ TRADE ORGANISATION GENERAL 
AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (ITO-GATT)— The 
need for some form of international control ih the field of interna- 
tional trade was generally acknowledged. Intention was that a 
specialised agency dealing with international trade, when brought 
into existence, would help to expand the world trade and lead to 
higher standards of life. It would abolish or minimise the various 
kinds of artificial barriers to trade and would lower the tariffs and 
would ensure marketing arrangements. To fulfil this need a draft 
charter for an International Trade Organisation was completed in 
1948. But the Organisation has not yet been brought into existence 
and there is considerable delay to rectify it. Meanwhile an inter- 
national commercial treaty had beed drawn up by 34 nations. This 
treaty known as General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 
has brought unprecedented results in lowering and stabilizing the 
tariffs among its 34 members. Through the operation of GATT, 
there has been three tariff conferences at which countries represent- 
ing nearly four-fifths of world trade have reduced or frozen their 
teriffs on some 58,000 items. When the organisation is established, 
it is to be brought into relationship with the United Nations. 

U. N. Information Centre in India — U. N. Information Centi-e. 
Theatre Communications Building, Connaught Place, Queen’s Way. 
New Delhi 1. Area Covered — ^Burma, Ceylon, India. 



SPORTS SECTION 

INDIAN CRICKET 
Foreign Teams in India 

G. F. Vernon’s Team — (1889-90). Played 12 ; won 10 ; lost 1 and 
drawn 1. Captain— G. F. Vernon. 

Lord Hawke’s Team — (1892-93). Played 23 ; won 15; lost 2 
and drawn G. Captain — ^Lord Hawke. 

Oxford Unirersity Anthentics — (1902-3). Played 19 ; won 12 ; 
lost 2 and drawn 5. Captain — ^K. J. Key. 

M. C. C. Official Team — (1925-26). Played 34 ; won 11 ; drawn 
23 and lost none. Captain — A. E. R. GiUigan. 

All-Ceylon Team (1932-33) — Played 10 ; won 2 ; lost 1 ; drawn 7. 
Captain — Dr. C. H. Gunasekara. 

M. C. C. Team (1933-34) — ^Played 34 ; won 17 ; drawn 16 and 
lost 1. Captain — D. R. Jardine. 

Australian Team (Unofficial 1935-36) — Played 23 ; won 11 ; lost 
3 ; drawn 9. Captain — J. Ryder. 

Lord Tennyson’s Team (1937-38) — Played 24 ; won 8, lost 5 and 
drawn 11. Captain — ^Lord Tennyson. 

Second All-Ceylon Team (1940-41) — ^Played 5 ; won 1 ; lost 1 ; 
dravm 3. Captain — S. S. Jayawikrama. 

Australian Services XI (1945-46) — ^Played 9 ; won 1 ; lost 2 ; 
drawn 6, Captain — A. L. Hasset. 

West Indies Team (1948-49) — ^Played 17 ; won 6 ; lost 1 ; drawn 

11. Captain — John Goddard. 

1st Commonwealth Team (1949-50) — ^Played 19 ; won 8 ; lost 2 ; 
drawn 9. Captain — L. Livingstone. 

2nd Commonwealth Team (1950-51) — ^Played 25 ; drawn 13 ; 
won 12 ; played 5 unofficial Test matches, won 2, drawn 3. Captain — 
L. E. G. Ames. 

M.C.C. Team (1951-52) — Played 18 ; won 7 ; lost 1 ; drawn 10 ; 
Test match played 5 ; won 1 ; lost 1 ; drawn 3. Captain — ^N. D. 
Howard. 

Pakistan Team (1952) — ^Played 12 ; won 1 ; lost 2 ; drawn 9. 
Captain — ^A. H. Kardar. 

Silver Jubilee Overseas Cricketers’ Team (1953-54) — Played 21 ; 
won 3 ; lost 5 and drawn 13. 

New Zealand Team (1955-56) — Played 10 ; won 2 ; lost 3 ; 
drawn 5. 

Australian Team (1956) — played 3 ; won 2 ; lost 0 ; drawn 1. 
Indian Teams Abroad 

First Parsi Team in England (1886) — Played 28 ; won 1 ; lost 19; 
drawn 8. Captain — ^Patel. 

Second Parsi Team (1888) — Played 31 ; won 8 ; lost 11 ; drawn 

12. Captain — P. D. Kanoa. 



332 HINDUSTAN YEAE-BOOK 


Maharaja of Patiala’s Team in England (1911)— Played 23 ; 
won 6 ; lost 15 ; drawn 2. CJaptain — Maharaja of Patiala. 

All India Team in England (1932) — ^Played 36 ; won 13 ; lost 9 ; 
drawn 14. Captain — ^Maharaja of Porhandar. 

All India Team in England (1936) — Played 31 ; won 5 ; lost 13 ; 
drawn 13. Captain — Maharajakumar of Vijianagrain. 

All India Team in Ceylon (1945) — ^Played 5 ; won 2 ; lost 0 ; 
drawn 3. Captain — V. M. Merchant. 

All India Team in England (1946) — ^Played 33 ; won 13 ; lost 4 ; 
drawn 16. Claptain — ^Nawab of Pataudi. 

All India Team in Australia (1947-48) — ^Played 19 ; won 4 ; lost 
7 ; drawn 8. Captain — Lala Amamath. 

All India Team in England (1952) — ^Played 38 ; won 6 ; lost 8 ; 
drawn 24; Test match played 4 ; won 0 ; lost 3 ; drawn 1. Captain — 
V. S. Hazare. 

All India Team in West Indies (1953) — ^Played 11 ; lost 1 ; won 
1 ; drawn 9. Captain — V. S. Hazare. 

All India Team in Pakistan (1954-55) — ^Played 14; won 5; drawn 9. 



Official Test Matches 




India v. England 




Match played 

Eng.won 

India won 

Draion 

1932 In England 

.. 1 

1 

0 

0 

1933-34 In India 

.. 3 

2 

0 

1 

1936 In England 

.. 3 

2 

0 

1 

1946 In England 

.. 3 

1 

0 

2 

1951-62 In India 

.. 5 

1 

1 

3 

1952 In England 

.. 4 

3 

0 

1 


19 

10 

1 

8 


India v. 

Australia 




Match played Aust. won 

India won 

Drawn 

1947-48 In Australia . . 5 

4 

0 

1 

1956 In India 

.. 3 

2 

0 

1 


India v. West Indies 




Match playec 

W. Indies 

India won 

Drawn 



won 



1948-49 In India 

.. 6 

1 

0 

4 

1953 In W. Indies . . 5 

1 

0 

4 


10 

2 

0 

8 


India v. 

Pakistan 




Match played Pakistan won 

India won 

Dragon 

1952 In India 

.. 5 

■ 1 

2 

2 

1954-65 In Pakistan 

.. 6 

0 

0 

5 


10 

1 

2 

7 



SPORTS SECTION 


333 


India V. Neto Zealand 

Match played N.Zealand won India won Drawn. 
1955-56 In India ..5 0 2 3 

INDIA’S TEST RECORD 

Hiyliest total — By India ; 498 (4 wkts. Dec.) v. New Zealand, 
Hyderabad, 1955. 

— Against India : 674 by Australia, Adelaide, 1947. 

Individual Score — ^Por India : 231 Mankad, v. New Zealand, Calcutta, 
1955. — Against India : 217 Hammond (England), Oval, 1936. 
Lowest Total — By India : 58 v. England, Manchester 1952 ; 58 v. 
Australia, Brisbane 1947. 

— Against India : 107 Australia, Sydney 1947. 

Century on 1st Appearance — 118 L. Amarnath v. England, Bombay, 
1933 

110 b. H. Shodhan v. Pakistan, Cal. 1952. 

100 Kiipal Singh v. New Zealand, Hyderabad, 1955. 

Highest stand for any wicket in India — India v. New Zealand : 
Mankad (231) and P. Roy (173) =404. 


CRICKET CHAMPIONSHIP OF INDIA 
Winners of Ranji Trophy 


[A gold cup presented by the Maharaja of Patiala in memory 
of the famous Indian Cricketer, Prince Ranjitsingji.'] 


1934*35 Bombay 

1935- 36 Bombay 

1936- 37 Nawanagar 

1937- 38 Hyderabad 

1938- 39 Bengal 

1939- 40 Maharashtra 

1940- 41 Maharashtra 


1941- 42 Bombay 

1942- 43 Baroda 

1943- 44 Western India 

1944- 45 Bombay 
1946-46 Holkar 

1946- 47 Baroda 

1947- 48 Holkar 


1948- 49 Bombay 

1949- 50 Baroda 
1960-51 Holkar 
1951-62 Bombay 
1963-54 Bombay 

1954- 55 Madras 

1955- 56 Bombay 


Ranji Trophy Records 


Great Totals 

912 — Holkar v. Mysore for 8 
wickets, 1945-46. 

826 — hlaharashtra v. Western 
India States, 1948. 

798 — Maharashtra v. Northern 
India, 1940. 

784 — ^Baroda v. Holkar, 1946. 

764 — ^Bombay v. Holkar, 1944. 

760 — ^Bengal v. Bombay, 1951-62. 

757 — ^Holkar v. Hyderabad, 1960. 

735 — Bombay v. Maharashtra, 
1943. 

725 — ^Bombay v. Maharashtra for 
8 -wickets, 1950. 


714 — Do Do for 
8 wickets, 1948. 

675 — Maharashtra v. Bombay, 

1940. 

658 — S. Punjab v. N. India for 

8 wickets, 1945. 

651 — ^Bombay v. Maharashtra, 

1941. 

650 — Maharashtra v. Baroda for 

9 wickets, 1949. 

645 — Bombay v. Baroda, 1945. 
638 — Bombay v. Sind for 8 
wiclcets, 1947. 

632 — Bombay v. Maharashtra for 
7 wickets, 1947. 



334 


HINDUSTAN TEAR-BOOK 


Banji Trophy Records — {Concld.) 


Highest partnership record for 
any wicket — By Giil Mahomed 
(319) and Hazare (254 not 
out) {Jfth wicket partnership) 
— 577 runs for Baroda v. 
Holkar, 1946-47 {World 
Record). 

Most centuries in an innings — 6 
centuries by Holkar v. My- 
sore, 1945-46 — a world record. 

Highest aggregate in one iw- 
nings — 1325 runs by Maha- 
rashtra V. Bombay at Poona 
(1941-42). 


Lowest Victory — By one run, 
Bengal v. Bihar (1941-42). 
Smallest Total — 22 runs, S. 

Punjab V. N. India (1934). 
Lowest innings total : 22 (S. 
Punjab) V. Uttar Bharat, 
Amritsar, 1934. 

Most centuries in d match : 9, 
Bombay (5) v. Maharashtra 
(4), Poona, 1948-49 {World 
Record). 

Highest match aggregate : 2376 
for 38 wickets (Bombay v. 
Maharashtra at Poona, 1948- 
49 ) — World Record. 


Highest Individual Scores in the Ranji Trophy 


*443 — B. B. Nimbalkar (Maha- 
rashtra) V. Western Indian 
States (1948-49). 

*359 — V. M. Merchant (Bombay) 
V. Maharashtra (1943-44). 

319 — Gul Mahomed (Baroda) 
against Holkar (1946-47). 

*316 — V. S. Hazare (Maha- 
rashtra) against Holkar 
(1944-45). 

288 — ^Hazare (Baroda) against 
Holkar (1946-47). 

278 — V. M. Merchant (Bombay) 
against Holkar (1944-45). 

*249 — D. Compton (Holkar) 
(1944-45). 


246 — D. B. Deodhar (Maha- 
rashtra) against Bombay 
. (1940-41). 

*245 — R. S. Modi (Bom.) against 
Baroda (1944-45). 

*234 — V. M. Merchant (Bombay) 
against Sind (1945-46). 

233— S. Mustaq Ali (Holkar) 
against U. P. 

217 — V. M. Merchant (Bombay) 
against W. India (1944). 

217 — V. M. Merchant (Bom.) 
against Hyderabad (1947). 

*230 — K. C. Ibrahim (Bom.) 
against N.-W. India 
(1941-42). 


Rohinton Baria Inter-University Cricket 

{.Gold cup presented hy Mr. A. D. Baria of Bombay to perpetuate 
the memory of his son, Rohinton Baria who died at an early age.) 

1935-37 Punjab Univ. ; 1938-42 Bombay Univ. ; 1943 Punjab 
Univ. ; 1944-49 Bombay Univ. ; 1950-51 Mysore Univ. ; 1952 Bombay 
Univ. ; 1953 Delhi Univ. ; 1954 Bo